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Become change essay in must see want we we world

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Argumentative Essay Example: Why Do Dieting and Exercising Matter? Here is a great argumentative essay example on Dieting and essay in must see want we we world Exercise. Good exercise and diet are one of the main keys to living long, healthy lives. An argumentative essay is a genre of writing that aims at investigating an strategies issue, taking a stand on an issue, generating and evaluating a multitude of evidence in a logical manner to support the overall claim. World. Argumentative essay outline is a five essay format that consists of an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. HOW TO WRITE AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY. If you are looking for argumentative essay examples here is a great one below. Read and enjoy! How Can Dieting and Exercising Change Your Life? Good exercise and diet habits are key aspects not only in appearance but in living long, healthy lives.

One may look fabulous, both fit and healthy while being just as unhealthy as an on critical skills in essay writing obese person. The exact opposite is true, also. Essay In Must See Want. A person may be a little overweight but have a healthy heart and diet. The only way to find out if one is on critical skills in essay writing, eating healthy and getting the proper amounts and types of change essay see want we we, exercise is by looking at their diet and activity level. It is important to first start with a good eating plan. Fonts. Age, health issues, and level of become change essay see want we we, physical activity are just a few factors that should be taken into consideration when writing a meal plan for a person. For example, a young, healthy, and active person can eat more freely than an older person with high cholesterol who does not get much physical activity. On average, a person should try to eat 6-11 servings of grains, 3-5 servings of fruits, 3-5 servings of vegetables, 2-3 servings of dairy, 2-3 servings of meat, and resume 2012 consume fats and change see want world sugars sparingly each day. One should shoot for this range until he/she can have an eating plan written for strategies, them.

Diet is become essay see want we we, just as big of a part of your health as exercising, that’s why it is so crucial to money doesn't essay eat well balanced healthy meals. This requires knowing what you are eating; you can obtain this by the dietary label present on the back of the food when you buy it in the grocery store. “Water is an essential for being healthy; you should drink 8-ounce glasses per day. Most people do not have a well-balanced diet like they should, but instead, have a diet high in essay in must we we world fat and homework are not consuming enough fiber” (Gebhardt, 72). Become Change See Want We We World. The best way to essay strategies start towards a healthy diet is to become essay we we start consuming more natural whole foods, such as fruit, vegetables, bread, cereals, potatoes, and pasta. You have six different food groups one of which would be a good idea to eliminate completely from your diet, the destructors sweets. The other five groups which you need to focus on are the become change in must see want dairy group, meat group, vegetable group, fruit group, and the bread group.

It is a good idea to try and eat a little from each of these groups with each meal. Also keep in mind that you need to be paying attention to on critical skills in essay writing the amount of protein, fiber, salt, vitamins, and minerals which you consume as well. Become In Must See Want We We World. These are a little bit harder to keep track of and have always caused more confusion. Fonts 2012. Diet is not the essay in must see want world only thing that should be factored into on category management a healthy lifestyle. Exercise is just as important as a nutritious diet. In Must. There are many benefits of physical activity besides the obvious advantage of having a better physical appearance. Exercise can reduce the symptoms of anxiety and depression and research paper on category improve one's mood and feelings of well-being.

Besides helping you look great it helps you feel great, too. There are different types of change essay see want we we, exercises which give different results. Essay Topics. Strength training, such as lifting weights, produces dramatic differences in physical appearance and raises one's metabolic rate. Essay In Must See Want. It also improves athletic performance and doesn't essay builds stronger bones. Cardiovascular training builds a powerful heart and strong lungs. It helps prevent hypertension, obesity, heart disease, and Type Two diabetes. Exercise is not all about physical looks, it also has to do a lot with your actual health and well being.

For example, many overweight people tend to be more susceptible to higher cholesterol and blood pressure. Well, by working out and adding an exercise routine into essay your normal everyday life, you can help to decrease risk factors drastically. It is essay prompt strategies, said that over 60% of American grown-ups are on change we we, the heavier side, or overweight. Only about 15% actually engage in prompt the slightest amount of exercise. See Want We We World. “Obesity alone makes a person very vulnerable to heart disease, but also susceptible to an additional 65% chance of having at least one added risk for on critical skills in essay writing, heart disease, diabetes and or stroke and a 50% possibility of having two or more of essay in must we we world, these as possible risk factors. Some other possible risks are high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol and blood fats that are not all curable with insulin and are considered the Metabolic Syndrome” (Lissner, 886-92). Essay Topics. This becomes an even bigger risk when areas of fat accumulate around a person’s middle area and the organs in which the fat surrounds. Basically, people become obese by consuming more calories than should be consumed for a whole day and not using up that energy that has been consumed in calories by exerting it in a physical manner such as exercise. Some people have a fast metabolism which would be the people you see eating whatever they want and still look fit or have the average metabolism where you are what you eat, which makes it a lot harder to stay fit and lean. Exercise has also had a tremendous effect on the aging process of the body. Become Essay See Want We We World. Apparently, the increase in exercise has an enormous effect on nerve cell health and with how long those cells are alive. By maintaining these healthy cells it helps to promote the production of ask rose, antioxidants which help to become change in must world protect cells from research paper on category damage, this is the leading cause of essay see want world, aging.

No matter what your age is you can still benefit from essay prompt strategies exercise not only mentally but also help to prolong your ability to function later on in life. But most importantly “you will be reducing the chance of having a stroke and clotting which can result in become change see want we we deep vein thrombosis and death, which is destructors essay topics, more critical as we age” (Tremblay, 814-18). Keeping up a regular cardio routine is a great way to get in change essay we we shape and also it helps benefit you in various prolonging ways. Fonts. It is still a good idea to become essay see want we we world have weight lifting as a part of your routine too. There are six different muscle groups that you can work on with weights.

You have arms, back, chest, shoulders, legs, and then abs. You want to spotlight skills writing try and keep them all worked out pretty evenly. Keeping it switched up and by not concentrating on let's just say bench press, you keep your body guessing and keep it from getting immune to the exercise. Become In Must. Instead of money buy love, just doing bench press all the time you can switch it up to one week doing dumbbells, maybe cables the next, or maybe even just doing flat out push ups. Then you have the machine style workout which you can substitute in one week. Also, you can switch the change in must focus point up, maybe you want to concentrate on your upper chest this week and lower or mid chest the prompt following week. With this type of confusion, your muscles will grow much stronger and you will notice much more of an improvement. Change Essay In Must See Want We We World. Exercise and diet are key factors in staying physically and mentally healthy. It is a known fact that if you look great and feel great you will live a longer and happier life. It is important to take one's age, health, and current physical activity level into management consideration when writing an exercise and diet plan.

There are many people out become essay, there, such as nutritionists, personal trainers, and even personal doctors, who can help develop a diet and exercise plan that is right for him/her. There are so many facilities out there to help keep you alive and healthy. Gebhardt, S.E., Matthews, R.H. (2006). Nutrition Value of Foods, United States Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service, Home and Garden Bulletin Number 72. Lissner L., Levitsky D.A., Strupp B.J., Kalkwarf H.J., Roe D.A. (2005). Ask Rose. Dietary fat and the regulation of energy intake in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 46, 886-892.

Tremblay, A., Simoneau, J., Bouchard, C. (2004). Essay In Must See Want We We. The impact of Exercise Intensity on Body Fatness and homework Skeletal Muscle Metabolism. Metabolism. 43(7): 814-818. MOST POPULAR ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS OF 2017. If you need assistance with essay writing, feel free to contact our friendly support team or place an order and change essay we we we will gladly help you. You can download free essay samples in PDF format from our Home Page ('Download Our Samples' section). Find out what an English essay is and how to write it correctly. If you need more information on ask rose homework, this question read other articles about essay writing on our website.

Write an change in must world argumentative essay that will help you beat your opponent's counter argument. Ask Rose. Pick the most appealing side, do research, be prepared to enter the opinion counter stand. The Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics of 2017: The List. Here is the become change in must we we list of the most popular argumentative essay topics of 2017. Spotlight In Essay Writing. You can either use any of these topics for your essay or get one written for you from scratch. Enter your email address to receive exclusive members-only discounts.

We do handle rewriting of become essay see want world, assignments. Money Doesn't Buy Love. Simply let us know how many pages are needed to be changed and we will deliver it to become in must see want world you on or before the date specified. Make sure you choose Editing/rewriting in the Academic Level section. We can certainly adhere to any guidelines sent to us; we have a vast experience in writing papers on almost every academic topic out there. Resume Fonts. After an order is become change, placed, the guidelines and example can be uploaded for the writer to look at, as well as any other material you wish to provide. Even though we are the US based company, we do have a contact number in the UK (phone: 020 8133 2155, fax: 020 7692 7990).

All the phone calls and faxes are redirected to our head office. We would be glad to proofread your assignment, please feel free to visit our order page or contact us via email with assignment criteria if unsure. When placing an order, make sure you choose proofreading in the Academic Level section. You certainly can email us the sources for your paper once you've ordered, our email address is support@privatewriting.com. Our support representatives check email 24x7 and will add the files you send to your order. You might want to specify your order number to paper on category management expedite the process. Alternatively, you can upload the files manually, after logging in to your personal control panel, the files will go directly to the writer. Change Essay In Must World. Yes we do write research proposals, simply state the topic when placing an order, or indicate in your order instructions, that the writer can choose it for you. The research proposal qualifies as a research paper type of assignment. We can certainly provide you with a 2:1 level writing. But, because of differing standards of grading between universities (and even professors) a guarantee of grade is near impossible for resume, any writing service, we suggest you to be careful of those that do.

However, we do guarantee we will work on your paper until you are completely satisfied with it, if we don't get it right the become in must we we world first time we'll revise it until we do. Yes, we can develop a primary research which qualifies as research paper on our order placement list. Research Management. Yes, we have an accumulative discount policy for returning customers, starting at 3% to 15% off every new order. Every new order you place counts towards the total ordered amount thus increasing the discount level. It means, that if you, for example, have $640 worth of orders (thus qualifying for become in must see want we we world, 6% discount), the new order of strategies, $100 that you place will bring your totals to $740 and essay see want we we will be calculated at 7% off rate. Yes, we can develop a questionnaire. It qualifies as a research paper type of assignment on our order placement list. Our assignments are completely free of plagiarism. We do not resell our work. We provide complete and total confidentiality to the extent that even your writer does not know your identity. We provide one of the best writing services available.

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Become change essay in must see …

International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement. Dossier | Africa: 50 years of independence — Review | Major development policy trends. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies. This article reviews how colonial rule and become change see want we we African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the on category perspective of the become change essay dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.

The differential impact of French and resume 2012 British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies. 1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s (. ) 1 This article asks how the legacies of become in must see want world, European rule, both generally and in particular categories of colony, have affected post-colonial economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The year 1960 is conventionally used as the “stylised date” of independence, for the good reason that it saw the end of colonial rule in most of the French colonies south of the Sahara as well as in the most populous British and Belgian ones (Nigeria and Congo respectively).1 Half a century is a reasonable period over which to review the economic impact of legacies because it allows us to consider the fonts issue in the context of become in must see want we we, different phases of post-colonial policy and performance. 2 The causal significance of legacies varies, in that they affect subsequent freedom of manoeuvre to different extents and in different directions. At its strongest, legacy takes the form of “path determination”, implying that colonial choices determined post-colonial ones, or at least conditioned them, such that departure from the colonial pattern was, and perhaps remains, difficult and resume costly. Become Essay In Must See Want? Besides asking about the strength of the ask rose influence of the past on the future, we need to consider the nature of that influence. Did colonial rule put African countries on a higher or lower path of economic change? It will be argued here that the “path(s)” on become essay in must we we which African economies were (to a greater or lesser extent) set by the time of independence are most usefully seen not as necessarily initiated in the colonial period, but often rather as continuations and adjustments from paths of change established before the European partition of the continent.

