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Bachelor#8217;s Thesis: Building a Human Master. Expertise is a topical subject in our ever-changing society. This study set out to find what expertise means and how an individual’s expertise develops. How To A Eassy. As the spanish yourself, study of expertise comprises a large field of a eassy study, literary sources were based especially in The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. In literature, one is often faced with the estimation that one needs ten years of practise in order to become an expert at something. Essay Rabindranath 750 Words. I took it as a research question to find out if it is possible to become an expert in a shorter time with the right means, and write structured the thesis around this question.
I discussed the subject by approaching it from the topics persuasive speeches on, general directions that expertise has been studied from, and by analysing the requirements that expertise sets on the human memory. This thesis proposes that, based on its study material, expertise is developed through deliberate practise. The requirement of how to a eassy ten years of practise is a fairly accurate generalization, but not a requirement in to write persuasive on itself. The research material also leads one to conclude that the notion of “talent” that comes up in everyday language doesn’t imply that some individuals are inherently more suited to become experts in given fields due to their cognitive qualities. Expertise can be described as the qualities, skills and knowledge that separate experts from less experienced people. Depending on the field of study, there may be objective criteria available that experts may be identified with: master chess players usually defeat regular amateur players, and professional musicians can play musical pieces in how to write a more skilful, careful and elaborate way than less skilled musicians. [13, pp. 3].
In some fields of expertise, it may be difficult to writers, distinguish experts from how to laypeople. Often in such cases, researchers then depend on recommendations by established professionals of the field when looking for an expert on the subject. In these cases, however, it is not certain that the recommended expert could perform notably better than their recommender. On some fields of expertise, experts may end up often disagreeing with each other, and even give contradictory advice. [13, pp. 4]. Although it is fairly easy to define expertise, it seems to involve a social aspect, the importance of two types of essay which depends on how easy or difficult it is to measure the expertise in a field quantitatively. 1.1.2 Historical aspects in expertise. Expertise is an write a eassy important and pertinent subject of talk in our modern society.
During the Renaissance Era, a model human was a so-called uomo universale or a polymath, a person whose expertise spans a great number of different fields. Later, however, it was realized that even the most gifted and intelligent people alive never had the time to learn everything that they wanted to. Since that, the general trend has turned towards mastering just one or a few subjects. In a sense, the development there during the business plan in south africa, last few centuries is similar to what has happened in the industries: while a traditional blacksmith might have crafted a single item from start to how to write, finish by himself, the same item could nowadays be created from modules in factories. The new procedure doesn’t require one highly skilled individual who knows every single process during the creation of the item, but instead relies on several different workers knowing how to do just a few processes in the whole procedure.
In this way, expertise in domains of relatively limited scope is getting all the more important for essay french, the general efficiency of the modern society. How To Write. In the western civilization, there has throughout the history been a general interest in the unparalleled knowledge and skills that experts acquire as a result of their training. The special position provided by these knowledge and skills have been noted as early as in Ancient Greece. Speeches. Later, in the Middle Ages, artisans founded different guilds to defend themselves from competition, creating for themselves a monopoly for their products and write a eassy services with certain quality standards. [13, pp. 4]. The master-apprentice system that followed from this may be viewed as a precursor of the rising cost of college essay, way with which people today strive for expertise; today, the experts of tomorrow study under current experts in different schools and universities. The existence of experts has a clear financial value to write a eassy, the society, which makes the essay french, upholding and increasing of their number important. Write. Up to spanish yourself, now, the development in schooling in civilized countries has related to providing free education for the willing. In the longer run, it also seems necessary to study, what kind of education and teaching is the most effective, and a eassy which settings enable the development and mediation of expertise as effectively as possible. At the essay tagore, same time, the notion of the possibility of being able to write a eassy, become an expert at something depending on writers africa, one’s internal characteristics and qualities is quickly getting outdated.
Many studies have proved again and again that the most important factor in the creation of expertise is long periods of deliberate practise and the resulting experience [24, pp. 11]. A Eassy. Originally, the subject of this thesis was outlined as a general mapping of expertise as a phenomenon, using my personal skills and topics to write interest in how to write a eassy the board game of Go as an approach point. As the study of two types expertise in itself is an enormous field of research, the sources for how to, this study were decided to be based in essay rabindranath tagore The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. As I conducted my research, I found that a more specific research question would come in handy; I took it upon myself, then, to how to write, endeavour to find out how it would be possible to most effectively “build” a new master of Go. The reader may be interested in this study for yourself, two different reasons. If the reader is a player or researcher of skill-based games, this study may well give them new points of view. For players, the study may even give concrete advice on how one could develop their skills further, and on how one could conduct their training more effectively. For non-players, too, the study may have some merit, as it will describe through examples on a general level how one should strive for expertise.
When studying expertise, one is how to write a eassy often faced with the so-called ten-year rule. It is an topics to write on oft-repeated estimation that if one wants to gain the knowledge and skills required to become an expert at something, it will take them at least ten years to do so [24, pp. 12]. During my research, I strived to find out how to write, if one could reach the level of writers in south expertise faster than this, and if so, with what means. As it happens, exceptions to the ten-year rule exist in numbers. In the context of Go, players can be divided into amateurs, who are the usual everyday players, and professionals, who are players certified by the Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Taiwanese or the US Go Association.
A professional player, in a sense, has a secure job position at their national Go association. As very few amateur players reach the playing level of professionals, I see it justified to call professional Go players experts of Go. Of the current Japanese professional players, for example Fujisawa Rina passed the professional exam at the age of how to 11 years and six months, which means that at the time she became an “expert”, she had likely had only had six years of time to topics persuasive speeches, study the game seriously . The purpose of this study is to find what expertise means, and how it is born, primarily basing the scientific sources in The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and how to Expert Performance. These results are further applied in finding out business plan in south africa, what makes somebody a master of chess or the Chinese board game of Go. In the light of the results, I will contemplate whether it is possible to create a general guideline on how one could become an expert at something, and if it is possible to do so in less than ten years’ of time. In Chapter 2, I provide a short summary on the nature of chess and Go.
In Chapter 3, I present and how to review those approaches to essay yourself, the research on how to write, expertise which I found important to chess and two types Go. In Chapter 4, I venture to find out what expertise requires from the human memory, and what happens in the human brain during the development of expertise. In Chapter 5, I sketch out what an expert on chess or go should know and be able to do, and in light of how to a eassy chapters 3 and 4, assess the quickest path to essay 750 words, expertise in said games. Finally, in Chapter 6, I give a summary on my findings in the expertise on chess or Go on a more general level. Chess is nowadays a well-known game throughout the world, with a great number of players in the western countries. Generally, as well as in literature, chess is often profiled as a game played by especially smart people.
A single game of chess can be imagined to be an abstraction of a medieval battle between two armies. Compared to chess, Go is at the time of writing a relatively unknown game in the western countries, although its visibility has gradually increased by the 21 st century . Similar to chess, Go is a skill-based board game with no luck element. Also, similar to chess, the rules of Go are quick to write, learn, but the process of becoming a master takes years and years of time. If a game of chess represents a battle between two armies, a game of Go can be thought of as a war between two forces, consisting of spanish essay several smaller and larger battles in different parts of the game board. What is more, in Go, it is possible to win the war even if every battle is lost. In the context of this study, I presume that chess and Go are very similar games in terms of how to expertise, even though chess skills don’t directly correlate with Go skills . More recently, Go has received additional news coverage due to the fact, that stronger Go players still invariably defeat Go-playing AI.
In chess, this hasn’t been the case for well over ten years. Burmeister [5, pp. iii-iv] evaluates that the rising cost essay, brute-force calculating methods used by a eassy chess AI do not work in Go, because a Go player not only has to estimate the territories staked out by the players, but also has to see which stones on the board are dead and which alive. Additionally, the larger game board and the following vaster number of different game trees greatly slows down the rabindranath 750 words, AI’s calculations. According to Burmeister, the game of Go provides for a good field for AI research in planning, problem solving, pattern recognition and predicting the opponent’s actions. Also, similar to chess, Go also provides for a good base for the study of cognitive psychology. How To Write. Basic rules of Go and general strategy is presented in the attachment A. Chapter 3: Pertinent approaches to research on expertise in topics on chess and Go. 3.1 “Individual differences in cognitive capacity” Galton  noticed that on many domains of expertise in Great Britain, a significant portion of experts came from a small number of different families, far more often than would be likely by pure chance. From this observation, Galton proposed that inherent characteristics of write a eassy individuals affect the development of knowledge and skills. Later in to write on the 20 th century, however, it was proved my psychometric studies that there were no conclusive proof to Galton’s hypothesis, for the skills of experts were limited to the experts’ own domains. In 1996 Ericsson and a eassy Lehman noted, that: measures of cognitive capacity cannot be implemented to rising of college essay, predict if an individual will become an expert in some domain(1), experts’ knowledge and skills are limited to their own domain, with surprisingly few benefits outside of said domain, and.
In everyday language, there still exists a notion that some individuals are simply more gifted than others on certain domains, and that it is a eassy more or less predetermined on which domain an of essay individual could become an expert. This would imply that from birth, there are significant structural differences between different individuals’ brains. This subject has intrigued researchers for a long time, and how to especially in the recent history, different methods for measuring an individual’s intelligence have been developed. Cattell’s  g-factor is one of the better-known of these. In his study, Carroll  divided the concept of rabindranath tagore intelligence further into so-called fluid intelligence , Gf , and crystallized intelligence , Gc . Fluid intelligence stands for how to a eassy, an individual’s general power of reasoning, and topics persuasive speeches crystallized intelligence for knowledge that an individual has internalized for use in problem-solving. It is worth noting that crystallized intelligence is strongly culture-bound. Laboratory experiments have shown that while a fluidly intelligent person may at first learn new things quicker, fluid intelligence in itself is not a reliable indicator of the level of skill that an individual will reach [13, pp. 32]. In other words, the biology of an how to a eassy individual’s brains has a limited importance in the development of of essay expertise.
It is more important, for example, how interested the individual is in their domain, or how much time the individual ends up using practising. 3.2 “The development of constantly-utilized skills into expertise” Ericsson found [13, pp. 11] that already some 19 th century studies proposed that reaching an especially high level of skill is how to a eassy a natural consequence of broader experience in a domain. Ericsson refers to a research by Bryan and Harter in 1899, which argued that ten years’ worth of writers in south africa experience is necessary for an individual to become an how to expert telegrapher. This observation is consistent with what I wrote in Chapter 1.3, but from the context of Ericsson’s text, it looks like Bryan and Harter didn’t take into account the quality of practise; that, by being “exposed” to a ten years’ worth of experience, everybody could become an expert.
Later studies have consistently showed that when an individual reaches an acceptable level of essay 750 words skill for themselves, additional experience will then yield marginal utility [13, pp. How To A Eassy. 691]. It is for rabindranath tagore 750 words, example easy to how to write a eassy, find amateur Go players who have played tens of thousands of games, but still play at an intermediate level—and on the other hand, there also exist fast-improving players, who may be called skilful after they have only played a thousand games or so. It is clear that mere time expended in a domain is a bad measure of skill, as the utility of time is not always same. Historically, the general performance level of humans has been on a steady rise. Roger Bacon argued in the 13 th century, that by topics speeches using the studying methods of write that time, it would have been impossible to become an expert in mathematics in less than 30 years of time. Today, pretty much the same knowledge is taught to students by the end of high school. The reason to this enormous difference in the time required to learn is the fact, that the africa, study material is nowadays easier to access and how to write a eassy better structured for learning.
Even in essay 750 words domains which experience fewer changes in training methods, such as playing the piano, experts of today are able to do things previously thought impossible; expert pianists of today are able to how to a eassy, play pieces that were thought impossible to topics to write, even the best musicians of the how to, 19 th century. In the context of running, it was previously thought impossible to run a mile in spanish essay yourself less than four minutes. When Roger Bannister succeeded in this in 1954, his achievement was quickly duplicated by many other runners during the next few years. This quick change was attributable to how to, changes in practise methods. [13, pp. 690]. In the describing yourself, Berlin music academy, weekly tabs on how to a eassy, time usage of violin practitioners have been kept. Of Essay. One study remarked, that although practitioners spend roughly equal times for practise weekly, differences in skill were born. It was noticed, that the best violinists used more time weekly for activities that were deliberately engineered to better an individual’s playing of the how to, violin. This kind of activity is nowadays referred to as deliberate practise . [13, pp.
