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Benito Mussolini Essay Founding Father of Fascism. Name: * Teacher: * ENG2D1 27/05/2012 Benito Mussolini, Founding Father of about or school Fascism Mussolini once stated that “It is humiliating to remain with our hands folded while others write history. It matters little who wins. To make a people great it is necessary to send them to battle even if you have to kick them in the pants. That is what I shall do. ” As you would expect words like these from the south park essays, mouth of Mussolini himself had been the inspirational backing to this dictator’s rain as sole leader of about Italy in the Fascist party for south essays nearly 24 years. Before the war, Mussolini formed the Fascist Party of Italy, by gathering the or school, roaring support of many unemployed WWI veterans, like him. He proved to be the founder of Fascism and he had united Italy as one. During the war, Mussolini became power hungry, after joining forces with Hitler and brooklyn cop exemplar, the country of Japan. Hitler had influenced Mussolini to make many poor choices which would ultimately lead to the deaths of the both of them and the slaughtering of Fascism itself. After Mussolini’s fall from power, which occurred in the midst of WWII, Italy was thrown into chaos as the remaining Fascists fought against the partisans and the Italian army was left with no orders as to what they must do.
As one may expect, this was just a temporary setback, and Italy once again formed its democracy. This essay will look at Benito Mussolini’s effect on Fascism and Italy before and during the war and after his fall from power. At Work Or School. After WWI, Mussolini developed distaste for Socialism and had declared it to be a failure, he called for a new system to be formed, one that would revive the nation of Italy to its former Roman glory. Mussolini utilized a number of thompson resume books and ideals to form the Fascist system. When discussing the Ideology behind Fascism, Mussolini affirmed that “Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future and the development of humanity, quite apart from political considerations of the moment, believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of about stress or school perpetual peace. ” In 1922, Mussolini had gained the cop exemplar essay, support of about at work a number of Italian war veterans, at this same time Italy was in cop exemplar, complete political anarchy, with no real party in power. He had used this as leverage to gain power and eventually make himself the leader of Italy. The King handed over power to Mussolini by inviting him to form his own government. Soon, Mussolini’s Fascist movement had formed into essay about stress the National Fascist Party. The Fascist party had gradually disassembled the democratic government and santantonio, gained full support of the military, business class, and the liberals. By 1925, Mussolini’s Fascist party had taken control of Italy and he had given himself the title of #8216;II Duce#8217;. With such a title, he holds no responsibility to parliament and can only be removed by the king.
He now set out to stress at work re-establish Italy as a major European power. In the years to come, Mussolini faced many assassination attempts, one being from an Archaist, this lead to Mussolini outlawing all other parties, in 1926. He coordinated many illegal activities in order to keep himself in power, one such being cooperating with the Mafia to reduce violence in order to make it seem as if the Mafia was defeated. With Mussolini in essay, power, surrounded by greed, and no opposition left standing, the living standard for the average Italian fell greatly. Essay At Work Or School. Mussolini knew he needed to do something to prevent uproar from the Italian people. In 1930, an economic depression hit Italy and Mussolini had to find some way to help recover the economy. Thompson. By 1935, Mussolini had control over three quarters of all business in Italy. He made an attempt at creating government initiatives to combat the economic setbacks and essay about, unemployment levels. Most of these failed because they used up valuable resources. Mussolini made it seem as if all was well and these initiatives were working by the means of propaganda. To gain further control of the economy, he issued price and wage controls in 1938.
He later attempted to make Italy self-sufficient by instituting high tariffs on trade against all countries except Germany. As one would expect, the whole of Mussolini’s rein, up to this point, had been an utter failure and all he had to defend himself with was propaganda. His first and santantonio, most important priority was to brainwash the minds of the Italian peoples through careful monitoring and censorship of press, radio, education, and films. In conclusion, before the war, Mussolini had a negative effect on the quality of lives of the Italian people up to this point, and he also has so far proven that although it may have some sense in essay about stress, theory, Fascism when under the jeff resume, wrong leadership can go very bad. In 1939, the threat of war was approaching as tensions were growing in Europe; it was now up to Mussolini to essay about stress or school decide which side to two types choose. It was clear to Mussolini that Nazi Germany had a strong chance of winning if war was to arise in Europe and that he would have to join with them now in order to secure Italy’s position as a global superpower in the near future. And so, in 1939, Italy and Germany agree to a military and political alliance, giving birth to the Axis.
Soon after, in 1940, Japan joined the Axis. With the war in essay stress, its beginning stages and park essays, Germany already showing strong favor, Italy joined the war. On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on Britain and essay about stress or school, France. Many Italian people were very wiry about the joining of a major war at such a bad time for the economy, but their fears were tarnished by the quick takeover of law dissertation France in just eleven days. Regardless, Italian soldiers were ill-equipped and about stress or school, poorly trained. These facts became exposed when Italy encountered failures in safeguarding their territory in Northern Africa and the Balkans. Mussolini’s defeated armies were sent to the Soviet Union to help Nazi Germany in their poorly planned invasion on the USSR.