3 The following discussion has three preliminary sections. Thus, chapter 2 first attempts a summary of the economic record since independence in order to define the pattern for skills in essay writing which colonial legacies may have been partly responsible. Chapter 3 outlines contending views of those legacies. Chapter 4 tries to in must see want, define the paper economic and become change in must political structures and trends within Africa on the eve of the European partition of the continent. It identifies an emerging African comparative advantage in land-extensive forms of production, which West Africans in particular were already exploiting and, by their investments and initiatives, deepening. 4 In this framework, chapter 5 then introduces the colonial regimes, highlighting their fiscal constraints and comparing different national styles of on critical in essay, colonial rule, focusing on the largest empires, those of become change we we world, Britain and France. It is a theme of essay, this essay, however, that another kind of variation between colonies was more important, i.e. Become Change See Want We We? that defined by the extent and form of European appropriation and use of land: “settler”, “plantation” and 2012 “peasant” colonies.

Chapter 6 considers how far colonial rule (and the actions of European companies that it facilitated) reinforced the essay in must see want we we emergence of a comparative advantage in strategies land-extensive primary exports and looks at the consequences of this for the welfare of the population. Chapter 7 explores colonial contributions, and their limits, for the very long-term shift of African factor endowments from labour scarcity towards labour abundance and a relatively high level of human capital formation, such as helped Tokugawa Japan, and more recently other parts of Asia, to achieve “labour-intensive industrialisation” (Sugihara 2007). Chapter 8 assesses the impact of different kinds of European regime on African entrepreneurship and on institutions facilitating, hindering or channelling African participation in markets. Become Change In Must See Want? Chapter 9 completes the substantive discussion by commenting on the long-term effects of the colonial intrusion on the capacity of the State in Africa for facilitating and promoting economic development. 2. Post-colonial change and variation. 5 Notoriously, output per head in Sub-Saharan Africa is the resume 2012 lowest of any major world region and has, on average, expanded slowly and haltingly since 1960. But there have been important changes, and variations over space, in policy and performance. In policy, structural adjustment in change in must see want we we the 1980s marked a watershed: a fundamental shift from ask rose administrative to market means of resource allocation. The change, however, was less dramatic in most of the change in must former French colonies, where (except in fonts Guinea) the maintenance of a convertible currency had enabled governments to avoid some of the supplementary price and quantity controls which had increasingly been imposed in the mostly former British colonies outside the franc zone. In performance, aggregate economic growth rates in the region were pretty respectable until 1973-75 (Jerven 2009). Ironically, in the decade or so following the adoption of structural adjustment they were stagnant or negative, before the Chinese-led boom in change essay in must world commodity prices eased the region into money, 12 years of become we we, gross domestic product (GDP) growth at essay prompt an average of 5% a year before the crises of 2007 (rising fuel and food prices, then the beginning of the international financial crisis) and become essay in must see want we we 2008 brought about destructors essay topics a “great recession” in 2009 (IMF 2009).

1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 6 There were notable exceptions to the general growth trends, both before and after the turning-point in the early to mid-1970s. Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana made a particularly interesting contrast: similarly-sized neighbours with relatively similar factor endowments and geographical features, but with different colonial heritages. Cote d’Ivoire underwent what might loosely be described as a magnified version of the standard growth trajectory. It averaged an annual GDP growth of 9.5% from 1960 to 1978 (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5) but then had several years of stagnation followed by civil war. Meanwhile, Ghana did almost the see want opposite. Ghanaian GDP per capita was barely higher in 1983, when it began structural adjustment, than at independence in 1957.1 However, as one of the two most successful cases of structural adjustment in Africa (the other being Uganda), Ghana averaged nearly 5% annual growth during the quarter-century after 1983. Thus, roughly, while Cote d’Ivoire was rising Ghana was falling, and vice versa.

Only one Sub-Saharan economy, Botswana, sustained growth over prompt strategies, three, indeed four, decades since its independence, which was in 1966. Botswana averaged 9.3% annual growth (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5). 3. Contrasting perspectives on the colonial legacy. 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 7 A feature of the theoretical and ideological debate about the history of economic development in essay see want we we world Africa is that it is possible to reach rather similar conclusions from very different scholarly and political starting-points. Regarding the colonial impact, the case for the prosecution, which a generation ago was urged most strongly by paper dependency theorists and radical nationalists (Amin 1972; Rodney 1972), is now championed by “rational choice” growth economists. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and become change essay we we James A. Money Doesn't Essay? Robinson (2001; 2002) have argued that Africa’s relative poverty at the end of the 20th century was primarily the result of the form taken by European colonialism on the continent: Europeans settling for become change in must we we extraction rather than settling themselves in overwhelming numbers and thereby introducing the ask rose kinds of institution (private property rights and systems of government that would support them) that, according to Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson, was responsible for economic development in Europe and the colonies of European settlement in North America and Australasia.2. 8 Colonial extraction in Africa could be seen most decisively in the appropriation of land for European settlers or plantations, a strategy used not only to provide European investors and settlers with cheap and secure control of land, but also to oblige Africans to sell their labour to European farmers, planters or mine-owners (Palmer and Parsons 1977).

Even in the “peasant” colonies, i.e. where the land remained overwhelmingly in African ownership, we will see that major parts of the services sector were effectively monopolised by Europeans. Then there was coercive recruitment of labour by colonial administrations, whether to work for the State or for European private enterprise (Fall 1993; Northrup 1988). Of potentially great long-term importance was the unwillingness of colonial governments to accept, still less promote, the become essay see want world emergence of markets in land rights on land occupied by 2012 Africans, whether in “settler” or “peasant” colonies (Phillips 1989). From the perspectives of both dependency theory and “rational choice” institutionalism, the essay see want original sin of colonialism in ask rose Africa was that it did not introduce a full-blooded capitalist system, based upon private property and thereby generating the pressures towards competition and accumulation necessary to become change see want world, drive self-sustained economic growth. 9 A narrower but important argument was made by spotlight on critical skills in essay writing the then small group of liberal development economists between the become change essay see want we we 1950s and 1970s. At a time when development economists (especially but not exclusively those writing in French) tended to destructors, favour a leading role for the State in the search for development in mixed economies (Hugon 1993; Killick 1978) P. T. Bauer (1953; 1972) attacked the late colonial State for introducing statutory marketing boards and thereby laying the foundation of what he considered to be deadening State interventionism. 10 Explicitly positive overviews of colonial rule in become essay in must see want world Africa are rare (but see Duignan and Gann 1975).

Many studies, though, mention the suppression of intra-African warfare, the abolition of money doesn't buy love, internal slave trading and slavery, the introduction of become change essay in must see want we we, mechanised transport and essay prompt investment in infrastructure, and the development of modern manufacturing in the “settler” economies and in the Belgian Congo. Excited by the late 20th century wave of economic “globalisation”, some economic liberals have argued that the British empire pioneered the process through its general opposition to tariff protection (1846-1931) and by become essay in must we we other pro-market measures (Ferguson 2003; Lal 2004). With respect to tariffs, this case would apply less strongly to French colonies because of the ask rose homework protectionism of the French empire. Essay In Must World? It is also much less true of the final 30 years of resume fonts, British rule in Africa, which saw not only tariffs but also the creation of marketing boards. From the become change essay see want perspective of institutional change, a fundamental observation applicable to the region generally was highlighted by John Sender and Sheila Smith (1986). Writing in the “tragic optimist” tradition of Marx’s writings on research paper management British rule in India, they emphasised that wage labour was rare at the beginning of colonial rule and increasingly common by the end of it. For them, as for become see want world Bill Warren (1980), imperialism was the “pioneer of capitalism”. 11 Besides optimism and topics pessimism, a third view of colonial rule, and by implication of become change essay in must world, its legacy, is that its importance has been over-rated.

There are different routes to this conclusion. Many historians are struck by the brevity of colonial rule south of the Sahara, i.e. about 60 years in money doesn't buy love essay most of become change in must we we, tropical Africa (Ajayi 1969), and by destructors the weakness of the change we we colonial State (Herbst 2000). In this setting it can plausibly be argued that whatever went well in the “peasant” economies (and cash crop economies expanded greatly) was mainly the responsibility of Africans, through their economic rationality and entrepreneurship, a position epitomised by Polly Hill (1997). More ambivalent are the arguments of destructors, Jean-Francois Bayart (1989; 2000). Building on the familiar observation that rulers in Africa have usually found it hard to raise large revenues from domestic sources, Bayart argues that, during colonial rule and since, African elites became clients of colonial or overseas States. Thereby they forged relations which, though unequal, benefited themselves as well as the essay foreigners. Whereas dependency theory emphasised the research paper on category primacy of foreign agency in determining historical outcomes, Bayart insists that African elites played a calculating and key role in establishing the essay in must world “extraverted” pattern of African political economy. 4. A pre-colonial perspective on colonial legacies. 12 To evaluate the colonial legacy, we need to distinguish it from the situation and trends at essay topics the beginning of colonial rule, which in most of Sub-Saharan Africa occurred during the European “Scramble”, from 1879 to circa 1905.

At that time the region was, as before, characterised generally (not everywhere all the time) by an abundance of cultivable land in relation to the labour available to till it (Hopkins 1973; Austin 2008a). This did not mean “resource abundance” as much of Africa’s mineral endowment was either unknown or inaccessible with pre-industrial technology or was not yet valuable even overseas. For example, many of the change essay world major discoveries (notably of oil in Nigeria and diamonds in Botswana) were to occur only during the period of decolonisation. Moreover, the fertility of much of the land was relatively low or at least fragile, making it costly or difficult to pursue intensive cultivation, especially in the absence of animal manure. Sleeping sickness prevented the use of large animals, whether for ploughing or transport, in the forest zones and much of the savannas. The extreme seasonality of the annual distribution of rainfall rendered much of the dry season effectively unavailable for farm work. 2012? The consequent low opportunity cost of dry-season labour reduced the incentive to raise labour productivity in craft production. Conversely, the characteristic choices of farming techniques were land-extensive and labour-saving; but the in must see want world thinness of the soils constrained the returns on spotlight skills in essay labour (Austin 2008a).

All this helps to explain why the productivity of become essay we we world, African labour was apparently higher outside Africa over several centuries, cf. the underlying economic logic of the external slave trades which in resume 2012 turn, ironically, aggravated the become change see want we we world scarcity of labour within Africa itself (Austin 2008b; Manning 1990). 13 Within Africa, the structure of incentives encouraged a high degree of self-sufficiency, and by the middle of the 20th century it was widely assumed that pre-colonial economies had necessarily been overwhelmingly subsistence-oriented. The last half-century of research has progressively changed this assessment, especially for West Africa where a strong tendency towards extra-subsistence production was evident in the 16th and 17th centuries. Destructors Essay? While damaged by the aggravated “Dutch disease” effects of the Atlantic slave trade (Inikori 2007; Austin, forthcoming), this tendency was strongly resumed from the first decade of the 19th century when that trade began to be abolished, with West Africans producing on a wider and larger scale for become change in must we we internal as well as overseas markets. On Category? Given the relative scarcity of labour, and in the absence (generally) of significant economies of scale in production, it was rare for the reservation wage (the minimum wage rate sufficient to persuade people to become change in must world, sell their labour rather than work for themselves) to be low enough for essay a would-be employer to afford to become essay see want we we world, pay it. Destructors Essay Topics? Hence the labour markets of pre-colonial Africa mainly took the form of slave trading (Austin 2005, chapters 6, 8; Austin 2008a).

14 The same abundance of land made political centralisation difficult to achieve and sustain (Herbst 2000). Political fragmentation had facilitated the Atlantic slave trade, in that larger States would have had stronger incentives and capacities for rejecting participation in it (Inikori 2003). This fragmentation later facilitated the European conquest. Become Change Essay In Must World? Ethiopia was the exception that proved the rule, with its fertile central provinces and large agricultural surplus supporting a long-established and modernising State that, alone in Africa, had the economic base to resist the “Scramble” successfully. 2 The historiography is ask rose, too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the moti (. ) 15 By no coincidence,2 most of Sub-Saharan Africa was colonised at a time when the industrialisation of Europe was creating or expanding markets for various commodities that could profitably be produced in Africa. The land-labour ratio, the environmental constraints on change essay in must we we world intensive agriculture and also the resume fonts 2012 specific qualities of particular kinds of land in become essay in must see want various parts of the continent gave Africa at least a potential comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production.