691]. Training methods are often engineered by the practitioner’s mentor, who means to improve certain aspects in the practitioner’s performance. Essay Tagore 750 Words. In Japanese Go schools, as well, deliberate practise is used. Common training consists of the playing of games, their post-analysis, reading of theory books, rote learning of played professional games, and solving of Go problems. How To A Eassy. Of these, the two last are not very obvious methods of training, but they are given a notably big weight. Rote learning of played professional games is thought to develop a player’s intuition: it increases the number of familiar shapes and sequences contained in a player’s memory, the shapes and spanish essay describing yourself sequences then becoming available to call out how to write a eassy, from the essay french, memory for use when needed.
Like so, rote learning is effective at improving a player’s global intuition of the write, Go board, while go problems—meaning situations in which a player is to make a group of Go stones to live or to die in a restricted space—improve a player’s intuition for local situations. The teacher of a Go school often fine-tunes the learning material, depending on the student’s phase of learning. 3.3 “Top-level performance facilitated by of essay favourable learning circumstances” In the second half of the 20 th century, expertise was studied as top-level performance that is write a eassy facilitated by favourable learning circumstances. Bloom  and his colleagues interviewed 120 internationally successful people about their parents, teachers and trainers. At the start of the project, the researchers presumed that the researched individuals would “have been identified as extremely gifted from the start, and essay french that they would have been given special teaching and care” [3, pp.
520]. Later, however, Bloom told an interviewer: “We were looking for exceptional children, but found exceptional circumstances” . Write. Sosniak  listed the main different types of cost of college essay favourable learning circumstances as the chance to learn, practical exercises and how to write an encouraging social background. Optimal circumstances often support deliberate practise, which according to Chapter 3.2 promotes the development of expertise. It is also possible that this positive effect of cost of college favourable learning circumstances on expertise played a role in the previously-presented Galton’s observation about a small number of Great Britain’s families providing for a large number of experts.
Even if said families did not have a significant genetic advantage compared to other families, it is write a eassy possible that the interests of parents were passed on essay french, to their children. On the how to a eassy, other hand, well-educated and/or rich parents will also more likely end up supporting their offspring at their interests, both spiritually and financially. Essay. 3.4 “Reliably repeatable first-class performance within the domain of expertise” It is difficult to study scientifically which factors led to success in how to write a single record performance or success story. Cost. Ericsson and how to Smith  proposed, that in order to study expertise with laboratory-level precision, it is necessary to find an exercise that captures the essence of a domain of expertise. A first-class runner, for example, repeatedly performs with excellence even in laboratory settings, indoors. De Groot , on the other hand, noticed that the skill at finding the best move in topics to write speeches a given chess board position is the best correlate for a player’s chess rating and success in how to write a eassy chess tournaments.
As per my presumption in Chapter 2 about chess and Go being games of similar nature, De Groot’s observation should apply for Go as well. The possibility of doing laboratory research is useful for research on expertise, as it also enables the evaluating of the level of performance of less-skilful individuals. Like so, it becomes possible to follow an individual’s progress, and by changing different controlled variables during the research, it is further possible to study which practise methods are effective. Some domains of expertise, such as chess and Go, are well fit for two types, laboratory research, while for example ice hockey, due to its large space requirements, is write a eassy clearly less well fit. Recalling back to essay french, Chapter 1.1, it was by a eassy laboratory researches such as these that it was found, that fame-based experts don’t always perform better than their recommenders [13, pp. 13].
3.5 Summary on the approaches to research on expertise. The approaches presented above make up but for a fraction of all the of essay, research that has been conducted on expertise up to recent date. How To Write A Eassy. As we can see from the presented approaches, already, expertise research is a large field that can be approached from many, largely varying points of view. The four approaches presented above provide for what I saw as important points of view for the research on expertise in chess and Go, and two types of essay research based on these approaches will be further applied in Chapter 5 of this thesis. 4.1 The importance of memory on expertise. The biggest difference between experts and beginners appears to be the fact, that an expert has assimilated such skills and knowledge specific to the domain which allow for their superior performance. Thus, the substance of expertise seems to be tied to human memory and the biology of human brains. How To A Eassy. The content presented in Chapter 3 could already be implemented to give recommendations on essay french, how to effectively become an expert in a eassy a given domain, but in order to provide for a more comprehensive understanding on the subject, I felt it important to also study the spanish describing yourself, changes that the development of expertise creates in the human brain. 4.2 Expertise and short-term memory. Write. One of the best-known phenomena in the context of expertise is that as the amount of practise and skills accumulate, an speeches on individual starts to cognitively organize available information in larger units .
This phenomenon has been widely documented, and it was first found in the study of write a eassy chess . In a famous experiment, top-level chess players and lower level players were shown a chess position for five seconds. After the five seconds, the player was to essay yourself, reconstruct the just seen game position. The top players were able to remember the place of almost every piece, while the how to, less-skilled players could only reconstruct about five pieces. Even a person who is unable to play chess could quite easily memorize the spanish essay describing yourself, position of five chess pieces for a short time. How To Write. The original, now fairly common explanation for the top players’ better performance in the aforementioned experiment has to do with a phenomenon referred to as chunking . With experience, a top player essentially builds a large database of differently-sized patterns of game pieces in their memory—these are called memory chunks . A top player will analyse a board situation by business plan in south utilizing these chunks, evaluating how they could interact, while a beginner player is only able to write, take into account several pieces at a time. When looking at a game situation, a top player will immediately notice many familiar units of essay french game pieces. When reconstructing a game position, a beginner might recall the how to a eassy, locations of cost essay six or seven different game pieces, which is nearing the limit of write human short-term memory, while a top player may recall six to seven memory chunks, which could easily translate to 23-25 pieces. [24, pp. 9]. In chess and essay french Go, chunking skills are based on the fact that both games include some fairly standard game piece patterns and how to write a eassy sequences, found optimal for both sides, which often see play.
When one gathers experience at a game, the to write, amount of learned game patterns and sequences likewise increases. For example, the first 30 moves of a eassy a 250-move game of essay tagore 750 words Go could well be played according to a relatively famous opening pattern, judged even by professional players. A Eassy. The existence of cost essay memory chunks could be practically proved by another, simple test. This time, top-level chess players and lower level players were shown a chess position for five seconds, but with randomly placed chess pieces. The top-level players weren’t now able to effectively utilize their memory chunks, and how to write could only recall the locations of a number of pieces similar to africa, the lower level players. [13, pp. 50]. These phenomena, first found in write studies of chess skills, were replicated many times over with different tests, both at chess and in different domains such as bridge, go and electronics. In most studies, it was exactly the size of memory chunks that became the key difference between beginners and experts. Both beginners and experts have similar limits in their short-term memory usage, but for example with beginner chess players this translates to only about five chess pieces, while with an expert player this could translate to up to 25 pieces. [13, pp.
50]. Simply the more effective usage of short-term memory alone isn’t enough to make for a master player; it has been estimated that an expert of chess or Go should know some 10000-100000 different game patterns [22, pp. 5]. Compared to this, five memory chunks stored in short-term memory has a relatively marginal weight. It is probable that a skilful player’s short-term memory chunking skills are developed at to write speeches on the same time when they build a larger database of different game patterns in their long-term memory. How To. “Knowledge” was defined as the key component in chess expertise as early as in the late 19 th century. Since then, many studies have been conducted on how information stored in a player’s memory turns into speeches playing skills. How To Write. Points of interest have been, for spanish describing, example, memorization of how to write static positions, memorization of moves and essay french move sequences, and the general structure and content of a eassy long-term memory. [13, pp. 526]. In the context of expertise in of essay chess and Go, it is especially interesting that master players choose their moves from a very small number of options. AI players have to how to write, evaluate hundreds or thousands of options, but for a human master player, the evaluation of a dozen or so promising-looking options is two types of essay most often enough. This is a consequence of the game patterns and move sequences that a master player has memorized.
The number of alternatives that a master player goes through was studied by following the write a eassy, eye movements of master players. [13, pp. 526-527]. Due to their extensive experience, a master player is two types able to compare seen game positions into a eassy previously-seen, already familiar positions, and can then pick a line of play that was previously found to be good, saving time in the process. Two Types Of Essay. Thanks to this quality, master players can for example play many games simultaneously, using little to no time for thinking their moves, and still perform with excellence. Compared to lower level players, master players are also able to analyse the game board in write larger pieces, thanks to their more developed chunking skills and larger database of memory chunks. When an individual develops their expertise, their knowledge and skills in the domain of expertise naturally grow, but they are also organized more effectively in relation to each other. The information system that results gives an expert a strong basis for choosing, organizing, presenting, manipulating and writers in south africa interpreting information. The more effective short-term memory that has developed alongside the development of expertise further supports the expert’s information-based reasoning.
The combination of these skills gives an expert effective tools for understanding the deeper structure of a problem situation. Like this, an expert is a eassy more able to understand the substantial interactions that comprise a problem situation than laypeople, and can come up with many effective solution formulae to the problem. [13, pp. 598-599]. As was described in Chapter 3.1, an essay french expert uses both fluid and crystallized intelligence when thinking of a solution to a problem. A beginner is only able to use their fluid intelligence, because they lack any fundamental experience from the how to a eassy, domain. As such, a beginner can only think of solutions to such aspects of a problem situation that are instantly seen. In chess and Go, a beginner player might be able to spanish describing, solve a very local situation correctly, but in terms of a larger picture it might still be the how to, wrong solution.
Further, through the combination of essay describing yourself fluid and crystallized intelligence, an expert is able to contemplate and analyse promising-looking directions of development even in problem situations new to the expert. How To A Eassy. [13, p. 599]. Spanish Describing. There seems to be a kind of memory related to expertise that cannot be directly compared to the usual short and long-term memory. Many researchers have conducted experiments on blind chess with such an arrangement, that the master player never gets to see the game board, but has to base their playing on memory alone. As the master player may have calculate through sequences 30 or 40 moves deep, it would seem like their brain is a eassy exceeding the theoretical maximum capacity of the human short-term memory. Ericsson and Kintsch  concluded from their research that the type of essay french memory that these experts used in the experiment has to differ from general short-term memory, and proposed to how to write a eassy, call it the “long-term working memory” (as opposed to mere long-term memory, or short-term memory, which is sometimes called working memory) or the “expert’s working memory”. Based on research, this expert’s working memory is located in the same part of the brain which also processes the short-term memory. [13, pp. 599-600]. An interesting part of the expert’s working memory is that it is not very prone to disturbances; for example an experienced driver of a car is able to essay french, give first-class performance even when conversing with their passengers. 4.5 On the size limit of a eassy memory chunks.
Since expertise is based on the effective storage and organization of information by describing yourself memory chunks in the human brain, I found it interesting to inspect the neurobiology of memory chunks a little bit further. I came up with the following questions: Is there a theoretical maximum to the size of memory chunks? Does the how to a eassy, maximum size of memory chunks depend on the individual? and If the maximum size mentioned in question 1 does exist, what is the size limit based on? One hypothesis relating to short-term memory is that it could only contain a specific, predetermined sum of concrete things. Brener  refuted this hypothesis in an experiment, in which it was shown that test subjects were able to remember more numbers than four-lettered words. A second hypothesis would be that the essay french, short-term memory could contain a constant amount of information in bits, as if the write a eassy, human brain worked similar to a computer. In a research conducted by topics to write Baddeley et al. , it was found that test subjects were able to remember easily-pronounceable words better than those difficult to how to, pronounce, without dependence on the actual information content represented by the word. This would imply that the “bit restriction” in the hypothesis cannot relate to the word’s textual form. Essay French. Based on how to a eassy, the research presented in Chapter 4.1, one may argue that the maximum capacity of the short-term memory is some constant number of memory chunks. In this case, the to write persuasive speeches on, problem becomes that the size of a memory chunk is extremely difficult to estimate or nail down by research. How To Write A Eassy. Schweicker and Boruff  again, similar to Baddeley et al., argued that the upper limit of the information contained in spanish describing the short-term memory is directly related to how quickly the memorized content is possible to articulate verbally.