This proved to be a fatal choice, as the narrative analysis essay, thin numbers of the weak Italian army grew even thinner. It was clear that it Italy was to face invasion on its own soil then it would never have the about stress or school, power left to defend. That fact was clear to the allies, and so, in July 1943, the two types, fighting came right to Italy’s doorstep with the invasion on Sicily by allied forces. Things were looking down for Italy, with a portion of southern Italy seized by the allies and a bombing occurring in Rome for the first time in history. Mussolini was losing confidence from his people. Mussolini had proven himself a failure in his handling of the war and he was soon removed from his position by stress or school, the King. He was arrested almost immediately.
With Mussolini powerless, and the nation split in half between the Nazi north and the Allies south, the nation was in anarchy. In time, the Fascist system was overrun and brooklyn cop exemplar, some of Italy changed sides. The Allied controlled south of Italy declared war on essay stress or school Germany on narrative analysis October 13, 1943. Mussolini was rescued from essay about stress or school his imprisonment at the Hotel Campo Imperatore during the Gran Sasso Raid, two months after his arrest. Hitler assisted Mussolini in setting up a new regime (Italian Socialist Republic) and environmental law dissertation, during his final two years, Mussolini lived in Northern Italy and spent much of his time writing his own autobiography. Soon, the war was over and the essay stress at work, Fascist rein in Italy was over as well as the narrative, Nazi rein in essay or school, Germany. Hitler found solution to this through suicide; Mussolini chose a different solution and brooklyn cop exemplar essay, decided to make an attempt at fleeing to Switzerland with the remaining members of the Italian Socialist Republic. Mussolini was caught and executed along with the other members of the Italian Socialist Republic which were with him at the time. In conclusion, during the war, Mussolini had had worsened the lives of the Italian people and had proven once and for stress at work or school all that Fascism simply does not work and will never function well enough to be a proper system of government. Mussolini was beaten, having failed the santantonio, nation he swore to protect, his corpse was left hung upside-down on a meat hook for all of Italy to ease their worries. Following Mussolini’s fall from power, Italy was pushed into further distress.
Italy was left without a proper leader and the aftereffects of Mussolini’s poor governing still remained a very real issue to Italians. Strung in poverty, fighting within the government and lack of leadership had tossed Italy into a war within its own borders. And so, in September of essay 1943, the Italian Civil War began. It was a fight between the remaining supporters of Mussolini (Fascists) and the Parisians. The Fascists still had the jeff resume, support of Nazi Germany and essay about stress or school, the Parisians had support of the Allies. This was a war within a war, a fight between Italians over governmental system and ultimately for basic freedoms. This war had dragged on until the demolition of Nazi Germany and the surrendering of the final Axis members. The Fascists had been defeated and a new system had to be put into place. Cop Exemplar Essay. It all started with elections just as it had nearly 30 years ago before Mussolini was in about at work, power. The first democratic vote made resulted in the dissolving of the monarchy, and soon a new prime minister was in place and Italians began to renew their trust in the democratic system. One may think that Mussolini’s legacy did not in thompson resume, fact live on essay stress at work in the governmental system or in environmental law dissertation, the people of essay about Italy, but in fact, it did.
Successors of the recently banned National Fascist Party had formed their own parties, the most famous of which being the MSI (Movimento Sociale Italiano) which was dissolved in 1995. The MSI was later replaced with National Alliance which still exists today as a party that is in fact opposed to Fascism; its leader even once stated that Fascism is “an absolute evil”. In conclusion, after. Mussolini had died, Italy had recovered very well, and now, thanks to Mussolini, we all know it’s wise to learn from history and never to return back to such an illogical system as Fascism. Essays. This essay has looked at Benito Mussolini’s effect on or school Fascism and narrative, Italy before and during the essay stress, war and after his fall from law dissertation power. Essay At Work. Before the war, following WWI, Italy was in chaos, without a leader and with distrust in the democratic system, Italy had placed its trust in Mussolini and antithesis santantonio, his newly invented Fascist System.
During this time, Mussolini made Italians poor and had worsened their quality of lives and thus had been a poor leader. During the war, Mussolini had risked the lives of Italians through carless actions on about at work his part. He allied with the evils of the Nazi Party and sent his men to wars they couldn’t fight when being so ill-equipped and poorly trained. After his death, Italy was once again in chaos, so much so that they entered into a civil war which finally put an end to the Fascist movement. His legacy still lived on in the parties that replaced his.
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Roundtable 1-3 on The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and the History of the Cold War. N icholas Thompson has taken an imaginative approach to the Cold War by presenting a comparative study of the public careers of Paul Nitze and George Kennan, two significant U.S. About Or School! officials who participated in narrative, the Cold War from essay about stress at work, its post-WWII origins to its surprising conclusion. Narrative Analysis! With access to the records of his grandfather, Nitze, and the diaries of Kennan, Thompson is able to develop their evolving relationship and essay at work, the impact of their respective temperament, experience, and ambition on their policy views and involvement in the Cold War. H- Diplo | ISSF Roundtable , Volume I, No. 3 (2010) Diane Labrosse and Thomas Maddux, H-Diplo/ISSF Editors. George Fujii, H-Diplo/ISSF Web and of essay, Production Editor. Commissioned for H-Diplo/ISSF by about, Thomas Maddux. H- Diplo | ISSF Roundtable on Nicholas Thompson. The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and the History of the narrative analysis, Cold War . New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2009. Published by H-Diplo/ISSF on essay, 15 November 2010 (updated on 24 November 2010)
PDF: http://issforum.org/ISSF/PDF/ISSF-Roundtable-1-3.pdf. Introduction by Thomas Maddux, California State University, Northridge. 2. Review by Joshua Botts, Office of the Historian, Department of law dissertation State. 6.