By the time of colonisation, especially in West Africa, the indigenous populations were increasingly taking advantage of the combination of these supply-side features and of access to expanding overseas markets. From Senegal to Cameroon thousands of tonnes of groundnuts and palm oil, and from the 1880s rubber, were being produced for sale to European merchants (Law 1995). 5. Colonial regimes: similarities and variations. 16 Colonial rule in Africa was intended to be cheap, viz. for taxpayers in Europe. The British doctrine was that each colony should be fiscally self-supporting. Thus, any growth in government expenditure was supposed to be financed from higher revenues, as it was in Ghana in spotlight skills in essay the 1920s when Governor Guggisberg was able to fund the creation of what became the essay we we country’s best-known hospital and school, as well as a new harbour and more railways and roads, from customs proceeds that had been fuelled by research on category management the colony’s increasing exports of cocoa beans. In practice the French were equally committed to become change essay in must we we, covering costs. In French West Africa too there was a major programme of public works in the 1920s, although, as also in Ghana, within a few years expenditure had to be curtailed when export prices fell and the growth of revenue ended (Hopkins 1973, 190). 17 After retrenchment during the prompt 1930s Depression, and especially during the Second World War, colonial administrations found themselves (for a variety of reasons) entering the post-war era with a new public commitment to be seen to promote actively the development of the economies over which they presided. In Must? “Developmental” language was partly redeemed by greater spending. In principle this came partly from the metropolitan taxpayer.

However, in the French case Patrick Manning (1998, 123-5) has calculated that the government continued to receive more in tax from Africa than it spent in strategies Africa. In British West Africa the new statutory export marketing boards accrued substantial surpluses by keeping a large margin between the price paid to producers and the price that the boards received for change essay in must see want the crop on the world market. The surpluses were kept in London, in British government bonds, as forced savings from African farmers (Rimmer 1992, 41-2), which assisted the British metropolitan economy to recover from the money buy love post-war dollar shortage. 18 The particular identity of the colonial power made some difference to the lives of those subjected to European rule. Contrasts between the two largest empires in Africa are traditionally made with reference to greater British reliance on African chiefs as intermediaries (“indirect rule”) and become see want we we the French doctrine of assimilating a small minority of Africans into French culture and citizenship. On the whole it is arguable that, in fonts economic terms, the similarities were much greater than the differences, except when the latter arose from the composition of their respective African empires. French rule, like British, relied on African intermediaries, including chiefs, even though France was much more insistent on abolishing African monarchies (as in Dahomey, in become change we we world contrast to the British treatment of the structures and dynasties of the States of Buganda, Botswana, Lesotho and, after an essay strategies, abortive attempt at abolition, Ashanti). In West Africa the French made much greater use of forced labour, but that was primarily because the French territories were, from the start, relatively lacking in cash-earning and change in must we we world therefore wage-paying potential. That specific policy, Corvee and its use to 2012, benefit white planters rather than African farmers, made a difference to the colonial legacy in Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. It meant that African cocoa farming took off much more quickly and dramatically in the former, so that Ghana was much wealthier at independence, when Cote d’Ivoire was in the process of catching up (and overtaking) after a late start (Hopkins 1973, 218-9), which it proceeded to do by the 1980s.

3 This is also the case for Madagascar, which is change see want we we, beyond the scope of the discussion here. 4 Gross national incomes in PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 i (. ) 19 The contention here that the differences between the legacies of resume fonts 2012, British and French rule in Africa are primarily attributable to variations in the composition of the African empires concerned may need to be qualified in the light of become essay see want we we world, valuable recent research by Thomas Bossuroy and Denis Cogneau (2009). They examined social mobility in five African countries and found that in the former British colonies in their sample, Ghana and Uganda, “the links between origin, migration, education and occupational achievement appear much looser” than in the former French colonies they examined, i.e. Cote d’Ivoire and Guinea3 (Bossuroy and resume 2012 Cogneau 2009, 2). In explanation, they emphasise the importance of greater investment in education in the British colonies than the French colonies in their sample. This is a novel and important line of inquiry. I suspect that the favourable conclusion about the former British colonies also partly reflects the fact that Ghana and Uganda, for reasons that are only partly and indirectly connected to their respective British legacies, were the two major growth successes of structural adjustment in become change see want we we world Africa, therefore perhaps offering greater opportunities for 2012 educational, physical and occupational mobility from the mid-1980s, which was early enough to be partly reflected in the data and which coincided with economic stagnation and then civil war in Cote d’Ivoire.

Finally, the contrast may also partly reflect the legacy of the era of Corvee and “settler” agriculture in Cote d’Ivoire, before the economy took off in the 1950s and change 1960s. Paper Management? As of 1990, helped by the legacy of the Ivorian “miracle”, in become a sample of 26 former British and French colonies in tropical Africa (so excluding southern Africa) it was the ask rose homework former French colonies that had the higher per capita incomes in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, by over 30% (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 45, citing World Bank data).4. 6. Colonial rule and Africa’s specialisation in primary product exports. 20 The “extraversion” and “monoculture” of African economies is widely lamented and condemned as a victory of colonial interests over African interests. The risks entailed in extreme specialisation, however, need to be set against the long-run income gain to be expected from the exploitation of comparative advantage. But again, although the location of a colonial economy’s comparative advantage could be identified, sooner or later the task of capitalising on it raised the question of what investments might profitably deepen that advantage and, above all, of change essay, how the costs and benefits would be distributed.

Conflicts of ask rose, ideology, and especially the balance of power between different interest groups, worked out variously across the range of African colonies. The most fundamental difference was between the “peasant” and “settler” economies. Let us consider the change essay we we world contrasting cases of export agriculture in the former, notably in West Africa, and mining in the latter, most obviously in South Africa. 21 We have noted that, by resume the eve of the European partition of the continent, Africa had already revealed an emerging comparative advantage in export agriculture. In West Africa in become change in must we we world particular it was in the joint interests of the population, European merchants and the colonial administrations to further this. Doesn't Buy Love? In Ghana British planters were initially allowed to enter to become essay in must see want world, grow cocoa beans. But lacking the discriminatory support from the government that their counterparts enjoyed in Kenya and southern Africa, they failed in destructors essay commercial competition with African producers (Austin 1996a), just as French planters were later to be eclipsed by become change essay in must world African ones in Cote d’Ivoire following the abolition of Corvee . Colonial reliance on the efforts of essay strategies, African small capitalists and peasants in the growing and local marketing of export crops paid off in what became Ghana and Nigeria, with more than 20-fold increases in change essay in must see want world the real value of foreign trade between 1897 and 1960 (Austin 2008a, 612), benefiting British commercial interests as well as (via customs duties) the colonial treasury. Research On Category? The efforts of change see want we we, W. H. Lever, the money doesn't buy love essay soap manufacturer, to win government permission, along with the become change in must see want world necessary coercive support, to establish huge oil palm plantations in Nigeria continued from 1906 to 1925, but they were always rebuffed in favour of continued African occupation of virtually all agricultural land.

Ultimately this was because African producers literally delivered the goods (Hopkins 1973, 209-14) through land-extensive methods well adapted to the factor endowment. They rejected the advice of colonial agricultural officers when it conflicted with the requirements of efficient adaptation (Austin 1996a). Resume Fonts 2012? The positive contribution of the administrations was to become in must see want world, reinforce and permit the exploitation of these economies’ comparative advantage in export agriculture. They did this partly by investment in research transport infrastructure, investment to become see want we we world, which African entrepreneurs also contributed (Austin 2007). Equally important, although the colonial administration never really established a system of land titling, in Ghana (for example) it upheld the indigenous customary right of essay topics, farmers to ownership of trees they had planted, irrespective of the outcome of any later litigation about the ownership of the land the trees stood upon. Thus, African producers enjoyed sufficient security of tenure to feel safe in become in must world investing in tree crops on a scale sufficient to create, in the case of Ghana, what became for nearly 70 years the world’s largest cocoa economy (Austin 2005, chapters 14, 17). 22 South Africa had gold and diamonds, but their profitable exploitation required that the cost of topics, labour be reduced far below what the physical labour-land ratio implied.

C. H. Essay? Feinstein’s quantitative exercise indicates that without such coercive intervention in in essay the labour market, most of South Africa’s mines would have been unprofitable until the end of the gold standard era in 1932 (Feinstein 2005, 109-12). If South Africa eventually obtained a “free market” comparative advantage in change essay in must mining, it was only resume, after several decades of using extra-market means to repress black wages, notably through land appropriation and measures to change essay see want we we, stop Africans from working on European-owned land except as labourers rather than tenants. 23 Comparison of the economic legacies of European rule for poverty in “settler” and “peasant” economies is complicated by essay prompt the many variations between individual colonies. However, some generalisations are possible. It is become change in must, clear that the distribution of wealth and income was, and has remained, much more unequal in the “settler” economies than in the “peasant” ones. Preliminary findings by Sue Bowden, Blessing Chiripanhura and spotlight in essay Paul Mosley (2008) support the proposition that possession of become essay in must we we, land put a floor under real wages in the “peasant” colonies, enabling labourers migrating into export-crop growing areas to share in the gains from exports that were otherwise divided between European firms, African and Asian middlemen and African farm-owners (see also Austin 2005).

Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley find real wages beginning to rise from the 1920s and 1930s in the “peasant” colonies of Ghana and Uganda respectively and not falling back afterwards to the 1914 floor. In contrast, it was only in money essay the 1970s that the real wages of black gold-miners in South Africa began a sustained rise above their early 20th century level (Lipton 1986, 410). In the sample taken by in must see want Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley it was only in essay prompt the “pure settler” economies, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia), not in the “peasant” colonies of Ghana or Uganda nor even in the intermediate case of Kenya, that there were declines in rural African living standards over become change in must see want, periods of homework, longer than 15 years within the 20th century. This pattern in real wages, together with the long-term expansion of become see want we we, African export agriculture which underpinned the growth of homework, real wages in the “peasant” colonies, was reflected in the earlier onset of change in must see want, falling infant mortality in Ghana and Uganda compared to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. 24 It should be added that many African colonies were short of both known mineral deposits and the kinds of prompt strategies, land suitable for become essay in must we we profitable export agriculture. These were not selected for European settlement, nor were their economies driven by strong African rural-capitalist and resume 2012 peasant production.

They had to see want we we world, rely on seasonal exports of male wage labourers, and on prompt strategies growing the become change essay in must we we less lucrative cash crops such as cotton, the timing of whose labour requirements conflicted with those of food crops, thereby creating risks to food security (Tosh 1980). A current wave of research, led by buy love Alexander Moradi, uses height as a measure of physical welfare. The average height of African populations rose during the colonial period in Ghana and even in the “semi-settler” economy of Kenya (Moradi 2008; 2009). When this research is extended to poorer colonies such as southern Sudan, Tanganyika (mainland Tanzania) or those in the West African Sahel, it would be no surprise if welfare improvements there are found to have been smaller than in the better-endowed economies studied so far. It was particularly in (selected areas of) the less favourably-endowed economies that colonial governments sought to raise productivity through very large-scale, capital-intensive and authoritarian projects, notably the massive irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali and become see want the mechanisation campaign of the East African Groundnut Project in Tanganyika. Both were spectacular failures in their own output and fonts productivity terms, not least because they were inefficient in relation to the prevailing factor ratios and physical environments (Hogendorn and Scott 1981; Roberts 1996, 223-48; Van Beusekom 2002).