The ease-of-articulation theory is supported by many, still-used memorizing tricks. An often suggested way to memorize things quickly is for example the write a eassy, visualization of an apartment inside one’s mind, adding imagined visual cues inside the rooms to persuasive on, remind of the thing which they represent. When a list of a eassy memorized things has to be called to mind at a later point, it is easier and quicker to go through an imagined stroll through the visualized apartment than to remember the words for the memorized things by topics speeches themselves. Already the Roman orator Cicero told a story of the Greek poet Simonides, who used a similar memorization technique [13, pp. 539]. The Japanese “expert” of recalling numbers, Ishihara, in turn could recall 2400 numbers in order with a notably small error margin. He used a speciality of the Japanese language, with which it is possible to connect a number to one or more syllables found in the Japanese language. Like so, he converted the numbers to word in his mind, and then connected the how to, words to essay french, imagined visualizations of 400 physical places that he knew. [13, pp 541]. When a beginner gets hands-on experience in a domain, it becomes easier and faster for them to memorize related information. For example the word combination “the stove is hot” is naturally more difficult for humans to remember than the visualization of the feeling of touching the hot stove.
The resulting feeling of pain quickly becomes a vivid impression in the mind, which can then be effortlessly called from memory when needed. The internalization of such impressions accelerates the use of an individual’s fluid memory and chunking skills, and further increases the maximal information content stored in memory chunks. Chapter 5: Expertise in chess and Go. 5.1 Measuring expertise in chess and Go. It is how to a eassy hard to measure the level of expertise of tagore 750 words a pianist, because out of two skilful players, it is difficult to say which is better, even when closely inspecting their play. As games, chess and Go give for an easier framework for measuring an individual’s expertise, because a single game of chess or Go usually leads in a single winner. While a single game can be prone to how to write a eassy, random changes in a player’s performance, for instance due to human psychology, when measuring winning percentages after a large number of played games it becomes possible to say with relative confidence which of the players is more skilful. In chess and Go, some rating point system is often used, the primary utility of which is to make it easier for players to topics to write speeches on, find opponents of a suitable level.
Often, the used rating system is based on the estimation of winning percentages; for example, it might have been defined that a player of 1000 rating points will defeat a player of 900 rating points in 75% of how to write their games. After this anchoring has been made, it becomes possible to rank other players with similar logic, analysing statistics of the game results. When a player plays in a tournament, their rating points will change depending on their results by rising cost essay some formula—wins resulting in gained rating points and losses resulting in a eassy lost rating points. Of course, most used rating point systems are generally somewhat more complex still. . Two Types Of Essay. The rating microcosm created by a rating point system more or less ranks the players in order by their skills, with more reliability when more tournament games are used as an input. The ranking system in itself cannot define an “expert”, but depending on the circumstances, it could be justified to for example call the best 1% of the players as experts. As, according to how to, Chapter 1.1, a social aspect is involved in expertise, it isn’t unheard of that in a geographically secluded area, a local player who might only belong to the upper middle class worldwide might be called an expert. Two Types Of Essay. In the context of go, in Asia and the United States there are certified professional players who are qualified in annually held professional examinations. Because the players participating in how to write a eassy the examinations on average come from the very top spectrum of amateur players, and because very few players end up qualifying to become professionals, it is justified to topics persuasive speeches on, call professional go players experts in how to write a eassy the game. Topics To Write Persuasive On. Worldwide, there are just about a thousand professional players, over 400 of which are Japanese .
Professional players generally play in different tournaments from amateur players, and they are ranked by playing skill with a different system from amateurs. Beginning professionals are ranked 1 Dan, and as they accumulate wins in tournament games, they may eventually reach the highest rank, 9 Dan. In Asia, there also exist annually held title tournaments, the winners of which receive hundreds of thousands of euro as prize money. Title holders are commonly thought of how to write a eassy as the most skilful current players. There are several notably interesting features relating to expertise in chess and Go.
It is not uncommon at all to find a board position that will strongly divide the opinions of top players. Especially in essay rabindranath 750 words the case of Go, however, this can be understandable when taking into account the relatively large game board; also, as there is no one clear way to winning the game, many notably different game strategies can turn out to how to write a eassy, be effective. On the other hand, it is two types also easy to find game situations in which the vast majority of professional players would pick exactly one “correct move”, which however might not be found by the majority of amateur players. As another interesting feature, the career of a professional player often continues until relatively old age. How To A Eassy. For example in Japan, it is not rare for young professional, who has been recently performing exceedingly well in tournaments, to go to an older, less-well-performing professional’s school to study. In this fashion, when looking for a master player among top professionals, it may still be necessary to trust in the recommendations and evaluations of the top players themselves. As a summary from the information above, we can piece together the following features in the expertise in chess and Go. Crystallized intelligence is vital in spanish essay describing becoming a skilled player. Crystallized intelligence alone is not enough for finding the best way of play in all game situations.
Game performance is write influenced by random factors in singular performances; more reliability in the observations can be reached by essay analysing a larger sample of game results. Personal factors, such as old age or bad physical or cognitive health, may negatively affect game performance, but even then, the individual’s expertise may be viewed by others as that of the highest calibre. While an individual’s playing skills may be measured quantitatively, the how to write, social aspect of expertise never disappears completely. 5.2 On the chess and Go skills required for expertise. The process of learning to play chess or Go can be well paralleled to essay french, that of learning a new language.
In order to write, be able to fluently communicate with a language, an individual has to be able to create coherent sentences. In order to create sentences, an individual has to have an adequate vocabulary, and for that, he has to learn the writing characters (usually, the alphabet). One could think that the alphabet of a language parallels the 750 words, simplest operations based on the rules of chess and Go, such as the how to a eassy, way that chess pieces move around with on the board. Words can be paralleled to basic tactics and sentences to topics to write on, strategies: tactics consist of smaller operations, and strategies consist of tactics. Write A Eassy. A player skilled in the game has to know the different operations used in the game, and to be able to compose effective tactics and strategies out of two types them. An initiate player starts their learning from operations, after which they move on to tactics and strategies; first starting from simple tactics, then continuing to simple strategies consisting of how to write a eassy simple tactics, then to more complicated tactics, and so forth.
Also referring to Chapter 4.4, this kind of an iteration is necessary to get the game mechanics rooted in the player’s long-term memory, in more effective form than a simple rote learned phrase. For example, it is spanish essay not uncommon for how to write a eassy, a player to several times test out a new move in a particular local situation on the game board; if the business plan writers in south, move always yields a bad result, the player would soon develop a strong negative association to the move, which would likely result in them abolishing the move as an how to write option. Operations, tactics and topics to write strategies form the knowledge base of how to write chess and Go skills. Cost Of College. Good playing skills are based on a strong knowledge base, but don’t solely depend on it. Other essential qualities are the player’s general fluid intelligence and power of reasoning, the player’s short-term memory capacity, the speed with which the player can retrieve content from how to write their long-term memory, visual processing and pattern recognition skills and essay rabindranath tagore 750 words the player’s ability to concentrate. [13, pp.
590]. It is notable that while the required qualities are largely dependent on the individual’s cognitive characteristics, for how to write, example the individual’s diet and general well-being have a strong impact on their level of performance [27, pp. 6]. 5.3 On reaching the skills required for expertise in rising cost of college essay chess and Go. As in most domains, with chess and Go, too, an individual has to write, invest a lot of time and effort in order to reach a level of two types of essay expertise.
The approximate required time of ten years, suggested in Chapter 1.3, seems to be more or less of the correct magnitude, when looking at how much time most professional players had to use studying before they turned professional . Deliberate practise is generally accepted and write reliably proven to be one of the most efficient means to learn new skills [13, pp. 601]. As was mentioned in Chapter 3, simple additional experience may not help at all at learning new skills or at improving one’s playing level. In deliberate practise, it is essential that the practise be done in a concentrated mind set, that it be regulated and business plan monitored, and that it involves immediate feedback of the individual’s performance. The feedback may come from a third-party evaluator, or the practiser may provide it for himself, for how to, example by comparing one’s performance to expert performance in a similar situation. In deliberate practise, an individual is given goals and aims that are above his current performance level, and of college essay while the individual strives for these, failures and lower-level performance may result on a shorter time span.
Individuals striving for expertise may, indeed, see these failures as opportunities to improve. [13, pp 601]. In other words, the crucial factor becomes that the individual actively and constantly strives to improve, and doesn’t end up merely “accumulating more experience” [9, pp. 163]. Quantity doesn’t make up for quality at deliberate practise, either: it has been noted that even when looking at very different domains of expertise, experts usually train for only 4-5 hours a day on average. Too much practise may, depending on the domain, lead to write a eassy, practise injuries or so-called “burnout”. [13, pp. 699]. Currently, it cannot be said with certainty what kind of essay french deliberate practise is the most efficient, and how quickly one could theoretically become an expert in chess or Go [9, pp. 163]. The research reviewed by this thesis clearly leads one to believe, however, that the key lies in deliberate practise, one way or another. This is in how to a way also proven by the fact that more than 99% of all the professional Go players (or players of similar skill) in the world are Asian, even though the number of western players is by no means small. The greater number of Asian professional Go players is backed up by the fact that Go has a longer history in Asia, and essay yourself that apart from the newly-founded US professional Go players’ initiative, all professional Go associations have also been located in Asia .
Today, too, Japan, China, Korea and how to Taiwan have a vastly superior number of serious Go schools than the western countries. Essay French. Research leads one to believe that it is possible to reach expertise without outside help. In this case, however, the individual has to make sure by themselves that they have the right tools for practise. In terms of chess or Go, this means the possibility to play games, to review them (preferably with the opponent or other third parties), and access to different theory books, games played by how to current and former experts, and chess and Go problems. Even when all these factors are accounted for, the individual has to be careful about the relative contents of their practise. Getting instruction from a current expert is definitely the easier solution for two types, the student, as by so doing the student delegates the preparation of study material to the expert, and can themselves fully concentrate on the actual practise.
With this procedure, the student has the additional advantage of how to write having a third party who will actively monitor their improvement, and give additional guidance and coaching if necessary. The ten-year rule presented at the beginning of this thesis is a fitting, if not perfectly accurate description of what is required in order to become an expert. The fact is that that the process of developing the skills required of an expert eats up a big amount of practise time, which has also been estimated at around 10000 hours [13, pp. 692]. Just 10000 hours of practise in itself doesn’t guarantee expertise, however, but the used time also has to be efficient. As was presented in Chapters 1.1.3 and 3.1, there are no meaningful cognitive differences between normal individuals that would affect the possibility of becoming an plan in south expert at something. Write. Based on the research that has been made, it is essay rabindranath tagore 750 words safe to how to write a eassy, assume that the amount of practise is by far the most important factor in the development of expertise. In this sense, the notion of essay 750 words “talent” so often mentioned in how to write a eassy everyday language is essay french something of a misleading term. In a sense, though, it is possible to interpret as talent the fact, that an individual would be very interested in a domain, and ready to spend a lot of time and effort while practising at it. While expertise in one domain doesn’t correlate with the write a eassy, individual’s skills in another domain, many domains of expertise have many similar characteristics in terms of their required practise.
Referring to Chapter 5.3, just having access to the necessary information in essay rabindranath tagore 750 words a domain does not guarantee learning, but even with that, the trainee has to how to, actively and constantly aim to improve their skills. Persuasive Speeches On. Whichever means are the most optimal to study the necessary information content seems to depend on the domain of expertise, but in all cases it is important that the write, individual be able to effectively assimilate the cost of college, content that is important in write a eassy the domain. Becoming an expert by one’s own means is possible, but the more popular, and essay french assumedly easier way for write a eassy, the student, is to study under an accomplished current expert. The material assessed in this thesis leads one to believe that the development of expertise requires a big amount of deliberate practise. For the human society, it is better the faster it is possible to train new experts, which makes research in this field important in cost the future as well. For this, the quote from Roger Bacon that was presented in Chapter 3.2 brings up an interesting theme.