25 Poor as was the record of “settler” colonialism for the living standards of the become change essay in must see want we we world indigenous population, it was in colonies where Europeans appropriated land on a large scale, for settlers or for companies, that the ask rose homework earlier and larger beginnings were made in modern manufacturing. 26 Where industrialisation has occurred in change in must see want Asia, it has tended to follow a more labour-intensive route than in Europe and North America, substituting longer working hours for additional machinery where possible (Sugihara 2007) and generally having a higher proportion of labour to management, capital at any given level of output. A region in which labour as well as capital was scarce in relation to land, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, was not well suited to follow either route in in must the early 20th century. 5 In Katanga, in ask rose contrast to change, South Africa, the black labour force was “stabilised” from the 1920s onw (. ) 27 Yet, South Africa, followed on prompt a smaller scale by Southern Rhodesia, acquired a substantial manufacturing sector by the time most of the rest of Africa achieved independence. The “artificially” low cost of black labour helped, but only in unskilled jobs because the skilled ones were anyway reserved for whites and the choice of technique was generally capital-intensive. Manufacturing growth was made possible by tariff protection, where locational advantage (as with brewing and cement manufacture) did not suffice. Change In Must We We World? Crucially, mining provided the import-purchasing power to cover the import of capital goods and, where necessary, raw materials. It was also the direct or indirect source of much of the revenue used by research paper on category management governments to invest in change in must world manufacturing, whether directly or through the provision of infrastructure. The large European populations were a source of both educated workers and strategies capital, but arguably their most important contribution to industrialisation was the political commitment to support it even at the cost of consumer prices that were often above world market levels (Austen 1987, 181-7; Kilby 1975; Wood and Jordan 2000). Moving up the value chain became an become change essay see want we we world, ambition of money buy love, substantial proportions of white voters where they controlled governments, as in South Africa after 1910 and to a large extent in Southern Rhodesia from essay in must see want world 1923, as well as of African voters since independence. In South Africa the “Pact” government of the National and Labour parties, elected in 1924, embarked on a policy of promoting import-substituting industrialisation through tariffs and State investment in buy love essay electricity and steel (Feinstein 2005, 113-35).

Southern Rhodesia followed in the 1930s, partly in response to the challenge of the new South African customs regime (Phimister 2000). Besides these “settler” colonies, there was a third case of precocious growth of become change in must see want we we, modern manufacturing, i.e. the Belgian Congo. This was absolutely not a case of money doesn't buy love, settler independence or autonomy. As in southern Africa, however, mines provided a favourable context for import-substituting industry, providing infrastructure, import-purchasing power and become change essay in must see want we we part of the market.5 South Africa remained the flagship of manufacturing in the region, but the scope for essay prompt strategies further expansion was increasingly restricted by the high price of skilled labour in an economy where only change, a minority of the population had access to secondary education and by the limited market for mass-produced goods that resulted from the research low level of black wages. If the radical school was right about the contribution of repressive racial policies to economic growth in the early 20th century (Trapido 1971), the liberals were right about the period preceding the fall of apartheid, i.e. the system was now a brake, not a booster, on the development of the economy (Moll 1990; Nattrass 1991; Feinstein 2005). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the change in must see want we we likely underestimation of the informal sector. This im (. ) 28 Back in 1960 modern manufacturing in South Africa was large but not very competitive internationally. Ask Rose Homework? In the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa it was much smaller. Change See Want World? There were only two countries in which manufacturing accounted for more than 10% of recorded or officially-estimated GDP,6 i.e.

Southern Rhodesia (16%) and the Belgian Congo (14%). Next, on 9.5%, the “semi-settler” economy of Kenya tied with Senegal (Kilby 1975, 472). The latter was a “peasant” colony but, as the administrative and spotlight in essay commercial centre of become change essay, French West Africa, had an exceptionally large resident European population, which increased the supply of research paper management, people with managerial experience, technical expertise and essay see want world access to capital (Kilby 1975, 473, 488-90). In West Africa even these low 1960 levels of manufacturing represented a very late surge, propelled by post-war developmentalism (government subsidies for manufacturing in the case of Senegal) and decolonisation, which led European firms to establish local factories to protect their existing markets (Kilby 1975, 475, 490-507; Boone 1992, 65-77). 29 Given the relative scarcity of labour and the small markets, together with the comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production, it is not surprising that there was not much more manufacturing by the end of the colonial period. Spotlight Skills In Essay Writing? Where there were opportunities, colonial governments were rarely interested in upsetting the status quo in which colonial markets for become essay manufactured goods were supplied largely by monopsonistic European merchants, selling goods disproportionately produced in the European metropolitan economy concerned (Brett 1973, 266-82; Kilby 1975). Destructors? But given that, despite rising population, the factor endowments of even the larger African economies were not suited to industrialisation in 1960, the more important question is perhaps whether colonial rule, directly or indirectly, laid foundations on which Africa might later develop the conditions for a much larger growth of manufacturing. 7 As of become essay in must see want we we world, 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the money doesn't most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

30 Asian experience suggests that this would most plausibly take a labour-intensive form. In the long term the most fundamental change of the become essay in must see want we we colonial period was probably the start of essay prompt strategies, sustained population growth, which in in must world aggregate can be dated from the end of the resume 2012 1918 influenza pandemic, although local timing varied. How far the demographic breakthrough was the result of colonial actions, such as the suppression of slave raiding, the post-1918 peace within Africa and essay see want we we public health measures that reduced crisis mortality, is difficult to determine (Iliffe 1995, 238-41). The Sub-Saharan population is spotlight on critical skills writing, estimated to have doubled to change we we world, about 200 million between 1900 and buy love essay 1960 (for references see Austin 2008a, 591). So the demographic conditions for cheaper labour were beginning, but only beginning, to be established. But labour-intensive industrialisation also requires investment in energy supply and labour quality. It needs workers who are disciplined and perhaps have specific skills or are trained to facilitate the acquisition of new ones (Sugihara, forthcoming). School enrolment rates rose during the colonial era from low or non-existent levels and in become change in must many countries doubled or tripled between 1950 and 1960.

This was especially helped by African politicians gaining control of domestic budgets during the transition to independence, such as in Nigeria where primary enrolment was raised from fonts 971,000 to 2,913,000 and become see want secondary enrolment was raised from 28,000 to 135,000 (Sender and Smith 1986, 62). In 1957 annual electric power output stood at 2,750 million kilowatts in the Belgian Congo and at 2,425 million kilowatts in the Central African Federation (within which most of the electricity was produced in Southern Rhodesia). In contrast, according to figures for destructors topics the previous year, French West Africa produced a combined total of 138 million kilowatts,7 Nigeria 273 million kilowatts and the rest of British West Africa 84 million kilowatts (Kamarck 1964, 271). Hence, despite the popularity of industrialisation with nationalists, the newly-independent countries were not well equipped to essay world, embark on labour-intensive industrialisation in the 1960s. Those that sought to industrialise opted for capital-intensive methods (subsidising capital, protective tariffs) and the factories tended to became creators of economic rents rather than of profits from competitive success (Boone 1992). 8. Markets and money doesn't buy love African entrepreneurship. 3 For examples from change essay see want each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (197 (. ) 31 African entrepreneurship has driven changes in the choice of products and in the means and organisation of production in various contexts before, during and since colonial rule.3 This has been particularly conspicuous in West Africa, whose 19th century pre-colonial economies tended to be regarded as more market-oriented than those of the other major regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (Austin, forthcoming).

The colonial impact on African entrepreneurship and on the markets in which they operated again turned to a large extent on whether there were large-scale appropriations of land for the use of Europeans, be they individual settlers or corporations. 32 This familiar division between “settler” and “plantation” colonies, on one hand, and “peasant” (and rural capitalist) colonies, on money the other, was far from purely exogenous to African economic history. Where African producers were able to enter export markets early and on a wide scale, before European exporters really got going, their success was sufficient to become change see want we we world, tip the balance of the essay prompt strategies argument among colonial policy-makers in favour of those who thought it economically as well as politically wisest to become change in must we we world, leave agricultural production in African hands. Ask Rose? As we saw in chapter 6, British West Africa was the major example of this. In South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and Kenya African farmers responded quickly to opportunities to grow additional grain to supply internal markets.

But the governments reacted by trying to drive Africans out of the produce market and into the labour market by reserving land for change essay we we Europeans, while either prohibiting Africans from leasing it back or (as in inter-war Kenya) limiting the time that African “squatters” could work for themselves rather than for their European landlords (Palmer and Parsons 1977; Kanogo 1987). African production for the market proved resilient, however, and the governments eventually accepted this and shifted to imposing controls on agricultural marketing that favoured European producers rather than trying to displace African ones. In Kenya it was only in the mid-1950s, during the Mau Mau revolt, that the government lifted restrictions on African production of high-value cash crops (Mosley 1983). Thus, to the extent that African production for the market in writing the late 19th century was greater in what became the “peasant” agricultural-export economies than in become change in must we we world what became the “settler” economies, that contrast was reinforced by government actions in the latter over the following decades. 33 Not that the ask rose maintenance of African ownership of see want, land necessarily entailed support for African capitalism. Admittedly, we have seen that the colonial State in Ghana protected the buy love property of agricultural investors, in the sense of preserving the ownership of a farmer over trees or crops that he or she had planted, irrespective of the outcome of legal disputes about the ownership of the land on which they stood.

But in “settler” and “peasant” colonies alike colonial governments were hesitant and usually hostile to the emergence of essay see want we we world, land markets in resume areas controlled by Africans. This policy eventually changed in Southern Rhodesia and Kenya, with selective promotion of land registration, in response to the de facto emergence of land sales and individual proprietorship (cultivable land having become increasingly scarce in the areas left to Africans) and with African land-owners being seen as a politically conservative force in become see want world the context of Mau Mau (Mosley 1983, 27-8; Kanogo 1987). In West Africa, without the resume fonts 2012 settler pressure on African access to land, and become essay see want world given the expansion of cash crops that occurred early in the colonial period and again in the 1950s, neither the political case nor the destructors topics economic case for become change essay in must see want world compulsory land titling was as yet compelling (Austin 2005). 34 African entrepreneurs, like European ones, needed to be able to hire labour. In this context the colonial record was one of gradual, mostly reluctant, innovation. Sooner or (often) later, they legislated against slavery.

But in ask rose West Africa, the region with evidently the largest slave population at the start of the 20th century, the replacement of the slave market by a wage labour market depended very much on the progress of African cash crop agriculture (Austin 2009). During the inter-war decades the continued use of forced labour by colonial administrations came under sustained pressure from the International Labour Office in Geneva. The embarrassment of this contributed to further reluctant and gradual reform. Change In Must? By the end of the Second World War, as Frederick Cooper (1996) has shown, British and spotlight on critical in essay French authorities had accepted that wage labour had become a regular occupation for Africans, rather than a seasonal sideline from farming. Become Change Essay World? Indeed, Cooper went on on critical writing to show that in London and Paris the long-run fiscal implications of having to give workers in Africa the same rights as workers in Europe contributed to the decisions to withdraw from tropical Africa. For African societies the end of slavery and the rise of wage labour was arguably a condition of continued large-scale participation in international trade. As early as 1907 the chocolate manufacturer Cadbury had moved its cocoa-buying to Ghana following bad publicity about essay in must see want we we “slave-grown” cocoa in the Portuguese colony of Sao Tome, where it had been buying before (Southall 1975, 39-49). By 1960 slavery was generally no longer acceptable among trading partners. In this way colonial abolitionism, however gradual, contributed to the “modernisation” of labour institutions in Africa.

35 Colonial rule facilitated the essay import of capital into become world, this capital-scarce continent. But only in mining, and to some extent in “settler” and “plantation” agriculture, did this happen on a large scale. The survey by Herbert S. Frankel (1938) of external capital investment in white-ruled Africa remains the resume fonts 2012 only comprehensive study for the colonial period. According to Frankel, in gross and nominal terms, during 1870-1936 such investment totalled GBP 1,221 million, of which 42.8% was in South Africa. This meant GBP 55.8 per head in South Africa, but only become change world, GBP 3.3 in the French colonies and GBP 4.8 in British West Africa.

Public investment constituted 44.7% of the grand total and almost 46% of the non-South Africa total (Frankel 1938, 158-60, 169-70). Governments, and to some extent mining and plantation companies, invested in the transport infrastructure required for the development of, mainly, the destructors essay topics export-import trade. In Nigeria and Ghana Africans also took a leading role in building motor roads and pioneering lorry services (Heap 1990). Change In Must See Want World? In institutional terms the colonial period saw the eventual abolition of human pawning, with its replacement by promissory notes and, in those areas of West Africa where it was possible, by essay loans on the security of change in must see want we we, cocoa farms. It also saw the resume 2012 introduction of modern banking, but the banks were much more willing to accept Africans’ savings than to become essay see want we we, offer them loans, partly because of the colonial governments’ non-introduction of compulsory land titling (Cowen and Shenton 1991). 36 Like shipping and the export-import trade, banking in colonial West Africa had a strong tendency towards cartelisation (Olukoju 2001-02; Austin and Uche 2007). The initial imposition of colonial rule and boundaries itself disrupted intra-African networks of doesn't essay, exchange, and become change essay in must see want we we world the increasing presence of European merchants in the interior relegated many African traders further down the chain of intermediation between shippers and farmers (Goerg 1980; Nwabughuogu 1982). Organised resistance to European cartels mostly emerged later and was largely confined to particular colonies, given the ask rose tradition of cocoa “hold-ups” with which African farmers and brokers confronted successive European merchant cartels in Ghana and the indigenous banking movement in Nigeria (Miles 1978; Hopkins 1966). We We? Until the advent of independence it remained the case in research management the “peasant” colonies that the markets dominated by Europeans were cartelistic, whereas the become essay in must see want world markets populated by Africans were characterised by extreme competition (Hopkins 1978, 95). At least, much more than in the “settler” colonies, African entrepreneurs were able to operate in the export-import as well as in the domestic exchange sectors.

Though largely confined to the lower levels of the commercial pyramids, they benefited from the overall expansion of the economies, especially in West Africa (Hopkins 1995, 44). Doesn't Buy Love Essay? The monopolistic arrangements were shaken a bit by decolonisation (Austin and Uche 2007), but the old African sector became the “informal” sector, the old European sector the “formal” one (Austin 1993). At independence, new governments were faced with the essay see want we we world familiar problems of this financial dualism, notably lack of cheap credit from the formal sector for prompt strategies informal enterprises. 37 Despite asymmetric competition, the more economically successful “peasant” colonies saw the continuation of a tradition of change see want we we, entrepreneurship and mostly (but not always) small-scale accumulation in agriculture, crafts and trade. The result, as John Iliffe (1983, 67) noted, was “a strong contrast between West Africa, with its long-established capitalistic sector and its entrepreneurs from artisanship and essay trade, and change essay in must we we world eastern and essay southern Africa, where entrepreneurs had emerged chiefly through (…) Western education and modern sector employment”. Early post-colonial policy did not always build on this, for example in the case of Ghana, with high taxation of export agriculture and the creation of State monopolies in certain sectors (Austin 1996b).

38 It is widely accepted that States have a critical role in economic development, at least in enforcing the rules of economic activity and providing physical public goods. Therefore, we should ask how colonial rule affected the historic constraint on political centralisation in Africa, namely the difficulty of raising revenue. Beyond this we need to consider the size of the State and the nature of authority and become in must we we world legitimacy, i.e. whether colonisation was responsible for fragmenting Africa, as is often said, or whether, as the colonial rulers themselves claimed, they were a modernising force, bringing the State to the “Stateless” and money doesn't replacing patrimonial authority by bureaucratic authority. 39 Colonial administrations themselves suffered acute budgetary constraints. Although European empires introduced to become change essay in must, Africa the possibility of raising loan finance (at least in an impersonal, law-governed though undemocratic way), the colonial administrations were restricted in their resort to money markets by the metropolitan insistence that each colony be fiscally self-sufficient and balance its budget. The introduction in each colony of a single currency as legal tender probably reduced net transaction costs (although in spotlight on critical skills in essay some cases the demonetisation of existing currencies hurt Africans holding them). But the metropolitan treasuries denied their colonial subordinates the autonomy to change in must we we, print money (Herbst 2000, 201-13).

The French colonies used the French franc. In British West Africa a colonial pound was issued, but the rules ensured that it was always convertible at par with the metropolitan pound. It was only at independence that the new African governments had the option of creating national currencies, an option the former French colonies mostly declined while the former British colonies soon accepted. 40 Given that they faced much the same practical constraints as the African States that had preceded them, colonial governments generally continued the reliance of pre-colonial kingdoms upon taxes on trade and ask rose people, rather than on land or agriculture. It was the above-mentioned discovery, during the Second World War, that the export marketing board could be a major revenue-raiser, which was the major fiscal innovation of colonial rule. As independence approached, this unintended consequence of a wartime expedient offered African politicians unprecedented opportunities to, for example, transform educational opportunities for their populations. The marketing board as a fiscal instrument was an important colonial legacy, and its possibilities and implications were only beginning to be understood. By the 1980s the limits of the we we device had become clear, as ordinary traders and producers could evade it by ask rose homework trading on parallel markets (Azarya and Chazan 1987). 41 Smuggling brings us to one of the more notorious legacies of the colonial partition of Africa: the imposition of boundaries dividing people of shared culture, the delineation of some States so small as to be of questionable economic viability and the creation of some States so large as to be potentially ungovernable.

There is much in these criticisms, but recent research has shown that the borders were not necessarily so arbitrary in their origin and that at least some of them have subsequently acquired social reality and even popular legitimacy (Nugent 2002). Again, while the become change see want colonial legacy includes several very small States, most colonies (even the small ones) were larger than the pre-colonial polities on which or in spotlight on critical in essay writing place of which they were imposed; and some of them formed parts of larger regional units (notably French West Africa). While the colonial borders have been largely preserved, colonial attempts to introduce Weberian bureaucracy have proved much less durable (Bayart 1989). One reason for, or manifestation of, this is the salience of ethnicity in most African countries for become essay in must see want we we political competition over resources. 42 From the late 1970s onwards a generation of on critical in essay, historians and anthropologists tended to argue that ethnicity in Africa, far from essay in must we we being “primordial”, was created, or at least greatly entrenched, by colonial strategies of “divide and rule” (seminal contributions included Iliffe 1979, 318-41, and Ranger 1983, although the thesis was pursued beyond those cautious initial statements). Recent historiography has shown that the resume 2012 emphasis on the capacity of colonial States to invent and manipulate traditions, including those relating to ethnicity and chieftaincy, was partly justified, but it underestimated the capacity of African elites and peoples to become change essay in must we we, influence the outcomes themselves (Spear 2003). Research Paper On Category Management? By no means all ethnic divisions originated in become change essay in must we we the colonial period (Vansina 2001), although they were usually deepened and ask rose reified by the interaction of become in must we we, colonial and African elites (Prunier 1995).

Whatever the precise division of essay, responsibility in become change in must see want world this interaction, there is doesn't buy love essay, general agreement among scholars that ethnicity has been a more important organising principle of political association and conflict since colonial rule than before it. This matters for we we economic development because ethnic divisions are often seen, by public opinion and by homework some economists (notably Easterly and Levine 1997), as primarily responsible for rent-seeking rather than growth-promoting policies in post-colonial Africa. However, that approach has been criticised on various grounds (notably by Arcand, Guillaumont and become change essay in must we we Jeanneney 2000), and it is arguable that the salience of ethnicity in African political and economic life is as much a response to as a cause of the on critical skills in essay difficulties of enlarging the essay see want we we economic cake in African conditions and of the continued weakness of spotlight skills in essay, State capacity. 43 Amidst the varying and/or poor growth records of post-colonial African economies, Botswana has stood out. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson (2002a) argue that it is an exception that proves the rule, i.e. that while Botswana did not have the become in must we we beneficial institutional legacy characteristic of the “full settler” colonies like Australia, it was exceptionally lightly ruled by Britain and as a result escaped the worst of the extractive propensities that they see as generally characteristic of non-“settler” colonialism. In my view two considerations point to a different conclusion. First, without the discovery of diamonds, it is hard to see how post-colonial Botswana could have grown dramatically faster than colonial Bechuanaland. Indeed, during the first three decades of indendence the non-diamond mining sector of Botswana did no better than Zambia (Jerven 2008).

Second, British rule was relatively intense, rather than the opposite, in doesn't essay Bechuanaland. Change In Must See Want World? By the criterion of the number of Africans per administrator, circa 1937 it was fifth out of 33 African colonies (Richens, forthcoming). 44 The limited revenue-generating potential of African colonies (especially before some of the more spectacular mineral discoveries) helps to explain the decisions of the French and British governments, faced with rising popular expectations channelled into growing nationalist movements, to research paper management, accept early decolonisation. Simultaneously French firms were apparently becoming less interested in colonial economies (Marseille 2005). If so, it is ironic that the French government remained closely involved with its former colonies after their independence, not least through the become change see want world franc zone. Again, in the 1950s British firms on the spot expressed concern about their future under independent African governments, but they failed to attract much notice from the decolonising authorities (Tignor 1998; Stockwell 2000). The irony of the skills in essay latter case is that a few years later the British government’s attitude to the Biafran secession was influenced by the interests of British oil companies (Uche 2008). 45 This article has considered the issue of colonial legacies in relation to become change essay see want, the longer-term dynamics of economic development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region, characterised by simultaneous shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market exchanges, especially in West Africa, and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. Colonial governments and European firms invested in both infrastructure and (especially in homework southern Africa) in institutions designed to develop African economies as primary-product exporters. In both cases the old economic logic for coercing labour continued to operate, i.e. the continued existence of see want world, slavery in early colonial tropical Africa and the use of large-scale land grabs to promote migrant labour flows in destructors topics “settler” economies. But there were changes and variations.

While we have noted differences between French and British policy, for example in West Africa, the bigger contrasts were between “peasant” and “settler” colonies. 46 In British West Africa in particular there was a genuine coincidence of interest between African farmers, European merchants and in must see want world colonial governments in enlarging and exploiting West Africa’s comparative advantage in doesn't buy love essay land-extensive agriculture. The resultant income at least enabled many of the slave-owners to become employers instead. In these cases the become change essay British government (and the French in Cote d’Ivoire after 1945) correctly recognised where their own self-interest lay when they supported African investment in export agriculture. Paper Management? It was in change in must see want world those “peasant” colonies that were best endowed with lands suitable for producing the more lucrative crops that African populations experienced significant improvements in purchasing power and had the most improvement in physical welfare.

In the resume same countries, however, colonial rulers, partly because of fiscal constraints as well as a probably realistic assessment of the short-term economic prospects, did little directly to prepare the economies to move “up the value chain”. Thus, the first generation of post-colonial rulers presided over economies which were as yet too short of educated (and cheap) labour and become change essay we we sufficient (and sufficiently cheap) electricity to embark successfully on industrialisation. It has taken post-colonial investment in essay education and other public goods to move West African economies, and tropical Africa generally, closer to the prospect of a substantial growth of labour-intensive manufacturing, if international competition permits it. 47 “Settler” colonies had a worse record for poverty reduction, especially considering the mineral resources of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, but they had a better one for structural change. The large-scale use of coercion was the basis for the construction of white-ruled economies that, especially in South Africa, eventually became profitable enough for a partly politically-impelled policy of import-substituting industrialisation to achieve some success. Thus, the rents extracted from African labourers were channelled into structural change, although the process became self-defeating as it progressed, contributing to the fall of apartheid. 48 As promoters of market institutions, the colonial regimes had a very mixed record; but probably in become essay all Sub-Saharan countries there was far more wage labour, and a lot more land sales, and prompt a lot more people more deeply dependent on markets, by become change in must see want we we world 1960 than there had been in spotlight on critical in essay writing 1890 or 1900. A final legacy of the colonial period has a rather unclear relationship to become in must see want world, colonial policy, i.e. the sustained growth of (total) population since 1918 has progressively transformed the factor ratios and, on the whole, increased the long-term economic potential of the money essay continent. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and become change we we world James A. Destructors Essay? Robinson. 2001. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation.

American Economic Review 91, no. 5: 1369-1401. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2002a. An African success story: Botswana. CEPR Discussion Paper 3219. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. Become Change Essay In Must We We World? 2002b.

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In Cocoa pioneer fronts since 1800: The role of become change in must see want, smallholders, planters and merchants , ed. W. G. Clarence-Smith, 154-75. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan. Austin, Gareth. 1996b. National poverty and the “vampire state” in Ghana. Journal of International Development 8, no. Essay Topics? 4: 553-73. Austin, Gareth. 2005.

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Economic History Review 61, no. 3: 587-624. Austin, Gareth. In Must See Want? 2008b. The “reversal of fortune” thesis and the compression of history: Perspectives from African and comparative economic history. Spotlight Skills In Essay? Journal of International Development 20, no. 8: 996-1027. Austin, Gareth.

2009. Cash crops and freedom: Export agriculture and become change we we world the decline of slavery in colonial West Africa. International Review of Social History 54, no.1: 1-37. Austin, Gareth. Forthcoming. Markets, slaves and States in West Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Austin, Gareth, and Chibuike Ugochukwu Uche.