The information content that required 30 years to learn in the 13 th century is how to write a eassy nowadays presented so, that most high schoolers have learned it in 12 years. In other words, by developing the teaching methods, it is possible to considerably reduce the amount of time required for becoming an expert, and like this, the standards of expertise may notably change by time. Business Plan. When thinking of the a eassy, future, it is rising cost not hard to see the system of write a eassy higher education being renewed so as to enable the more effective development of expertise even during one’s period of education. Currently, university studies provide for students big amounts of information from a wide spectrum of domains, which however is not enough for the development of any kind of essay french expertise. Like this, a university student will get to develop their expertise only after they have finished their studies and got employed. A more effective procedure for the society as a whole, and a theme that arouses a lot of write discussion even today, is more effectively directed studies in relation to the domain that a student will end up getting employed in. Attachment A: The basics of business writers africa Go, and how a skilful Go player perceives the game board and decides on their move. Go is played on a game board of 19 horizontal and vertical lines, depicted in figure A.1. In addition to the lines, the board contains nine small dots placed at specific intersections, called stars.
The stars have no game-mechanical function, and how to write a eassy merely make it easier to describing, perceive the board. One of the players has black, the other white game pieces, called stones. The players take turns placing a single stone at one of the board’s empty intersections until neither of the players wants to continue. The black player starts. Figure A.1: Empty game board. The aim of the game is to by using one’s stones surround a bigger number of empty intersections than the opponent: in other words, at the end of the game, to control over 50% of the game board’s area (including the write, stones a player has on the board and two types the empty intersections surrounded by the stones). Depicted in figure A.2 is a simplified end position of how to a game played on a board of topics to write 9 horizontal and vertical lines, when both players have just passed their move turn, signalling that they no longer want to continue the game. Black has surrounded a territory of 31 empty intersections and white a territory of 30: we say that black wins the game by one point.
Figure A.2: A possible ending position. If a stone gets surrounded from all sides by opposing stones, so that it is no longer connected to a single empty intersection on the board, the stone is removed from the board and moved to the capturing player’s bowl of captured stones. How To A Eassy. A stone’s connection to an empty intersection is called a liberty. Stones of the same colour that are horizontally or vertically next to each other form a single unit: in order to capture a unit, one has to fill all the business plan writers africa, liberties of every stone of the unit with one’s stones. In figure A.3a, triangles depict the liberties of three different black units. Depicted in figure A.3b is how the how to write a eassy, game board would look like if white got to capture all the black stones. Each captured stone is worth one point at the end of the game.
Theoretically, then, it could be possible to win the game simply by capturing the of college essay, opponent’s stones, but this practically never happens. Figure A.3a: Liberties of different-sized stone units Figure A.3b: Board position after the black stones get captured. The only limitation to the moves that a player makes is that a player may not place a stone in such a place where it would immediately become captured. In figure A.4a, white could not play at A, because the stone would get immediately captured by black. The intersection marked with A is called an eye of the how to write a eassy, black unit. To Write Speeches On. A little exceptionally, however, white could play at B, in how to which case the black stones would get removed from the board. From this capturing rule, one of the most characteristic features of Go is born. In figure A.4b there are two black units that may never be captured. The unit on the left side has formed two separate eyes, in neither of which white can play; in order to capture the black stones, white would somehow have to be able to place two stones at one time, which is impossible.
The unit on the upper side of the board only has one eye of four intersections, but at any given time, black is able to business writers africa, play at either A or B in order to write, divide the large eye into two smaller eyes, and white is not able to prevent this—again, white would need two stones at one time. Figure A.4a: One-eyed stone units Figure A.4b: Two-eyed stone units. The surrounding of territories consisting of empty intersections, and the life and business plan in south death of groups of stones comprise the how to write a eassy, core of Go strategy. In Figure A.5a is rabindranath 750 words a game position from a game played by two professional players. How To A Eassy. When thinking of the next move, a player should contemplate how he could surround the biggest amount of rabindranath tagore additional territory with the least amount of stones—but at the same time the player has to assess which stones on the board are alive, which are dead, which are strong and which are weak. The strength and weakness of stones correlates with how easily a unit is able to form itself two eyes. The survival of every stone is a eassy not required for the winning of the game, however; indeed, sacrifice strategies are often employed. In figure A.5b, I have sketched out how a Go player might assess the previous game position in their head.
The sectors marked with yellow quite surely end up as the white player’s territory, while the sectors marked with blue may end up as the black player’s territory (however less confidently than the yellow-marked sectors). At the centre of the essay rabindranath, board, in the sector marked with red there is currently a conflict, where two white stones have become seemingly surrounded by black stones. In the close future, these stones will probably attempt to flee the black oppression or try to form two eyes. Figure A.5a: Game position from a professional game Figure A.5b: Assessing the how to a eassy, board position. In Figures A.6a and A.6b it is depicted what kind of short-timespan calculations a skilful Go player might perform during a game. In figure A.6a it is identifiable that the black group of stones marked with A are in danger of dying because they are surrounded by white stones and are unable to form themselves two eyes. In this position, however, black has a way out, because the white stones surrounding the black stones are positioned poorly. A skilful player would probably find the 17-move sequence presented in figure A.6b, be able to double-check beforehand that it definitively works, and then play it through. As a result, the white stones at essay french the centre of the figure get captured. If white player was as skilful as black, she would likely not play at 2 at all, because she could see that black has already escaped.
Figure A.6a: Raw calculation of move sequences, part 1 Figure A.6b: Raw calculation of move sequences, part 2. In figure A.7 we have a more interesting-looking ending position of a game played on a 9?9 board. At A, one black stone has been removed and moved to white’s bowl of how to write a eassy captured stones. Both players have one stone on topics speeches, the board that is surrounded by the opponent’s stones (white at B, black at C), but both players feel that they are not able to save their stone (there is not enough space to form two eyes in). If both players pass at their next move turn, the game will enter the scoring phase, in which stones accepted as not possible to save get removed from the board. If the players disagree at this, the situation is played out. How To A Eassy. In this game, black has 30 surrounded intersections and one prisoner, while white has 26 surrounded intersections and two prisoners. Describing. In other words, black wins the game by three points. Figure A.7: A possible ending position, part two. The description up to here comprises most of the rules of Go, and the few unaccounted-for features of the game are a natural consequence of the already-presented rules. A few exceptions in the rules that come up in the game were not discussed in this presentation, such as the prohibition of repeating an earlier game position.  P. L. Ackerman.
A theory of adult intellectual development: Personality, interests, and how to knowledge. Intelligence, 22:227–257, 1996.  A. Rising Cost Of College. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, and M. Buchanan. Word-length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14:575–589, 1975.  B. S. Bloom. The role of gifts and markers in the development of talent. Exceptional Children, 48(6):510–521, 1982.  R. Brener. An experimental investigation of memory span.
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26(5):467–482, 1940.  J. M. Burmeister. Studies in write a eassy Human and Computer Go: Assessing the Game of Go as a Research Domain for Cognitive Science. PhD thesis, The University of Queensland, School of cost essay Computer Science and Electrical Engineering and School of Psychology, 2000.  B. Carlson. Exceptional conditions, not exceptional talent, produce high achievers. How To Write. The University of Chicago Magazine, 78(1):18–19, 49, 1985. Business Plan Writers In South Africa.  J. B. Carroll. Human cognitive abilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.  R. B. Cattell. Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action. Oxford: Houghton Mifflin, 1971.  N. Charness. The Role of Deliberate Practice in Chess Expertise.
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19:151–165, 2005.  W. Write A Eassy. G. Chase and H. A. Simon. Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4:55–81, 1973.  China Daily. Way to go. http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/weekly/2012-04/27/content_15162240.htm, April 2012. [online] [Accessed 18.11.2012].  European Go Database. EGF rating system. http://www.europeangodatabase.eu/EGD/EGF_rating_system.php, 2012. [online] [Accessed 11.11.2012].  K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, and R. R. Hoffman. The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.  K. A. Ericsson and W. Kintsch. Long-term working memory. Business Plan In South. Psychological Review, 105:211–245, 1995.  K. A. Ericsson and J. Smith.
Prospects and limits in the empirical study of expertise: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.  Sir F. Galton. Hereditary genius: an inquiry into its laws and consequences. London: Macmillan and co., 1869.  R. Glaser and M. T. H. Chi. Overview.
In The nature of expertise, pages xv–xxviii. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988.  The American Go Association. AGA Professional System. http://www.usgo.org/aga-professional-system, 2012. [online] [Accessed 18.11.2012]. How To.  The Japanese Go Association Nihon Ki-in. List of professional players. http://www.nihonkiin.or.jp/player/index.html, 2012. [online] [Accessed 11.11.2012].  The Japanese Go Association Nihon Ki-in. Fujisawa Rina. http://www.nihonkiin.or.jp/player/htm/ki000434.htm, 2012. [online] [Accessed 21.10.2012].  F. Gobet and H. A. Simon. Recall of rapidly presented random chess positions is a function of skill.
Memory Cognition, 24:493–503, 1996.  F. Gobet and to write persuasive on H. A. Simon. Expert chess memory: Revisiting the chunking hypothesis. Memory, 6(3):225–255, 1998.  A. De Groot. Though and choice in chess. The Hague, the Netherlands: Mouton, 1978.  H. B. Richman, F. G. Gobet, J. J. Staszewski, and H. A. Simon. Perceptual and Memory Processes in the Acquisition of Expert Performance: The EPAM Model. How To A Eassy. Complex Information Processing Working Paper, 528, 1995.  R. Schweickert and B. Boruff. Short-Term Memory Capacity: Magic Number or Magic Spell? Journal of rising cost Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12(3):419–425, 1986.  L. A. Sosniak.
Developing talent: Time, task and context. In Handbook of gifted education, pages 247–253. New York: Allyn Bacon, 2003.  R. Write A Eassy. Uauy and D. A. Dangour. Nutrition in Brain Development and Aging: Role of of essay Essential Fatty Acids. Nutrition reviews, 2006. Ackerman  writes that while adults might do badly in different intelligence tests, they still perform well at their work and hobbies.
This notion has further led to some researchers trying to expand the concept of intelligence further from conventional intelligence quotient tests, to span things such as practical or emotional intelligence, wisdom and so on. 5 thoughts on “Bachelor#8217;s Thesis: Building a Human Master” This is an interesting post and food for thought! Thank you for making it available. Write A Eassy. Unfortunately, when I access it, however, only the first footnote is accessible. Could you please post all the footnotes or reset the presentation of the thesis to allow readers to consult the footnotes? The essay is still missing a few parts such as the abstract, table of contents, summary chapter, attachments and the list of scientific sources—worry not, I#8217;ll add all of these in topics persuasive due time!
I was thrilled when I learnt that you had taken on the assignment of how to write researching expertise, from the experience of trying to become a Go expert yourself, in shifting conditions from being part of a Go school to all by yourself, or perhaps as part of cost of college a Finnish Go school. My appetite remains largely the same after reading your thesis. How To Write A Eassy. You have indeed confirmed or repeated claims about innate ability versus training, touched upon the importance of being motivated and highlighted the concept of topics deliberate practice. However you seem to have deliberately left out the how to a eassy, actual aspects of Go expertise that are or should be stressed, so that we as Go players could have compared it to what we do for practice, or what we think to know and persuasive be the regime of pros. From this decision not to treat the subject in concrete detail, it remains hard to discern what sort of investment can bypass the #8220;ten year rule#8221; at how to write an abstract level. In particular, the concept of #8220;deliberate practice#8221; is only scarcely explored, in paragraph 2 of section 5.3, which makes it the most interesting and bold part of the thesis. Perhaps this is a first step into business in south a deeper reflection on how to, improvement and essay french specific aspects of improvement in Go, to which I will be looking forward. Indeed, I neither am very content with the level of depth that the thesis could cover in the end.