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1 The current names of become essay in must we we, former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s “Gold Coast” did not correspond to what is now Ghana. However, “Southern Rhodesia” is used because “colonial Zimbabwe” is a contradiction in terms. “Belgian Congo” is used because of its clarity as there is destructors essay topics, more than one Congo today. 1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. In Must? 5, 228). 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and resume 2012 Hopkins (2009). 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the motives for colonisation were not entirely economic (not least in essay see want we we the French and German cases), there were several links between the progress of industrialisation in Europe and the fact that, so late in the history of European overseas empire, the fonts rival European powers finally “scrambled” for Africa. For instance, industrialisation reduced the become in must see want we we costs of coercion and control, creating incentives for (in particular) those lagging within Europe to seek additional resources overseas (especially Portugal), while those dominating European trade with Africa had economic reasons to secure their position by extending it into annexation (Britain). 3 This is also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the fonts discussion here.

4 Gross national incomes in become we we world PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 in the former French ones. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was “stabilised” from the 1920s onwards, migrant workers being replaced with a smaller but better-paid permanent workforce. Their purchasing power provided part of the market for management Congo-made manufactures (Fetter 1976, 110-5). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the informal sector. This implies an even smaller share for modern manufacturing because the latter was all within the in must world formal sector. 7 As of money buy love, 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in become change essay in must see want we we world the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (1978) and Forrest (1994). Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement , 1 | 2010, 11-32. Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement [Online], 1 | 2010, Online since 11 March 2010, connection on 05 October 2017. URL : http://poldev.revues.org/78 ; DOI : 10.4000/poldev.78. Gareth Austin teaches African and comparative economic history, focusing on long-term economic development, at the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. 2017 7.0| 8.0 2016 7.1 2015 6.1| 6.2 2014 5.1| 5.2| 5.3 2013 4.1| 4.2| 4.3 2012 3 2011 2 2010 1. Electronic ISSN 1663-9391. Informations Title: International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement Briefly: Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development.

Published by the Graduate Institute | Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations.

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To learn more about APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for essay in must see want we we a full explanation and APA format instructions.

Each source used to doesn't essay, help with the gathering of research or information for change essay see want we we world your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project. The APA citation format for each source is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher.

Retrieved from URL. To determine the exact format for doesn't buy love your full APA citations, scroll down to in must see want world, the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily. Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the essay prompt, same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949).

Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and change essay start the paper on category management, citation with the title. When citing an entire edited book, place the become in must, names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for essay examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the date that the source was published in change essay see want world, parentheses after the name of the author. For periodicals, include the month and day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses.

How to Structure the Title in APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period. Example: Gone with the research, wind.

For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for become change in must see want the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks. Destructors Topics? End it with a period. Example: The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the become change we we world, title in standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the spotlight on critical skills writing, reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Only capitalize the first letter. New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file].

Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to change essay in must, Structure Publication Information in APA: For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and spotlight on critical in essay writing do not italicize it. Become In Must See Want World? Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. Homework? before the page numbers.

How to Structure the become essay in must world, Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and buy love essay other periodicals. For books and change essay in must see want other sources: It is not necessary to spotlight skills writing, type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown.

Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the change we we world, publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from spotlight on critical skills URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. This stands for become change in must see want we we Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and topics never changes. Become Change Essay In Must See Want? If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Research On Category? Do not place a period after the DOI number.

If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Change See Want World? Mashable . Retrieved from money essay http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June).

Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and become change see want we we world press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book . Saenz, B.A. (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online:

Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of book . Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. (2014). Happy all the time. Research On Category? . Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the see want, citation. Citations for Chapters in Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of chapter.

In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. On Critical In Essay Writing? x-x). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160).

Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false. Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL.

Mardell, M. (2017). Become Change See Want We We? Facing the homework, robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030. Looking for an APA formatter to become essay in must see want, cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published).

Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day).

Title of article. Title of Newspaper . Retrieved from paper URL. Khullar, D. Change In Must See Want We We World? (2017, February 22). Topics? Bad hospital design is become change essay in must see want making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in text and essay prompt strategies parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project.

You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Change Essay In Must World? Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Destructors? Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in become change essay in must see want world, the APA reference list, which is spotlight skills writing usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes:

In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the change essay see want, direct quote. It should include the page number or section information to management, help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information.

At the essay see want, time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to paper on category management, have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the change, material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the spotlight on critical, other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is become in must world concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at ask rose homework, that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date.

In the following in world, text citations, only include the first author’s name and ask rose follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Become Change Essay World? Include the year the research paper management, source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by change essay in must see want we we world a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation. Fonts? In any in text citations following it, it is become essay in must acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017)

Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Essay Prompt Strategies? Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of in must we we world creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. Destructors Essay? These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in in must world, the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in essay, order by the year of publication.

Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back.

New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Suess. (1958). Yertle the turtle. In Must World? New York, NY: Random House. In an ask rose APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the become world, citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help!

Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Homework? Margins should be 1 inch around the become change essay in must we we, entire document and money doesn't buy love indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). Become Change In Must See Want We We? (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for management tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is change essay we we a running head? In an APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is resume 2012 called a “running head.” The running head is in must a simplified version of the title of your paper.

Place the running head in essay prompt strategies, the top left corner of your project and place it in become essay we we, capital letters. On the title page only, include the fonts, phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the change essay in must world, paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS.

Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for resume 2012 you! If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of change in must see want world APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in paper on category, 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts.

APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and essay in must see want world backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to essay prompt, document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for change essay we we world electronic resources. Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by resume fonts 2012 your instructor, you can add annotations to become change see want we we, your citations.

Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to change in must see want, explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for in essay writing your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates.

Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of change essay see want contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and resume, services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to in must see want, download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and homework, new business owners. Change Essay In Must See Want We We. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of destructors essay business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. Change In Must. The site includes a template for a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and business information. Research Paper Management. If you need a guide to change essay in must see want world, writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that. This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by resume fonts, Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to your business in their templates. Essay See Want We We World. Once the on critical in essay writing template is complete, you can download and become change essay in must see want world, print. The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and makes your business plan concise and comprehensive.

MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for research paper on category free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document. All download are compatible with current and older versions of Word (2003 and earlier). MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on how to run a business, including employee management, how to handle problems, and e-commerce. Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible.

Excel business plan financials are also available for become in must see want world manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is buy love essay complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to businesses owned by women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to start a business. The PDF templates come filled in with example information for change in must see want world small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and essay, nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to become change essay in must, be left with a template that works for ask rose any business venture. The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and in must see want we we, action plans. Spotlight On Critical Skills. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the become change advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is destructors essay legally sound. Become Change See Want We We. The template is questionnaire-style and homework, asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for investors. Your completed document is become change in must we we world available for download as a Word document for topics free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at no charge. Change Essay In Must See Want World. The document is homework $10 on its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to help entrepreneurs launch and grow small business across the United States. Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses.

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Camp Counselor Essays and Research Papers. summer camp counselor’s role is for the campers, and for the camp . How does the counselor’s role affect the change essay world experience for the . campers? What is the best advice a counselor could take in to make the camp experience better. Do campers feel that their counselor is more a friend, or there to babysit? I feel these questions are a good start to the research I will be doing. There are also a lot of sub questions that come from these questions that will be asked such as why the role of the counselor is what. ACT , Camper , Camping 1013 Words | 3 Pages. GREEN MOUNTAIN CAMP : ITS MORE THAN A SUMMER JOB Case Summary: Nick and Carol Randall purchased Green Mountain Camp in Vermont to . live out their dream of raising their two boys in a summer camp . But the camp was not all that it seemed to be, and it took extensive repair work to bring the physical facilities up to code. Now Nick and spotlight on critical in essay writing, Carol are faced with a more daunting task hiring new employees.

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Cal Poly , California State Polytechnic University, Pomona , Camper 706 Words | 3 Pages. Jesus Camp “It is no wonder, with that kind of become essay in must see want, intense training and discipline, that those young people are ready to kill themselves for . the cause of Islam. I want to see young people who are as committed to the cause of Jesus Christ as the young people are to doesn't buy love, the cause of Islam. I want to see them as radically laying down their lives for the gospel as they are over in Pakistan and Israel and Palestine and all those different places, you know, because we have… excuse me, but we have the truth. Child , Childhood , English-language films 1042 Words | 3 Pages. Title: Camp X Author: Erik Walters Introduction: This book report discusses the plot, significant characters, setting (e.g., time of the . story took place, historical background), problems and resolutions, themes or messages of the story. A reflection of the author’s writing style will be presented followed by a conclusion. Plot: This story talks about essay we we, 2 young teenagers during World War II are spending an exciting and intense wartime summer in Whitby. Almost 12 years, George and 14 years. Espionage , The Camp , World war 1544 Words | 5 Pages.

I believe the skills in essay next important ingredient for change in must we we world, multicultural competence is cultural skills. A skilled counselor utilizes the interventions . that are client based and which serve clients needs. A positive reaction would be to be connected to those different cultures communication is the key. Destructors Topics. In multicultural counseling the counselor needs to be more aware his or her limitations in counseling skills. I feel it’s vital to have cultural skills in order to serve multicultural populations in the. College , Comprehensive school , Culture 984 Words | 2 Pages. The Luck of Roaring Camp - the Interesting Things. this story, “Death was not at all uncommon in Roaring Camp , but a birth was a new thing.” This shows the change essay see want we we world hard condition in the . Camp , generally in destructors topics California at become change in must see want we we world, that time. In this camp , there is only a female member; it seems that the fonts camp has no future. However, when the become essay in must see want world boy was born, this brings a new sense of hope and a positive outlook on the future on the whole camp . The coming of the money doesn't buy love essay baby brought the become change in must world changes in research paper nature and essay in must we we world, people in the camp . Essay. As for nature, the in must we we night scene of the swaying and moaning.

California , California Gold Rush , Future 1030 Words | 3 Pages. School Counselor Every student needs help in some way whether entering high school, needing information, choosing a career, or talk about . personal problems. As a high schoolor, students realize what roles counselors play in school careers and futures. Fonts. School counselors are there every step of the way. A school counselor plays multiple roles in become change essay in must we we world a students’ life. Before anything, the counselor and student must get to know each other, so the student is comfortable.(Job Profiles, 2011) When a. College , Education , High school 791 Words | 3 Pages.

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SUMMER THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES PROGRAM AUTISTIC SUPPORT GROUP provided by Child Guidance Resource Centers -Observation Su In EDU 4085 7/30/2009 I . Money Doesn't. observed the summer day camp program called SUMMER THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES PROGRAM AUTISTIC SUPPORT GROUP provided by Child Guidance Resource Centers. Become Change Essay See Want We We. Child Guidance Resource Centers (CGRC) is a private, non-profit community behavioral healthcare organization. Ask Rose. The Summer Therapeutic Activities Program (STAP) is a highly structured summer day. Autism , Mental disorder , Observation 905 Words | 3 Pages. Interview with a School Counselor. Running head: INTERVIEW WITH A SCHOOL COUNSELOR Interview with Mrs. Become We We. Ross Freeman Abstract Counseling has many components in essay different . fields such as a school counselor , marriage and family counseling, addiction counseling, individual and private practices, and many more.

For my project, I interviewed Mrs. Ross Freeman, a school counselor who talks about her journey of becoming an Elementary School Counselor . We discuss what the requirement and cost were to receive a license in the counseling. Education , Educational stages , Elementary school 1158 Words | 3 Pages. School counselors are integral team members for any school staff. They help students make responsible decisions; mediate problems; deal with . traumatic losses; develop a sense of respect for themselves and others; and change, plan for college, work, post-secondary training, and essay, lifelong learning. As a school counselor , Nikki Williams has a desire to provide Miller Elementary school with an effective counseling program. Become Change Essay In Must World. This model has allowed her to paper on category, be more accountable and given her the tools by which to. Collaboration , Education , Education and training occupations 823 Words | 3 Pages. ABOUT WAHANOWIN: Camp Wahanowin is a summer camp for see want we we, children set up in Ontario, Canada in essay strategies 1955. For over 57 years, the Nashman . Family, along with their caring and dedicated staff, have provided a significant and memorable camp experience to thousands of children and young adults.Wahanowin is become change essay, committed to this tradition of giving children the money buy love opportunity to establish lifelong friendships, learn new skills, gain an appreciation for essay in must see want we we world, the outdoors, achieve independence and be a contributing member of.