As my only defense, I can say that there was little chance to do more: in my university, the Bachelor#8217;s thesis is supposed to be a fairly restricted literary research, with the bulk spanning at most about write a eassy 25 pages. Perhaps, if the opportunity arrives, I may do a deeper research onto the subject in my Master#8217;s thesis in the future! Very well understood and of course we#8217;re happy you#8217;re writing for the crowds. Noblesse oblige, as they say in French.
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Why No One Will Hire You: 40 Professionals Give Advice on Improving a Technical Writer's Resume [Collaborative Post] Is my resume so awful that no one will hire me? I mean, I'd been laid-off so long it's pitiful really. I opened up this question up to my friends on Twitter and to how to, those who follow my blog. Spanish Describing Yourself! About 40 professional technical writers responded with all kinds of resume advice. The overall trend in the responses is for the writer to add more detail to his resume, to expand on how to a eassy, his education, tools, online presence, contribution to cost of college, the bottom line, samples, and write a eassy other specifics. They suggested that he fill in gaps with experience, even volunteer projects, that he be more consistent and flawless in his language and grammar, and that he dress up the two types, visual design of his resume.
Most of all, they said to a eassy, never, ever mention poetry. Thanks for all the feedback. Best of luck Herbert in getting a job. Let us know when you get it! I see no impact on the bottom line of the company - he doesn't talk about how he reduced the support costs by X or improved customer satisfaction by Y or anything that speaks to the business of the two types of essay, company. Write A Eassy! It's important to 750 words, show that you understand the how to a eassy, business climate you work in in south africa, and how what we do impacts that.
The world doesn't need that many shut-up-and-write writers. Additionally, I see nothing he specializes in that I can't get from 100 other writers. How To A Eassy! I'm sure he's got it, I just don't see it here. [sharon burton] It suffers from bulletpoint-itis. Essay Rabindranath 750 Words! From the write a eassy, first sentence onwards, it would be better if it were written as proper English sentences, in active voice: with subject, verb, adjectives even. Experienced in writing telecom documentation, survey questions, research reports, and poetry. Poetry when mentioned as a hobby = a person who loves writing, would do well in a career in tagore, writing. :) Poetry when mentioned in a list of work skills = nutter :( If you are applying for a job as a technical writer, then emphasise those skills. The other skills are merely nice to a eassy, haves.
You want to be seen as an expert who is business africa also flexible, rather than a jack of how to all trades. Recommend adding a new section in two types, which you list your “hard” and “soft” skills. Hard skills are the computer-based tools you know how to use productively. Soft skills are knowledge-based skills like SME interviewing, work/project planning, checklist creation, style sheet creation (including experience with specific style guides and authoritative references), review process, and other relevant training you've received (indexing, Information Mapping methodology, etc.). Within each item of your resume's Work Experience section, mention in a concise way how you used your hard and soft skills to accomplish work having measurable benefits to how to write a eassy, your publications team and topics speeches on larger organization. “Well versed in copyediting, transcription/editing of interviews, and proofreading, most recently as assistant editor for write a business periodical. Strong technical command of the English language Competent researcher” Tell us more! Sell the sizzle, not the sausage. Give us examples. You don't say if you are good at writing, getting a project completed on essay french, time, how you get on how to write a eassy, with people in a team, whether you are reliable, imaginative, a leader, a follower, a pain in the backside etc.
Your work experience. Even if you haven't had the to write persuasive speeches on, job title technical writer or copywriter etc, you need to demonstrate you were doing that task, even if it was only occasionally. In your most recent role, Junior Statistician – N.C.C.U., Durham, N.C. Created website for Student Alcohol Use Surveys.
Edited, rewrote, and proofread all survey questions. Worked with various departments to publish results online. It tells me you wrote surveys. It doesn't tell me anything about your writing anything more than creating a form. Write! Did you write a report on the results of the survey? If you don't have the right experience, then get it: volunteer to to write speeches, write a document for a local charity or get involved in an Open Source project, if you have to. You won't get paid, but you will acquire the right experience and skills to how to write a eassy, add to your Resume. I echo a few of the rabindranath, sentiments so far. How To A Eassy! I see 10 years of experience, but I don't see a personality or any accomplishments.
What has Mr. Thornton done other than filling a seat? I'm certain that there really has been something, but it's not showing anywhere. Plan! (When I got to the end of the resume, I said “That's it?”) There is nothing about this resume that tells me anything about the how to, person except that they worked for 10 years in the industry. I'd like to see a resume that sells me on the person's qualifications and accomplishments, something that answers the question “Why do I want to two types of essay, hire you today?” I would focus on this. I agree with the following poster, btw: I just revamped my resume and I had a lot of help from an outside source. As we have a recruitment agency service for technical authors in the UK, we get to how to write, see a lot of Resumes. These days, people tend to read Resumes on screen rather than on paper, so I think the old advice of 2 pages and spanish yourself no more, is less relevant. Write! I think you can go to 3, even 4 pages if pushed. It's really hard to write your own Resume, and you may need help in essay french, getting it written. That doesn't necessarily mean paying for a Resume writer to write a eassy, write it for you, but you might see if you can look at in south africa examples of good Resumes and take ideas from those . and write ask someone you trust to on, help you to write your Resume.
Recruiters are looking for write evidence of, in this order: 1. Good writing skills. 2. Good time management skills (you can deliver on essay tagore 750 words, time) 3. A Eassy! You can fit in two types of essay, with the culture of the business. 4. Good domain knowledge. 5. Write A Eassy! Knowledge of particular software tools. This is their checklist, so make sure you cover all of of essay these on how to write a eassy, your Resume. State you have each one. This is essay french probably not a Resume of how to write someone who has no skills or experience, it's more one of someone who is hiding their light under a bushel. //Created website for Student Alcohol Use Surveys//
Where is that website address. Business! An online reference is always appreciated. Your works will speak for you. I agree with Ellis' detailed comments. The larger agencies tend to search for candidates using computers - key word search of how to a eassy their database. So if your Resume doesn't contain those key words (like “Technical Writer”), it may never make it to spanish essay yourself, the point where someone actually reads it. A Eassy! Don't go mad on key words, though - they can make it hard for a human being to read a Resume. - For online reading, you should ditch the “old fashioned” Times New Roman font and use a sans serif font (such as Arial) instead. - You should make your email address a hyperlink, so with one click the topics speeches on, reader can email you. How To! :) - If you have a LinkedIn profile, you should list it. Of course, your LinkedIn profile should be complete (including having recommendations, contacts, etc).
- I'd put the Education section after the Professional Experience, since it is two types of essay secondary in importance at this stage of your career (not to mention being not so relevant to your focus). - Under Computer Skills, you should indicate which versions of the tools you have experience with (for example, FrameMaker 6.0 or 9.0). - Under Professional Experience, you should have hyperlinks to write a eassy, the organizations' websites. Also in this section, be consistent with your punctuation. Some lines end with periods, while some do not. Business Plan Writers Africa! Technical writers notice these sort of write a eassy things! ;)
[Gil Vinokoor @vinokoor on Twitter] Fonts and layout are often a matter of personal taste. They also differ between countries. Essay! There's more than one way to present a Resume. Personally, I prefer Times New Roman (or Georgia) to Arial. We're not talking about write, a huge document, and most other Resumes are in a serif font. Please excuse my bad English, I'm Swiss:
I'm in a Management Position in Technical Documentation since 10 years, so I saw many CVs and spanish essay hired a few people. How To Write A Eassy! So, here are my thoughts to this CV: First thought: Not enough “Meat on the Bone”. Means, there must be more to say after 10 years of work In the of essay, summary, you are not specialized enough. How To Write! What I mean is, that you need to rewrite this part for every job you apply for and adapt it to the exact demands of the job. For example, if I look for essay french a Technical Writer, I don't want to have a Poet! It's not same kind of writing. What I miss are also courses and write a eassy training, you have done in essay, the last 10 years. If the only education you have is a B.A. and write a eassy since then nothing more, I would not even invite you to an interview! Technical writers have to learn new stuff all the time. Cost! Professional Experience: If you worked a few years in a company, I think there is how to a eassy more to tell, than just 3 bullet points.
Write it in two, three sentences. Rabindranath Tagore 750 Words! Computer skills: Better call them Professional skills, then as a Technical Writer, you use more than Tools. Personally I don't care, what version of a software you know. If you know to work with FrameMaker 7, then changing to FrameMaker 9 will be done within a day. What is more important, is how good you know the tool. Let's take FrameMaker as an example: You can just be familiar with the unstructured version as a “normal” author or you can be the expert who can write EDDs. How To! This is of essay why this is important to me. Also mention which techniques you know: Do you know DITA, Information Mapping or other techniques to structure information? That's important stuff to know. And the other guy who gets invited to the interview writes all that stuff down. Soft skills are missing: Bring them.
Hobbies: I don't know how it is in how to write a eassy, the US, but I like to to write persuasive, know a bit more about the person. How To Write A Eassy! And telling me about your hobbies will help me to “feel” if you will fit into the team. It also tells me, if this person is likely to have a good life-work-balance. I hope this helps you. This is a minor point, but possibly a deal breaker for essay french someone looking for an experienced writer. Write! The use of periods (full-stops) at the end of bullet points are inconsistent. So is the spacing between the listed computer skills. I have no hiring experience myself, but I do know that a lot of essay 750 words managers in write, India might see this as a lack of attention to essay french, detail.
I have to agree with some of the how to write a eassy, other commenters about the lack of impact his work had on the company or the spanish describing yourself, department. Also the idea of write a eassy hyperlinks in the resume is spanish a good idea, although I find that many hiring managers print resumes off before reading them. And he'll need to a eassy, beef up the section on his technical skills. One piece of advice: think about paying a little money to of essay, have a resume coach redo the write, resume. There's no shame in admitting that your resume writing skills aren't great (even if you're a writer), and the money spent on a coach is well worth it. You know what you are? You're a technical writer with a strong background in user research! Focus on that while you are applying the useful advice the others have given you. Topics To Write On! Hang in there :-)
I'm going through the process of reading and interviewing right now (sorry, not for a technical writer). I've seen a wide variety of resume in the last month. It seems to me that the resume is how to write a eassy distilled to such a high level it feels ethereal. You get no sense of personal history -- accomplishments, responsibilities and the like. To me it doesn't feel like a person. It feels more like I'm looking at a grocery list.
Some ideas I just jotted as I reviewed your resume:: Think about expanding your search. You mention “Writer/Editor responsibilities with a documentation firm, book publisher, or educational software firm.” in your career focus, which is very concrete, but is also very narrow. Think about including non-educational software firms, marketing research groups (to match with your usability testing experience) or even Government! Being more open to other industries will open more doors. Look in unexpected places. I would move the authoring tools further up in your resume. Highlight the of essay, tools you know above your experience, or perhaps even create a “skills” section which can go into further depth. For example, create a list of your documentation and editing skills.
Don't call your software knowledge “computer skills”, that is too generic, relabel as “applications” or “Authoring Tools”. How To Write A Eassy! I also noticed you created a website at your last job. What did you use to create it? Dreamweaver? FrontPage? Make sure you cover even the software you have limited use of. Put the software you know in hierarchical order. Most used/knowledge to least. 750 Words! What education have you had since your degree? technical writers are always learning new technologies to stay relevant. List courses, seminars, even online courses you have done.
They can be on write, the job or on your own, it doesn't matter. It also shows you know how to continuously learn. This is so important for a tech writer as he learns a new software package to document. Think about speeches, learning some new applications so you can add into your current skillset. Do you have a grasp of Illustrator to create diagrams, or Publisher to create glossy copy? Think about learning smaller tools like SnagIt or other useful mini-apps for how to write a eassy technical writers (WinZip? SendIt?
Adobe Acrobat?). Cost Essay! If the interviewer doesn't know what it is, it can be a conversation starter, and you can explain how it works, pique their interest. It has worked for me a couple of times! This is just a summary, I assume you have a CV that is more in a eassy, depth to your roles, responsibilities and spanish describing yourself achievements? However, you may want to how to, think about expanding your experience section on your short resume to tagore, explain more of your achievements where you worked. Make them see how valuable you were while you sat in the chair!
Get rid of the “poetry” in a eassy, your experience summary. Poetry has no place in business unless you get a great job writing advertisements! That may make managers think you are a tad flakey (You aren't, but it can be a stereotype you must be aware of). Put your poetry and other hobbies at the end in an Interests section where you give hints about who you are outside of work. Employers do want to see their employees actively pursue stress-relieving extra curricular interests, and two types again, these are conversation starters. Pizzaz up that resume! You know how to use FrameMaker, so perhaps put in a vertical sidebar with your name, do some really smart formatting to write, make it stand out from the crowd! Always provide PDF copy of rising essay your resume when applying to technical writer jobs, and advise you can also submit in .doc. This shows you know your way around tools. Perhaps think about other formats. Resume on a CD?
Resume in a pamphlet form if you are applying for how to a eassy a job creating marketing materials? Remember to have .TXT for business writers africa submitting to how to write a eassy, online resume gatherers too. Essay French! Think about what font you use. Online reading should be sans-serif. Printed should be serif.
Think Verdana, Arial, or MS Sans Serif for online, and Times New Roman for write print. Caroline A. Robbins. Technical Writer - Environment Canada - Canadian Ice Services. Herbert, you don't appear to have any kind of online presence (unless “Herbert Thornton” is to write a pseudonym). How To A Eassy! Sign up for spanish yourself LinkedIn. Set up a web site for your portfolio. Get on Twitter.
Hiring managers today are going to be searching the web to learn more about you. (Actually, Caroline's last bullet point is a common myth among technical writers. Karen Schriver did extensive studies on readability of fonts and found no conclusive evidence of how to write a eassy sans serif being more readable online. Plan Writers! Note that the New York Times uses serif fonts on its online pages.) Technical Communications Manager. Herbert, I agree with previous opinions that your resume should reflect both the a eassy, tasks that you accomplished and a characterization of the impact to two types, the business of those accomplishments. Also, as the previous poster mentioned, your networking efforts are particularly important in this climate of a eassy high unemployment.
With 5 people searching for every available job out there, you will need connections that can provide introductions or offer job leads to you. LinkedIn is a great tool for describing on-line networking. Hopefully, you already have a LinkedIn account. Write A Eassy! Make sure that you connect with as many former co-workers, classmates, friends, and topics persuasive speeches people you meet during your job search as you can. More connections gives you a broader reach as you used LinkedIn for how to write a eassy searches to business plan africa, find contacts inside companies you're interested in. Also, more and more recruiters are looking for how to write viable candidates online, particularly through LinkedIn searches. So, make sure that your summary is strong and essay french contains keywords that match jobs you are looking for. Get out and network in person, too.
Are you a member of how to write your local STC chapter? Go to networking groups, whether they're job search networking groups or professional networking groups. You never know who you'll meet, and people who know ‘something' about you often become your allies. [Gayle Werner, Technical Writer] You say that you want to be a “Writer/Editor” but I'm looking for how you can help my business: Can you improve the way that I connect with my customers through documentation? Can you help me improve the customer experience -- and plan in south the bottom line -- using existing technologies as well as the new collaborative technologies that are on the horizon? Right now it looks like you're an editor and proofreader.
I'm sorry, but those are skills that I can purchase very cheaply. Someone else suggested that you delete “poetry.” I agree. While it provides a window into your personality, it has no business value. You don't want anything on your resume that's irrelevant. Finally, have you participated in any professional societies? Attended conferences or received training in how to a eassy, the field? I need to see that you're serious about learning this profession.
Hope this helps, Make the job you want *obvious*. Sure, you have the to write speeches on, trendy little “Career Focus” statement -- but, and I say this as someone who has hired a lot of people over the past ten years -- I don't even read that fluff (it was the last thing I read, because I couldn't work out what you wanted from the sections *that count*). Stop being vague! “. A Eassy! Authored (sic) router software” means what? Tell me what you can do. “Strong technical command of the rising essay, English language”. So you can recognize a verb (but can't write a sentence?) -- what does that phrase mean? And last but not least: “poetry” = trashcan. You've got some skills, buddy. So tell me what they are and how they can help me. For starters, I would like to point you to a post on my website: “Top 10 reasons why resumes suck”. Basically, your current resume is write a eassy a list of previous employers, and doesn't make one single argument about why anyone should give it a second look.
In addition, while your resume tells the reader *what* you've done in the past, it neither tells them *how* you did it (in other words, you could be making it all up, or taking credit for cost of college essay someone else's accomplishments) nor does it tell the a eassy, reader anything about the value you might bring to their business. That's what should be on the first page, and the employment history and education info can safely go to the second page (since no-one will read it anyway, unless you grab their attention on the first page). There is tagore 750 words a difference between “eligibility” for a job, and “suitability”. Write A Eassy! The latter is about your interpersonal skills, your ability to work well with a team, and/or unsupervised, how your personality fits with the existing team and with the 750 words, corporate culture. In other words: the resume has to how to write, be more about essay french, you, and a eassy less about of college, “what you do”. With a skills and achievements-based resume, what will come through is “what it's like to have you working for the reader's company”. The easier it is for people to understand the impact of hiring you (on morale, on productivity, on customer relations, etc.) the more likely it is you'll get invited in for how to a eassy an interview. And -- with the other posters -- I agree: lose the “poetry” in essay rabindranath, the listing of the types of writing you can handle.
Best of luck! And if you need additional professional help with your resume, feel free to contact me thru my website www.hamer-associates.ca. Emma C. Hamer, Career and how to write Performance Coach (BC, Canada) Hello, a few suggestions: -- Replace the in south africa, sections “career focus” and “experience summary” with a stronger statement about what you can offer and what your particular strengths are.
-- Emphasize domain knowledge and strengths of skills. How To Write! For example: -- What does your telecomm experience entail? Would you say you are an expert? -- How do you feel your research skills can add value for an employer? What makes your research skills stand out, and how can they add value for plan in south africa an employer? Can you think of examples of write a eassy how your research saved time, clarified something, or improved quality? -- Do a thorough proofread of essay french all content. -- Make punctuation consistent in all bulleted items. -- Check how dates are listed for work experience -- some dates are displayed latest to earliest; others earliest to latest. Make these listings consistent.
-- Check use of write capitalization. -- Under computer skills, note any specific tools that you might have specialized expertise in cost essay, (for example, creating time-saving macros or alerting colleagues to a valuable but little-used feature in a tool.) -- Remove the reference to poetry. as wonderful as poetry can be, on how to a eassy, a resume it will be distractor from the critical information that can help you get hired. I'm sure it wasn't easy to rabindranath tagore 750 words, post your resume, but I admire your effort to be open to feedback from your colleagues. Write! It's a tough market out there, so the more you can highlight the strengths that can bring value to potential employers -- and the more you can show how your contributions have made a difference -- the better. Best wishes to of essay, you.
Herbert, I was struck by the fact that you've got FrameMaker and a eassy PageMaker experience, but VISIO is the only graphics program you list. Cost! Tech Comm departments who use Adobe products are looking for experience in Illustrator and a eassy Photoshop. The fact that you don't mention these applications makes me wonder if you essentially used FrameMaker as a word processor rather than as a desktop publishing tool. If my company were hiring right now, we'd need expert-level FrameMaker skills. Essay French! Your resume doesn't tell me you've got that. I hope that you'll consider coming out to some STC Carolina Chapter events to a eassy, network with other technical communicators in the area. Here's a link to our website: http://www.stc-carolina.org/tiki-view_articles.php. Our annual membership drive picnic is in on on, Thursday, September 16, and write we'd love to see you there! - Andrea Wenger, VP, STC Carolina Chapter. After all the extensive advice, here's a smaller thing: give your employment dates in a format like “June 2005–June 2008.” I look at “6/05-6/08” and essay french have to think to decipher what it's saying. Don't make me think. (Also notice that the “6/05” format is inconsistent with stating the full year of your graduation.)
Remove the ‘poetry' line! And don't use ‘/' as a substitute for ‘or'—that drives me nuts! Good advice generally, especially the bit about hiding your light under a bushel. I find that my mind empties out how to, whenever I try to write about myself, so I can sympathise. I'd suggest finding a decent volunteer gig before the end of the year, just to get 2010 on your resume. Essay Rabindranath Tagore 750 Words! People will understand not having work in 2009, but it will hurt you if the gap stretches out too long. There always online projects looking for help, and I'd also suggest local non-profits - in how to write, any case, something you can put all your research, interviewing, and writing skills into. I would remember that while all these suggestions are good for your master resume, you should always, always tailor your resume for each job you apply for. If applying for an editing role, emphasise your editing experience; for a software tech writing role, emphasise your experience in in south, writing in that space. And try to write, get in a volunteer job, as suggested above.
A HR rep suggested to me once that gaps on to write persuasive, resumes could be anything from a eassy a gap year (travelling OS) or being in jail. Plan Writers In South! I now have that in write a eassy, the back of plan writers my mind everytime I see an unexplained gap in how to write, a resume. As a hiring manager, I wouldn't give this resume a second look. It is so brief that absolutely nothing grabs my interest. On a purely pragmatic level, I'm surprised that something so short could have this many typographical problems, ranging from inconsistent punctuation in bulleted lists to headings not lining up horizontally with corresponding text. If I could offer advice to the individual, it would be Write from your heart. This applies to resume writing as well as it does to poetry. Writers! I'd want to see passion for, commitment to, and pride in what you do.
And then, when you've conveyed all that, have an editor proofread it. Everyone needs an editor. The best writers know that better than anyone. I think one of the biggest things you could do to improve your resume, aside from ensuring grammatical/mechanical accuracy, would be to revamp its visual design. As a technical writer, you need to demonstrate your document design skills in your resume. Think outside the typical cookie-cutter resume format that you find on how to, every career website and design your resume to two types of essay, catch someone's attention. A few specific suggestions: - Treat your name like the title of the document: it should be the largest thing on the page. - Treat the how to a eassy, sections like level-one headings, the of essay, job titles as level-two headings, etc. - Try just using typography and white space to distinguish the how to write, different sections instead of using horizontal lines.
That many lines draw the eye across the topics on, page unnecessarily and cause readers to sort of hold their breath. White space, on the other hand, gives both the document and the reader a chance to breathe. - Try breaking away from the traditional three-column format. Not only does it change the how to a eassy, look and feel, but it can also improve readability. Example: Junior Statistician, N.C.C.U. (June 2005 - June 2008) Durham, North Carolina.
- Experience detail 1. - Experience detail 2. Kudos for being bold enough to put this out there. I think the biggest issue with your resume is, it does not speak to your breadth of experience. Be sure to really flesh out your bullet points to show how your work has benefited the of college essay, company; use numbers and percentages when at all possible. Consider a paragraph summary. A Eassy! Maybe something like: Technical Writer with X years experience translating complex technical information into tagore 750 words, XYZ for XYZ audience.
Exceptional communicator with outstanding organization and problem-solving ability as it applies to the technical writing process, product development workflow, and project management. Specialist in XYZ. Also swap your Computer Skills and Education sections. And, as others have suggested, set up a LinkedIn and be sure to add your URL to the header section. I echo most other folks thoughts and comments.
I look at write this resume and tagore I see a resume that looks like it was a fill in a eassy, the blanks template from Office. If I am looking for a tech writer, I want to see something that shows that you know how to use Word, i.e, a resume that is custom to you and not a boring template. Remember that a resume is a sales document. If it is boring and spanish essay describing blends in with the rest of the resumes that come across my desk, I am not going to give it more than a passing look. That said, remember that you cannot get too creative with a resume. The writing poetry thing is interesting. Is there a way to incorporate that experience in a way that does not seem nutters, as a previous commenter stated? Maybe include a section that shows a list of your publications and extracurricular activities. Also, be specific about the write a eassy, documents you have written, particularly in the most current experience. Give examples. I, personally, hate the generic career focus summary on a resume.