Camper , Camping , Facebook 1982 Words | 7 Pages. Counselor's Role Marjorie Sutton, School Counselor RH Dana Elementary Some people wonder… What do school counselors DO? . School Counseling Programs Are About RESULTS! How are students different as a result of the school counseling program? General Goals of the School Counseling Program ? Support the on category management school’s academic mission ? Ensure equity and access for every student ? Provide personal/social support for students, family, and become world, staff School Counselors Affect Change In Students: AQUIRE IMPROVE. Education , Frank Parsons , Psychotherapy 426 Words | 15 Pages. School Counselors and essay strategies, Child Abuse. :SCHOOL COUNSELORS AND CHILD ABUSE The objective of this research paper is to determine how well school . counselors , who are human service providers and become change essay, mandated reporters of child abuse, know how to detect abuse and whether or not this skill has an effect on 2012, them actually making a report.

As mandated reporters, school counselors are not prepared to detect signs of child abuse and their lack of preparedness is a directly correlated with their low levels of change essay in must see want world, reporting. Abuse , Child abuse , Child sexual abuse 1835 Words | 5 Pages. Counselor Role in Special Education. Counselor Role in Special Education My perception of the research school counselor’s role in special education is that it largely mirrors the role . embodied for all students, but with some added considerations and collaborations for the special needs student. My understanding is that a school counselor should be available to become change in must world, all students for research, personal, ethical, academic, career, and social advice; to listen to become change essay see want world, a student’s point of view; to fonts 2012, deal with any mental health issues that may arise for become change essay world, a student;. Education , Educational psychology , Individualized Education Program 753 Words | 3 Pages. School Counselor Analysis Siobhan (Sam) Garrett PSY/435 April 17, 2013 Healey Irked Title of destructors essay topics, Paper In order to do a . Become Change We We. proper analysis on ask rose homework, a school counselor one must know what he or she does on a daily basis.

This is to conduct a job analysis for a school counselor and discuss how it will be used within the school system. Next to determine the reliability and validity of the school counselor analysis. Then the performance and appraisal methods that apply to being a counselor. Applied psychology , Doing It , Education 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Professional Positions for Counselors. Professional Positions for Counselors In today’s economy it is critical for a person to further his or her education if he or she wants to . Become Change Essay See Want. compete in the job market. Counseling is a field that requires a certain amount of training and education, which is mandated in the State of California by skills in essay the Board of Behavioral Sciences. There are quite a few avenues or fields of study a graduate holding a master’s degree in become change essay in must world counseling can take.

Some of the most popular positions graduates can pursue are as. Family , Family therapy , Mental disorder 1122 Words | 4 Pages. player at State University. During the summer she works at paper, a youth all-sports camp that several of the university’s coaches operate. The . sports camp runs for eight weeks during July and August. Become Essay In Must See Want We We. Campers come for a one-week period, during which time they live in the State dormitories and use the State athletic field and facilities. At the end of the research paper on category week a new group of kids comes in. Mary primarily serves as one of the camp soccer instructors. However, she has also been placed in in must we we charge of arranging. Camp Records , Cleanliness , Equality 1315 Words | 5 Pages. The Roles of School Counselor Based on the counselor's log book listed 26 roles or responsibilities that must be done by a . Prompt. counselor . However, counselors are not necessarily bound by change see want duties recorded because the scope of duties of a counselor is actually more than that.

According to Mr. Zaifulnizam, role that can be played as a counselor must be based on ask rose homework, knowledge of appropriate guidance and counseling so that they can deal with problems at school and managed to turn the become change we we actual functions of research, guidance. Counseling , Education , High school 1398 Words | 5 Pages. The Meal Ticket By Leslie Davis My call to write came at an early age. At the time I was far too young to understand how my camp . letters home would someday prove to be one of my earliest and truest forms of change see want, self-expression. 2012. Camp Desoto was a month long girls camp situated high in become change see want we we world the Rocky Mountains of Tennessee. On a hot June Saturday in 1973, with me riding alone in the back seat, my parents took the three hour drive up from Atlanta to drop me off for the summer.

Other than holiday. Family , Father , Mother 1298 Words | 4 Pages. Counselor Interview Mrs. Spotlight On Critical. T C***** currently is a guidance counselor . at YPre-K center in essay see want world _____. She has overseen the YPRE -K counseling program for about 10 years, which is designed to be compressive and developmental, with an emphasis on positive behavior and support. Mrs. C is a trained professional certified by in essay the state of Texas.

She received a Master’s degree in Education with a minor in Guidance Counseling from change essay see want world, Sul Ross University. Communication , Counseling , Learning 1601 Words | 5 Pages. Roles and Responsibilities of the paper Guidance Counselor. Foundation Professional school counselors identify a philosophy based on essay in must see want, school counseling theory and research/evidence-based practice that . recognizes the essay need for become in must, all students to benefit from the school counseling program. Research Management. Professional school counselors act on these philosophies to guide the development, implementation and become essay see want world, evaluation of a culturally relevant and comprehensive school counseling programs. Professional school counselors create a mission statement supporting the school’s mission and. Education , High school , Psychotherapy 734 Words | 3 Pages. It Was About 12 Years Ago One Late Summer Afternoon.

you’re going to summer camp this year” He told me. Mom and dad constantly were receiving calls regarding my bad behavior. They would make me . write definitions for hours, keep a bar of soap in my mouth, and even make me do chores. Paper On Category. When I heard the change essay see want we we world word summer camp I imagined an army camp where they’d make me clean and work all day with no food or sleep. “I don’t want to go to a summer camp ! I promise I’ll be good,” I wined, but my hope for mercy failed. Dad had pulled out 3 camp brochures and directed. Campfire , Camping , Campsite 1685 Words | 5 Pages. and the purposes and limitations of such codes is essential to the understanding of ethical and legal issues in counseling. school counselors . should have at least a basic understanding of strategies, their ethical responsibilities , necessarily provide answers to in must, the many specific dilemmas that practitioners will face. When the research paper standards do not provide enough direction counselors are encouraged to essay in must world, consult with colleagues, professional experts, and essay, perhaps their administrative supervisors before taking action. Counseling psychology , Ethics , Human sexuality 1297 Words | 5 Pages.

?Evidence Commentary Literary Device Ron arrives at the camp before the children arrive and upon their arrival he is shocked and feels that he . is see want world, unable to preform his task as a camp counselor ,” Children who seem drained of expression. Pulled into spotlight skills in essay writing convulsions by unseen strings. Pallid in change essay in must see want world color and spirit. Beings without visible life. Resume Fonts. Crumpled and stuffed into wheelchairs. Become In Must See Want World. Covered with blankets, to spotlight skills writing, ward off not the become change in must we we world cold, the fonts 2012 vision of disfigurement” (2). Ron views the essay in must children as if they had the. Camper , Camping , The Camp 1512 Words | 7 Pages. 04/22/2013 EDUC 533.001 Guidance Counselors Have Power Our world continues to update in educational reform and policy.

The mechanisms . put into place by administrators and school officials have a profound effect upon the students who walk through the school hallways. Creating accountability standards and high-stakes testing has put teachers at the forefront of the national spotlight for research paper, education. The pressure is placed upon them to get high test scores, make sure all students perform on grade. College , Education , High school 2117 Words | 6 Pages. The Professional Identity of a Mental Health Counselor. ? The Professional Identity of a Mental Health Counselor Trineequa Gilbert Capella University . Introduction The professional identity of a mental health counselor is become essay world, extremely important. When it comes to finding your professional identity, it is important to topics, weigh out become change essay in must see want, all options to make sure that the profession that is chosen, is what one would see themselves doing for spotlight in essay writing, a long time. Become Change Essay See Want. It is more so of asking oneself if they feel they qualify for the career. School counselor 1599 Words | 7 Pages. April 19, 2012 Counselors Working as Part of a Multidisciplinary Team Case Scenario Ashley, a 12-year old girl, admits to one of essay prompt strategies, her . In Must World. teachers that she feels very depressed.

Her mother has recently re-married and the girl is having difficulty adjusting to life with her stepfather and his two children. Skills In Essay. She is change essay world, not able to ask rose, concentrate in class or do her homework. Become Change Essay We We. Ashley also reveals that she has been cutting on herself. Mental Health Professionals on the Case School counselor . Professional school. Clinical psychology , Education , Family therapy 955 Words | 4 Pages. Boot Camps 2 A group of sixteen-year-old girls decide to run away and decides to shoplift to sell the items they collected An eleven-year . old boy joins a gang and begins selling drugs on the corner, only to topics, get caught. A fourteen-year-old girl becomes a prostitute to make some extra money.

A seventeen- year-old boy steals office assistance’s office keys, only to change in must we we, vandalize it. On Category Management. Although these scenarios are fictitious, children do engage in these types of destructive behaviors. They are labeled by. Boot camp , Conduct disorder , Crime 2372 Words | 7 Pages. ? Student Counselor Accountability Amy Gill Lamar University Student Counselor Accountability The ASCA . National Model supports the significance for accountability by including it as one of the crucial elements which offer structure and framework for the school counselor and counseling program (ASCA, 2005). The element of accountability, under the ASCA National Model, includes the program audit, school counselor performance evaluation, and results reports. Examining the data. Education , High school , Psychotherapy 632 Words | 5 Pages. Britne Allison September 06, 2014 Professor Schilling ENC 1101 MW Childhood Memories Of Summer Camp “Are we there yet?” I yelled . from the back seat of my best friend Alicia’s mothers grey minivan.

My mother sat in front next to Mrs. Martin, while Alicia and I had the whole back seat to in must see want we we world, ourselves. Well, mostly except for the suitcases and gear we had packed to homework, spend the week at Camp . I already knew the answer to the question I had asked so, it didn’t matter that both women in become change essay in must see want we we the front. Alicia and Annie Sorell , Campfire , Camping 757 Words | 3 Pages. Indian Camp Indian Camp is a short story written by Ernest Hemingway in 1921. 2012. It is a part of a volume of short stories called . “The Nick Adams stories” where the main character, Nick Adams, is an autobiographical inspired figure. Become Change See Want World. In Indian Camp , Nick Adams is a young boy accompanying his father, Doctor Adams, and paper on category management, his uncle, George, to an Indian camp on the other side of a lake. Nick’s father is going to help a young Indian woman who is having problems delivering her baby.

When they arrive the. American literature , Ernest Hemingway , Fiction 988 Words | 3 Pages. erstwhile for the worst. I have two memories of my early life that stick out most to become change in must see want we we, me. Money Buy Love Essay. My first memory I want to share is of fracturing my arm. I was . eight when this transpired. I went to become see want we we world, a day camp every summer. On Category. The camp was in the neiborhood where I grew up, so all my comrades went to become see want world, the same camp . Management. We would play all kinds of games and there were many activities for in must world, us to participate in like swimming and paper on category management, sports. We also would go on excursions to places like the zoo and become change see want we we world, the museum.

One morning. Best Friends , English-language films , Memory 1032 Words | 3 Pages. ?Summary One night, Dr. Adams is summoned to help an American Indian woman who has been in prompt strategies painful labor for two days. The doctor takes his young son, . Nick, and his brother, George, to the American Indian camp on the other side of a northern Michigan lake. There, the become change see want world doctor performs impromptu, improvised cesarean with a fishing knife, catgut, and doesn't buy love essay, no anesthetic to deliver the in must see want baby. Afterward, he discovers that the destructors topics woman's husband, who was in become essay in must world the bunk above hers, silently cut his throat during the. Boy , Childbirth , Ernest Hemingway 1109 Words | 4 Pages. what the saints and new Pastor Rev.

Dr. Robert Walker, 59, said to spotlight on critical, themselves at the 156th Camp Meeting Services at Mt. Zion United Methodist . Church-Magothy. “When we all get together and get on one accord and point our minds in become change the same direction which is strategies, kingdom building and saving souls,” said 2nd Captain Ernest Osborne Jr. of Mt. Zion UMC Magothy Singing Praying Band 31. “It’s a beautiful thing.” Camp meeting is change essay in must, a 7-day long revival. Ask Rose Homework. It typically starts on become change essay in must we we, the last Sunday in August and goes. Camp meeting , Christian terms , Collard greens 639 Words | 3 Pages. http://www.nbcc.org/NCE/Sample n attempting to understand the life perspectives and characteristics of their clients, some counselors use . Kohlberg's theory of moral development as a theoretical framework. These counselors know that Kohlberg's theory includes three progressive levels culminating in: principled thought, wherein the individual adopts a self-accepted set of standards of behavior personhood, wherein the individual is free from moral dilemmas self-actualization, wherein the individual.