I would suggest that this is more effective in a cover letter that is specific to the job and company you are applying with. I might also suggest moving the education from the top of the resume to under the experience section, as your education does not directly relate to the types of positions for which you are applying. For gosh sake, include your references in the resume! I know there are different schools of thought on this, but to me, when I see available on request, I think to myself that the owner of the essay french, resume is how to write a eassy lazy, or needs to have time to cherry pick references, thus making me question if I should waste my time in interviewing. I really think that it would be more helpful for the community to see the boilerplate cover letter you are utilizing, as this is going to be far more important to your job search than the essay french, resume itself, as your most current experience is write a eassy not really in topics to write persuasive on, a technical writing role. The cover letter must be where you really sell your transferable skills to the new position. Hope this helps.
If you have specific questions, mail me: [emailprotected] I'm pretty surprised at how short this resume is for someone with ten years of how to experience. As others have mentioned, the topics to write persuasive speeches, professional experience is focused on tasks rather than results. You may not have cut a company's bottom line by x percent in y time, but certainly you had some sort of impact at each job. Figure out at write a eassy least one statement of impact and add that to the tasks to illustrate what you did and how that made a difference. When interviewing writers and editors for past projects, I always looked closely at two types of essay the resume for the details.
In this case, I was already thrown by the lack of detail with periods at how to write the end of bullet points. Topics To Write Persuasive On! Either use them or don't, but make sure that you're consistent, as consistency is a very important part of editing. It just demonstrates that you either aren't careful in your own work, or don't value editing enough to have someone else edit your work, which is a big no-no for such an how to write, important document that serves as your first impression. Also, since you've been out of school for 12 years, your educational experience can go to the bottom of the resume, near the computer skills section. Your work experience is (or should be) the focus for of college essay you now unless you had recent training or education in how to write a eassy, the field that you want to highlight. Finally, you should target your career focus statement to the job you're applying for.
Perhaps you already are and just wrote it this way for the example, but make sure that you're more specific when you submit it for an actual position. Essay Rabindranath Tagore! There is write a big difference between book publishing and rising cost of college software documentation online, so make sure you tailor your statement accordingly. --Reagan Templin (Technical Writer) The poetry thing has been beaten to death, but I'll pile on. How To! If you are applying for a job where it is relevant (literary journal?), definitely include it. For a tech writing job, delete it because the implied message is, “I need a tech writing job to support my true love—writing poetry.” Even if this is true (*especially* if this is true), it's not a message your want to convey. There's a lot (a LOT) of good advice in this document already.
I'll add this: Your current resume feels slightly plastic. With the exception of the yourself, poetry reference (!), there's no sense of the person behind the how to a eassy, resume. You really, really need to flesh out the content and give your voice a chance. Keep the content professional, but use your skills as a poet to make the bullet points more interesting than the average resume. With your background in sociology and RTP location, I would take a look at Research Triangle Institute.
If you have an rabindranath tagore 750 words, interest in statistics that goes beyond basic surveys, SAS is an obvious contender. Usability is a big asset; flesh out your discussion of what you did there. -Sarah O'Keefe, tech comm consultant, scriptorium.com. I'm pretty much echoing everyone else… I would recommend losing the objective. It's the first thing a hiring manager reads and it limits your possibilities within the write, company (I heard this from an of essay, HR staffer who reviews thousands of resumes). Also add more to your experience summary.
Right now, you sound very inexperienced. I know you've done more in the last 10 years then get a command over how to write a eassy, the English Language. HR departments and hiring managers alike, are looking through 100's of resumes for essay 750 words one job! They “skim” resumes looking for write a eassy keywords, job titles, and accomplishments to match the job description. Fill your resume by telling them what you've done in 10 years.
After all this…. A resume is only a knock at the door. To get your foot in the door these days, you need great references. Monique Bradshaw - Documentation Specialist. White Plains, NY. 1. Your resume needs to be one page, but it needs to look like you had to business in south, work to get it down to one page--not like you had to work to get it up to one page. A short resume communicates too little experience. Beef it up (see #2). 2. How To! Beef it up by answering these questions in each of two types of essay your resume points: How many? How much?
How often? For example, “Edited survey questions” isn't as strong as “Edited hundreds of a eassy survey questions over a three-month period for errors in grammar, punctuation, and tone.” The first statement is vague. The second (while not perfect) is better because it communicates specific information and tells of proficiency in proofreading. Topics To Write! Even if the how to write a eassy, details and numbers you can give are small ones, small numbers are better than no numbers. (After all, if you don't quantify your experiences, employers will automatically assume the spanish essay, least that they can about write a eassy, you. They necessarily approach your resume from a position of essay french cynicism.)
[Josh Allen - English Professor, Rexburg, Idaho] I'm not trying to be the how to, master of the obvious but for a ‘writer' this resume doesn't show off the topics, writing skills. Most everyone said it already, but QUALIFY and QUANTIFY all your experience. Sometimes short and sweet is the way to how to a eassy, go! This resume is not one of those times. Also, this resume doesn't show any online references or indication of ‘samples' of your work. In the topics speeches, information age, people like to see the information! [Greg Woolf - Programmer, Mesa, AZ] [Suchitra Govindarajan, Technical Writer with experience in recruiting other writers] Get new posts delivered straight to your inbox. I'm a technical writer based in how to write a eassy, the California San Francisco Bay area.
Topics I write about on this blog include technical writing, authoring and publishing tools, API documentation, tech comm trends, visual communication, technical writing career advice, information architecture and findability, developer documentation, and more. If you're a professional or aspiring technical writer, be sure to rabindranath, subscribe to email updates using the form above . How To! You can learn more about topics persuasive on, me here.
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construct art essay Are magazines for young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in write a eassy their readers? Men don't define themselves as men in what they read, they define themselves as people who are into cars, who play golf or fish. Successfully launching a general men's magazine would be like finding the Holy Grail -- Zed Zawada (campaign 29/8/86 p.41) If this was the case in 1986 what has changed that has resulted in the men's magazine market becoming one of the fastest growing magazine sectors? The number of general interest magazine titles for men, such as Loaded , FHM , Men's Health , and GQ to name a few, has risen from topics to write persuasive on obscurity over the past 10 years. Previously, the term 'men's magazine' referred to publications designed to interest men, such as car, fishing or DIY magazines. The new breed of magazines were aimed directly and overtly at how to, a male readership, using masculinity as a marketing tool. Essay! These magazines are seen by some to be a negative force in society as they objectify women and are openly sexist.
This essay will argue that the emergence of such titles is in response to a change in masculinity in society, reflected in both the possibility of producing such magazines and within the magazines themselves. The reasons for the inclusion of controversial material, besides that of entertainment, will become evident through looking at the development of men's magazines. This essay will then look both at the style and how to write a eassy content of the magazines in terms of the construction of masculinity they express, 'macho' or otherwise, and the visual and rhetorical representations of women. Examples from two titles on the market, GQ and Loaded , will be analysed. GQ or Gentlemen's Quarterly is supposed to be at the top end of the topics to write persuasive market, and Loaded is leading the tabloid bunch! Do both represent women as sex objects and exhibit a particularly 'macho' masculinity, reinforcing negative stereotypes? If stereotypes are rife, this essay will finally consider whether this has any effect on the attitudes of the readers of men's magazines. Outlining several theories on how and why such magazines developed, will help explain why stereotypical and how to a eassy objectifying material is included within the publications. To Write Persuasive On! Theorists Judith Butler and how to Foucault argue that gender is fluid, and can change within different contexts and over time.
A shift in the attitudes and business in south lifestyles of British men over the past 10 years opened up a market for men magazines. Tim Edwards asserts that it is the expansion in how to the concept and practice of men's fashion since the mid-1980's, which resulted in the emergence of style magazines such as GQ and essay french Arena aimed specifically at the new style conscious male readership. Nixon states that the advertising/publishing nexus focusing on how to write new male readers was an important site for the public formation and development of general interest men's magazines. In order to create revenue, magazines have to attract advertisers and to essay french, attract advertisers they have to have a high readership. Magazines have found the Loaded formula i.e. beer, sex and babes, to be the most successful, consequently even the how to more upmarket titles are beginning to turn more 'laddish'. Others argue that the emergence of such magazines is an attempt to regain male dominance. Lacey suggests that it is the diminishing of men's power that has resulted in of essay such publications.
The celebration of 'laddishness' is a desperate attempt to grasp what is left of how to write traditional male identity. He states that the loss of essay describing power is a positive issue, but is worried that the danger is a reactionary backlash where angry men attempt to put 'their women' back in the kitchen. Further to this point Stevenson and Kenny ask 'do we live in an era of write a eassy greater risk' ? stating that feminism disrupts the essay french certainties of the gender order. This, along with the disappearance of jobs for life and the increased visibility of diverse sexuality's, are proving problematic for the once dominant male. The magazines are currently caught between an attempt to construct masculinity as a form of fundamentalist certitude, while simultaneously responding to how to a eassy, a world where gender relations are changing. Men's magazines can therefore be seen as a cultural response to social change. It has been argued that men's magazines are not solely responding to gender changes, but are a reaction to feminism and an attempt for rabindranath, men to regain some of the power they lost through this movement, in other words to return to a pre-feminist masculine ideal. As Stevenson puts it 'a 'blokelash' against feminism.'  Southwell, former editor of Loaded , admits otherwise, he insists Loaded was never conceived as an anti-feminist backlash, with the swaggering loutish lad ousting the how to feminised new man. Immaterial of whether these publications were the result of a backlash against feminism, or whether there was merely a gap in market, masculinity is in to write on crisis.
Roger Horrocks is one critic who believes that masculinity in western culture is in how to write a eassy deep crisis. With the africa benefits masculine gender can bring, with it comes a mask or disguise. The emphasis on male dominance in write a eassy public areas of life has tended to obscure the emotional poverty of many men's lives. Magazines tend to reflect this in that they portray only one side of masculinity, leaving out the emotional bit, and concentrating on the outward display of masculinity. Here one can see that the stereotyping of men within these magazines as macho male and ignoring the stereotypical 'emotional male' or even 'soft lad', can lead to problems and criticisms. Horrocks asserts that little attention has been paid to the stereotypes that are attached to men, or there has been the unspoken assumption that these are preferable. 'In this world, 'real men' are fearless and invulnerable, unburdened by rabindranath 750 words emotion or sensitivity to others.' Buckingham is asserting that to be seen as a real man, you can not show emotion, and so men's magazines exclude sensitive issues and emotions in how to order to be seen as magazines for 'real men'. In discussing the cost essay release of a new magazine 'Deluxe' in an article for the media guardian, John Dugdale writes 'even though banning babes sacrifices the one sure-fire sales-boosting device in today's men's market, not least by a eassy reducing horny schoolboy appeal. Are there really 150,000 soft lads out plan writers in south africa there.'  There appears to write, be a widely held assumption that if you don't mind the absence of scantily dressed babes from business in south your magazine, then you are a soft-lad. 'What is a eassy obviously missing from this celebration of one-night stands, obsessive consumerism and male bonding is how men's needs for reciprocity and emotional warmth are to be met.' (Stevenson et al, 2000) Metcalf and Humphries in their 1985 book ' The sexuality of essay men' describe a masculinity that doesn't seem too far removed from how to what magazines are portraying today.
The authors described a masculinity characterised by aggression, competitiveness, emotional ineptitude and coldness and spanish describing yourself dependent on an overriding and exclusive emphasis on penetrative sex. How To A Eassy! What also emerged was the side of of college essay masculinity that the magazines try to avoid, a sense of the fears, anxieties and pain expressed by these men in relation to established script of masculinity; anxieties about sexual performance, estrangement from emotions, and poor relations with fathers. By looking at the style and how to write a eassy content of two major men's magazines, the extent to essay rabindranath 750 words, which stereotypes, sexist attitudes and 'macho' masculinity's are used will become evident. Loaded , launched in May 1994, is evidently more anti-style conscious than the how to write a eassy other titles, due to a more working class emphasis. It played a large part in the social construction of the New Lad, a masculinity which Edwards describes as: 'Selfish, Loutish and two types of essay inconsiderate to a point of how to write infantile smelliness. He likes drinking, football and fucking, and in that order of preference. in short he is that most ghastly of all configuration, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine'. (Edwards, 1997)
GQ 's catch phrase is 'the magazine for men with an IQ,' in which it takes pleasure in plan in south the more traditional masculinity, including coverage of executive concerns and pitching itself at a more serious minded conservative older reader than the other titles. At it's release GQ was organised around menswear and a eassy style, popular music was absent and the kind of figures interviewed or profiled in GQ tended to be traditional professionals rather than the media-fashion-art based individuals of other titles. Visualised representation of women were marginal. It is now evident that it has moved closer towards titles such as Loaded , taking on a more populist approach, but still trying to topics persuasive speeches, hold onto its glamour element, and maintain an interest in how to write a eassy health and fashion. Edwards believes the primary role of men's style magazines is to encourage and perpetuate spending amongst its readers, evident through the essay french emphasis upon consumption as a means to join the new style elite, the a eassy high-profile advertising, and the visual attention paid to commodities. One must wear the right suit, visit the to write right shops, and get seen in the right apparel. This leads to the construction of masculinity in terms of commodities, leading ultimately to masculinity as a matter of how one looks and a eassy not what one does. Although Edwards was talking about a previous ilk of essay magazines in the late Thatcherite era of rampant consumerism, the how to a eassy emphasis on commodities is still very apparent in cost today's magazines. There is a difference between the commodities promoted by each magazine.
GQ includes a section on how to write a eassy 'motoring', 'interiors' and a 'style plus' feature, a fashion spread including a further commodity. For example 'Tooled up' (April 2000) features the latest DIY tools. Figure 1 reveals two aspects of rising essay GQ , firstly their target market. The garden furniture featured is a eassy aimed at the high earning, garden-proud individual. Secondly the feature uses women to two types, make it more appealing to the reader. The subtitle states 'Garden feature doesn't have to write a eassy, be strictly for the birds once the summer is two types of essay over.' The bottom picture includes an write a eassy abandoned bikini top, and the top photograph features the bare legs of a women. Here one sees that GQ also objectifies women and insinuates sex to try and sell it's product, and make a feature on furniture more appealing. Loaded on the other hand focuses on entertainment items, such as computer games, fashion accessories, such as watches and trainers, and personal items such as mobile phones. Figure 2 reveals the accoutrements of the Loaded man.
The model is young with large, innocent eyes staring straight into of essay, the camera, he is rather self-assured. His pose, with his hands raised, suggests he is admitting he is guilty of being a bit of a player (sexually), suggested by how to write the pack of cards and the play boy wallet. His facial expression, which is rather cheeky, suggests he is unperturbed by this revelation. This man is a ladies man, and he is not ashamed, in fact he is prepared with his condom carrying case, and his toothbrush! Theodor Adorno (1903-69) would be extremely disgruntled with men's magazines. Firstly, he would suggest that it is the culture industries that churn out these unsophisticated magazines, replacing the more critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. Further, he would say that it is the culture industries that cultivate false needs in people. These are needs that can be fulfilled by the capitalist system, and replace and suppress the true needs of creativity, independence and genuine happiness. Adorno would be unhappy with the commodities that the magazines promote, and the idea that you are the man you are through what you buy. Not only is this satisfying ones false needs, but it also displays commodity fetishism, in that social relations and cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money. The readers are delighted by spanish products because of how much they cost.
Sexism is an how to write infamous trait of men's magazines, and it is believed that this will inevitably produce sexist attitudes amongst the readers. The April 2000 edition of tagore Loaded includes 'The Stockings World Cup' (Figure 3), a competition to find the winning stockings from '32 qualifiers played over 64 legs' . The judges objectify the winner remarking 'Karen showed us how much they make us fancy her'. The only how to a eassy, worth of this article was that readers got to see 32 pairs of stockings photographed. Southwell states that a lot of what could be called sexism in Loaded is just a joke, he continues 'if some reader takes it as normal conversation then they don't get it and they're never going to get it' . But isn't this the problem? Those who take these derogatory comments concerning women at face value will think this is normal behaviour and so transfer such attitudes into the real world. Lacey believes so, 'whether the distancing effect provided by two types of essay irony legitimises Loaded , and its ilk, is doubtful; irony appears to write, be lost on the bog standard 16 year old.'  Peter Howorth, the rising cost of college essay previous editor of write Esquire attempts to justifies the objectification of women by two types of essay saying 'Any good magazine must offer a balance of content, and part of that balance, if it is to reflect the interests of men, will inevitable be articles on beautiful women' . This suggests that the magazines are just reflecting the readers interests. Feminists have argued that whatever the write a eassy psychology of the men who rape, the background to its prevalence must be located in societies which define 'masculinity' at least in part, in terms of the assertion of yourself heterosexual power, and how to write which continue to produce images across all forms of rising cost essay representation depicting women as the prototypical object of sexual desire, men as its prototypical subjects. This can be seen in figure 4, where Jordan, merely famous because she is how to beautiful, is seen staring at the viewer in a pose which could be seen as soft porn. Segal argues in two types of essay response that masculine power may be privileged in our culture, but men are not merely sexual predators, nor women merely sexual prey, and that this view fails to accommodate contradiction and diversity. A further characteristic evident through the style and content of both magazines, and all men's magazines in general, is write that they assert the heterosexuality of their readers.
Edwards states this is due to two types of essay, the high level of how to write a eassy anxiety concerning the possibility of off-putting their heterosexual readers if homosexuality is of college too overtly or openly condoned. The magazines stress the virtues of a single lifestyle, as Stevenson et al state 'The great prize of bachelor hood is represented as a life where one has little responsibility for others and where one is truly free to do as one chooses, further, marriage is viewed as a form of social constraint, preventing men in their early 30's from living a life of consumption and sexual freedom.'  This could be seen as merely reflecting society rather than truly advocating single life. Whereas Edwards sites consumption as the major site of masculinity's in magazines, Sean Nixon believes that it is within the fashion photography that the new coding's of masculinity, and there is more than one, are most extensively elaborated. Menswear is seen primarily in how to terms of utility. The main example is the suit, both a symbol of masculine sexuality and a uniform of respectability. GQ focus quite strongly on the suit within its fashion pages.
Figure 4 depicts Brett Anderson, the lead singer of suede, modelling Gucci's latest collection. By using Brett as a model it raises the profile of the shoot immediately, and involves an element of aspiration. In this photograph Anderson is situated in a large, panelled room. Many signifiers within the picture go against the 'macho' male mould. Anderson looks introspective and pensive, and writers africa the full body shot reveals a vulnerability.
Figure 6is a sharp contrast to the previous photograph, it depicts a fashion shoot titled 'lounging' which featured in Loaded (April, 2000). It depicts casual wear, as opposed to write a eassy, the respectable, working suit featured in GQ . All that is featured of the model is his feet, but he is spanish essay obviously relaxing on a eassy a sofa with his feet up, suggesting an untroubled, relaxed man. The main element of the photograph is the extreme close up of the women's face on the television screen, her lips are parted and her eyes are closed. It is essay french a very sexual face, again highlighting the fact that women are used throughout the magazine, even within fashion shoots, as objects for men to look at, and highlighting the how to write a eassy laddish masculinity of the male. Edwards believes that Loaded is taken too seriously by those who don't know better. But does the content of Loaded effect its readers? Adorno would argue that such material keeps its audience passive and preserves the dominant of business plan writers africa capitalism at the expense of how to true happiness for the reader.
Foucault, would structure his argument around power. In 'The History of topics to write Sexuality' he argued that people do not have power implicitly, individuals engage in it. He argues that there is no hierarchical power establishments stating: 'power comes from below; there is no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and ruled at the root of power and serving as a general matrix - no such duality extending from the top down and reaching on more and more limited groups to how to a eassy, the very depths of the social body'.  (Foucault,1981) Further, he would argue that the essay french individual person has power to resist the media, 'where there is power there is resistance .' This rejects the elitist view of the Frankfurt school, who believed the write a eassy culture industry had an effect of anti-enlightenment, Adorno asserts 'it impedes the cost of college essay development of autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for themselves.'  John Fiske is another theorist who would reject Adorno's notion of a mass negative effect on write a eassy the audience of mass media, and would see the essay audience as individuals who read their own meanings into a text. In his work 'Moments of Television' Fiske discusses his theories in relation to television, but these can also be applied to other media. 'Making sense of popular television, then, is the process of activating meanings from how to a eassy it, and describing yourself this process is controlled within more or less determined boundaries by the socially situated viewer. adequate space for a eassy, different people to make different meaning'. (Fiske, 1989) Further he would reject Adorno's notion of corporations deciding what is popular culture and stress that popular culture is made by essay french the people for a eassy, the people.
'It cannot conceive of the text as a site of struggle for the power to make meanings, or of the notion that what finally determines the meanings and pleasures provoked by a text is the social situation of the viewer-reader, not the interests of the producers and their ideological investment in consumer capitalism.' (Fiske, 1989) It is of college essay evident that magazines for young men do include stereotypical images of both men and women. How To! They depict a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the essay french emotional, sensitive male, and women are depicted as objects for write a eassy, men's contemplation and enjoyment. But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part of mass media representation. Further these magazines are merely trying to entertain the reader, they are not seriously on a crusade to return to a pre-feminist ideal, or to harm anyone in an attempt to provide entertainment. Former editor of Loaded James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about having the essay french best fucking time of your life.'  Further, the inclusion of sexist material and stereotypical images are enjoyable to the reader but are not likely to change their attitudes towards society. How To! The readers have the power to reject such material and are able to make their own, individual meanings from the cost of college essay messages within men's magazines. Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape for, the heterosexual male. Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993)
Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998. Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998. Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) Fiske, J. A Eassy! 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) Foucault, M. Essay! 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) Kenny, M. and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000)
Lacey, N. Write A Eassy! ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, winter 1996, pp. 16-17. Nixon, S. Cost Of College! 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and how to Contemporary Consumption (London, 1996) Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000)
Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of essay tagore popular Culture' (New York, 1995) Van Zoonen, L. 'Gender and Media Reception', in Feminist Media Studies (London, 1994) Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, April 2000. Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, July 2000. Southwell, T ed. ' Loaded ' magazine, April 2000.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.72.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.5.
 Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.145.  Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, Winter 1996, pp. How To A Eassy! 16-17.  Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.135.
 Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and essay french Brooks, K. How To! 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.377.  Kenny, M and writers Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to how to write, Take?' in Rutherford, J. ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.137.  Dugdale, J. Africa! 'Time to write a eassy, Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2.  Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) p.26.  Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) p.89.  Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998, p.4.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.379.  Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) p.295.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.82.
 Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.74.  Gauntlett, D. 'Theory, gender and identity resources - Theodor Adorno' at http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-ador.htm (accessed: 9 November 2000)  Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15.  Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in of essay In The Picture , no. 29, pp. 16-17.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of how to Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.376.  Segal, L. 'Sexualities' in describing yourself Woodward, K. ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208.  Segal, L 'Sexualities' in a eassy Woodward, K, ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208.
 Edwards, T Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and spanish essay describing Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.75.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of how to write Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.378.  Nixon, S Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.4.  Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in of essay Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) p.166.  Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) p.54.  Fiske, J. How To A Eassy! 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in essay describing Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.58.  Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in write Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and topics to write persuasive on Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.61.  Dugdale, J. How To Write A Eassy! 'Time to business writers, Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. Unfortunately, most of the images from the original essay could not be reproduced here. This is what they were:
Figure 1 GQ interiors 'Keep off the grass' in write GQ July 2000. Figure 2 Loaded fashion article 'Picked Pockets' in of essay Loaded April 2000. Figure 3 'The Stockings worldcup' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 4 'Who is Kate Price' article on Jordan in Loaded April 2000. Figure 5 GQ fashion spread 'He's in write Fashion' in describing GQ April 2000. Figure 6 Loaded Fashion Spread 'Lounging' in write Loaded April 2000.
This essay was written in autumn 2000, when Lucy Brown took the module 'Communications Theory' at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of cost of college Leeds, UK.
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