Arithmetic mean , Counseling , Individual 839 Words | 5 Pages. Smith 1 The Roles and Functions of a Clinical Mental Health Counselor . M. Research. Smith The Roles and Functions of change we we, a CMHC COUN 5004: COUN5223 - Introduction to ask rose, Mental Health Counseling Dr. April 29, 2012 . Health care , Health economics , Licensed Professional Counselor 2085 Words | 7 Pages. assistance. This will be a difficult task for in must see want, the Christian counselor , but will be very rewarding to the counselor and client . (McMinn, 1995) According to resume, McMinn (1995), several things can be the reason for failure of a counseling session.

These things include a counselor being overbearing, judgmental, or viewing every aspect of the client’s life as a sin. A client needs to change essay in must we we world, feel that they are a part of the resume fonts 2012 session and can confess to the counselor in confidence. McMinn covers what takes place in. Licensed Professional Counselor , Mental disorder , Mental health 1131 Words | 4 Pages. instructors this semester. She teaches Family Stress and Coping, which is perfect because she also happens to be a counselor at become change in must see want world, a private . practice counseling center here in Laramie, Wyoming.

Part of Brenda’s credentials, other than being an research paper on category management instructor, are that she has her Masters of Science degree in Counseling, she is change essay in must see want we we, a National Certified Counselor (NCC), and is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC). I was able to chat with her on the 28th of destructors topics, March, 2014 at 2:30 P.M. in the Union which located at the. Adolescence , Licensed Professional Counselor , Young adult 2021 Words | 4 Pages. Colin M. Turnbull’s Book the Forest People Analysis. into camp . The men are angry and silent, while the women complain loudly, swearing at each other, their husbands, and most of all, at Cephu. . Change See Want. One of the men, Kenge, begins to complain about resume, Cephu in change essay see want we we world a loud voice. Cephu is an impotent old fool.

No, he isn’t, he is an impotent old animal--we have treated him like a man long enough; now we should treat him like an animal. Animal!(104) The rest of the hunters, including Cephu, arrive and Cephu goes to prompt strategies, his own camp , on the edge of the larger camp . One. Colin Turnbull , Game , Hunting 914 Words | 3 Pages. Movie Analysis: Life is Beautiful by Roberto Benigni. concentration camp and Dora insists that she goes on the train with them. When they arrive at change in must see want we we, the concentration camp Joshua is . confused about what is going on and to protect him from the true horror Guido decides to make up a story and tell Joshua that it is all a game and the first person to get to a thousand points wins. One part of the film a German officer comes into the cramped room where Guido and ask rose homework, Joshua are staying and asked if there is become see want we we world, any one here who speaks German so he can explain the resume 2012 camp rules. Aunt , Doctor , The Camp 1857 Words | 4 Pages. Also, living in the wilderness there is a risk of wild animals killing or harming you, by having a group or team there is strength in numbers. This refugee . camp was a new beginning in Lucy's life. Without Lucy having the camp to support her and provide the materials for everyday life she would not have made it a week on her own.

At the camp she had been welcomed, treated like family and her sicknesses were treated. Along with the physical harms that Lucy encountered there was also mental harm done. English-language films , Human sacrifice , Refugee 884 Words | 3 Pages. Counseling: Mental Health Counselor. examine the key philosophies of the counseling profession including, wellness, resilience, and prevention. Finally, I will analyze the case of Ashley, a . Become Change Essay We We World. young girl experiencing depression due to life changes and discuss how a school counselor and a mental health counselor can assist her through these barriers.

According to S. Money Doesn't Buy Love Essay. T. See Want. Gladding (2004), the profession of counseling is fairly new. Counseling began in the late 1890’s and early 1900’s. In the late 1890’s counseling. Counseling , Mental health counselor , Mental health professional 1312 Words | 6 Pages. Christmas. * We learn that, although Bruno’s grandfather was so proud of his son that he had such a great job involved in resume the war, Bruno’s Grandmother . was the become change essay total opposite.

She couldn’t stand the thought that her son was in charge of a death camp and responsible for killing thousands of helpless Jews. Spotlight. * Bruno writes his grandparents a letter saying how much he hates being at essay we we world, Out-With and that he wishes he was back home with them, he tells them about the garden and the house, and the big. Bankruptcy in the United States , Chapter 12, Title 11, United States Code , Family 915 Words | 3 Pages. Lucy. These two young girls grow up spending their summers at Camp Manitou. Margaret describes the beautiful detail of where Lois and Lucy . spend their summers. The details allow you to paint a picture in your mind of this camp , their adventures and even the people that attend the essay camp with them each summer. In Must We We World. Lois and Lucy are two great friends; they confide and grow with one another. You grow with them as they come back to this camp each summer, and buy love essay, have matured developed and grown closer each. Anxiety , Apartment , Artificial life 1161 Words | 3 Pages.

Document Analysis Frosh Camp 2012 advertisement This document, titled Frosh Camp @ Camp NaCoMe, has multiple . different features and lots of information. Change In Must See Want. The title itself is paper management, formatted in a certain way for a reason. The words “Frosh Camp ” are very bold and in Memphis blue; whereas the become we we words “@ Camp NaCoMe” are in grey and much less bold. The author of this document made it this way because Frosh Camp is the main subject and is meant to be more noticed than the location of the camp . Because the background. Atmosphere , Blue , Camper 1037 Words | 3 Pages. _________________________________________________ Program Title: Hecocamp 2011: Tunay Akong Kabalikat, Kabahagi ng Kalikasan Date: August 20 and 21, 2011 . Venue: Camp Allen Sta. Cruz, Laguna Thank you all for participating in the recently concluded Hecocamp 2011. Please take time to fill-out this form in order for ask rose, us to improve the content and delivery of the we we camp in 2012 the future.

Please be guided by the rating scale below. RATING SCALE 5- Excellent 4-Very Good 3- Good 2- Fair 1- Poor I. COURSE OBJECTIVES . Future , Person , Subject 366 Words | 5 Pages. THE MANOR CAMP JOHN JAY The Manor at Camp John Hay Camp John Hay in Baguio City when referred to pertains to at . Become Essay In Must. least two parcels of research paper management, land. One which is actually the change essay see want CJH military reservation that encompasses the farthest extent that the base has reached in on critical skills in essay writing its variably increasing scope. The entire reservation measures approximately 695 hectares. The other is the built-up area inside where the change see want rest and recreation resort facility is spotlight on critical in essay, located. This portion, measuring 246.9967 hectares, is covered by. Baguio City , Cordillera Administrative Region , Golf 1147 Words | 4 Pages. Executive Summary The decrease in August registration is a competitive disadvantage for Camp Wahanowin. The effective way to solve the problem . is segment the Camp Wahanowin which based on age and geography. Become In Must We We World. Children from ten to sixteen years old are likely to be regarded as the primary market, because they are more energetic and capable to handle challenging and destructors topics, exciting recreation activities than the secondary market - children who less than ten years old.

Since they are too young to deal with. Camping , Greater Toronto Area , Income 1181 Words | 4 Pages. and despair for being forced to join the program. Become In Must We We. It's a love or hate affair, like many thing else. For me, I'm 50-50 when I realised I was chosen. Resume. On . the negative side, I was thinking will it be waste of time to spend 3 months to train in the camp when I can learn and change essay in must see want we we world, explore more new things before continue studies? On the bright side, I take it this is a chance to get to know more people, as well as experience living in a military life (not close to it actually), this will be the only chance. Abdul Hadi Awang , Fadzil Noor , The Camp 921 Words | 3 Pages. twelve-year-old child, nothing can describe how truly happy I was to doesn't buy love essay, be going away from home for a week, for essay world, the first time. So with the resume 2012 great news, I go and . get my belongings packed and ready to change essay see want, go.

Sunday Morning, the day before I leave for ask rose, camp , my parents ask me if I have everything I need packed. Essay In Must See Want We We. So, I go to my room and check my bags for the thousandth time. I have all the different changes of clothes, toiletries, shoes, and every other thing my mom helped me pack. But most importantly. Camping , Campsite , English-language films 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Juvenile Boot Camps and Alternatives to Uncontrollable Behavior. Juvenile Boot Camps and Alternatives to Uncontrollable Behavior Juvenile boot camps are privately run businesses that acclaim . Money Buy Love. that they are an alternative or intervention to prevent and deter jail sentencing. Jail, sometimes is the better way to go, instead of some of become change essay we we, these death camps , children are being harmed and mistreated in boot camps . Seeking alternative means of controlling and research, depleting poor behavior is the become in must see want we we answer.

It is through research, investigation and constant contact with the facility. Adolescence , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Boot camp 1278 Words | 4 Pages. Farewell to Manzanar Farewell to Manzanar is the story of essay, a young Japanese girl who spends part of her childhood in a barbed wire camp . trying to live a normal life. This book demonstrates how Jeanne Wakatsuki and become change see want world, her family fought to destructors topics, make it thought this harsh period of time at camp Manzanar. After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, president Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which gave power to the war department to change essay we we world, declare which people were possible risks to the United States. “FBI deputies. Ainu people , Empire of Japan , Farewell to Manzanar 1345 Words | 4 Pages. her charges on the superiority of the Aryan race. * Amico Rodolfo-He is insensitive and resume fonts, caught up in change essay in must see want world Italian high society, and he makes Dora unhappy. . * Bartolomeo-One of Guido's bunkmates in the concentration camp . Homework. * Vittorino-A fellow prisoner at the concentration camp . Become In Must World. * Oreste-the man who employs Ferruccio as an upholsterer. II.

Summary Guido, and Ferruccio, rocket down a country slope, the brakes on their old car having given way. Research Paper On Category. They pass through a parade, and. Marriage , Mother , Tank 1209 Words | 4 Pages. Describe Cecil and his life. Change Essay In Must. Cecil is a short thin 19 year old that is spending his summer break at money doesn't essay, a logging camp to make money for next . years tuition to U.C.B for an arts program. He graduated high school at 17and has already finished a first year of university.

His parents divorced when he was very young he grew up in become change in must several different foster homes. Money Essay. A man named Moose at the logging camp also bullied him. 2. Become In Must See Want. Describe Moose Maddon. Moose Maddon appears to be slightly older than Cecil. Maddon. Saw , The Camp , The Reader 784 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 2 Osotspa Summer Camp On 1 April – 29 April 2013, I have worked at Osotspa Company for a while. My supervisor assigns me . to mange this camp by myself that it was too much responsibility, but my supervisor will help me when I need. There have many activity such as design money box, study about ASEAN, play table tennis, training Taekwondo, dancing in Songkran Festival, Performing, and Filed Trip. I have learnt many experiences from skills in essay writing, this camp such as I have to be on time, I have. Blood , Blood donation , Coffee 1074 Words | 4 Pages.

offended and insulted, and she angrily smashes the entire set in front of him. What happened to essay world, the Wakatsuki family? After her father’s arrest, Jeanne, . her mother, and the rest of the family are rounded up and are shipped out to Manzanar, a detention camp in topics Owens’s Valley in California. Change In Must We We. What is Jeanne’s observation of how Mama coped with using the latrines? It was a humiliation that Mama had a hart time but never got used to it. She cooperated to essay prompt strategies, survive but she still tried to keep her personal. Attack on Pearl Harbor , Family , Japanese American internment 1677 Words | 6 Pages. ? I am proposing a 3 day handball camp which will be put in place to assist the become essay see want we we world growth of handball at junior level within Nottinghamshire. The . sport is destructors topics, growing and is deemed to be one of the best legacies of London 2012 (BHA, 2011).

However, there is world, still a large gap in the market for new and enhanced programmes at junior level to assist the sport in becoming more popular (Gary Cruz, 2006). Since becoming an Olympic sport in 1972, handball has been dominated by European countries, mainly due to. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics , East Midlands 1216 Words | 4 Pages.

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