Review by Jerald A. Combs, Professor of History Emeritus, San Francisco State University 10. Review by essay stress or school, Sarah-Jane Corke, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 15. Review by Alonzo L. Hamby, Ohio University. 18. Response by Nicholas Thompson, The New Yorker . 22. Introduction by Thomas Maddux, California State University, Northridge. N icholas Thompson has taken an imaginative approach to thompson resume, the Cold War by essay stress at work, presenting a comparative study of the santantonio, public careers of Paul Nitze and George Kennan, two significant U.S. officials who participated in the Cold War from its post-WWII origins to its surprising conclusion. With access to the records of or school his grandfather, Nitze, and the diaries of Kennan, Thompson is law dissertation, able to essay stress at work or school, develop their evolving relationship and the impact of their respective temperament, experience, and ambition on their policy views and involvement in south essays, the Cold War. The book’s title, The Hawk and the Dove , suggests a sharp divergence between Nitze and Kennan, but the reviewers favorably note that Thompson explores both the strengths they displayed in working together in the early Cold War years and the differences that became increasingly evident in the 1970s and 1980s.
Jerald Combs, for stress at work or school, example, notes the brooklyn essay, successful cooperation of Nitze and Kennan in the development of containment, particularly the Marshall Plan, their similar views on keeping Germany together, their agreement on intervention in Korea and preference to keep the conflict limited by stopping at the 38 th parallel in 1950. Stress Or School! Joshua Botts also points out shared reservations about Vietnam in the 1960s, although Kennan went public with his criticism whereas Nitze kept his reservations within closed doors as he served in Robert McNamara’s Pentagon and, like many officials, failed to make a strong stance in person when questioned by essays, President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965. (pp. 201-202). The emerging differences between Nitze and Kennan receive more assessment by Thompson, although the reviewers would have welcomed more analysis in this area. Sarah-Jane Corke questions Thompson’s view that containment rather than roll-back remained the central U.S. strategy and suggests that Thompson fails to evaluate Nitze’s views on covert operations and stress or school, roll-back.
Alonzo Hamby and Joshua Botts favorably note Thompson’s emphasis on the different views that Kennan and antithesis santantonio, Nitze held about what the U.S. About At Work Or School! could accomplish in international relations with the latter being far more optimistic throughout their careers and the former becoming more pessimistic after leaving the State Department and brief service as Ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1952 and Ambassador to narrative, Yugoslavia in 1961-62. Hamby also highlights their different views on the role of military power. Despite a lack of precision in about or school, his “Article X” on containment and thompson, willingness to support force in Korea and covert political operations, Kennan clearly favored diplomacy and non-military means to address Cold War issues. About Stress At Work! As Thompson points out, Kennan opposed the decision to build the hydrogen bomb and the NATO military dimension of the North Atlantic alliance. Nitze, on analysis essay, the other hand, was more comfortable with military power and developed a correlation of forces concept in which he believed that good things would move in about stress at work or school, the U.S.’s favor if it maintained a favorable balance of narrative essay power vis-a-vis the Soviet Union and its allies. Or School! As Kennan’s successor as head of the analysis essay, Policy Planning Staff in the State Department, Nitze directed the preparation of NSC-68 which provided the rationale for a major buildup of U.S. nuclear and conventional forces around the globe and transformed Kennan’s containment strategy. Thompson also illustrates that underlying Nitze and Kennan’s growing disagreements was a fundamental difference on how to evaluate the challenges posed by essay stress, the Soviet Union. Environmental Law Dissertation! As the reviewers note, Nitze put the highest importance on about, available means. When the narrative essay, Soviet Union began to catch up with the essay stress or school, U.S. in jeff, number of essay about intercontinental missiles and two types of essay, obtain an stress or school, advantage in antithesis santantonio, total throw weight, i.e., the “heft of the essay stress, weaponry each missile could carry over a particular range,” (p. 232), Nitze, as a participant in the SALT negotiations, became increasingly concerned about an unfavorable correlation of forces, worried about a Soviet first strike with missiles, and turned against detente, Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, and Jimmy Carter. In part a personal response to two types, perceived mistreatment by Nixon and Kissinger and stress at work or school, a failure to santantonio, connect with Carter, Nitze became a founder of the Committee on Public Danger in 1976 and active public critic of SALT II.
Kennan, however, emphasized that intentions had to be considered and essay about, not just the available military power. Since 1945 Kennan had viewed the Soviet Union as a political challenge to the U.S. and not a military threat. Consequently, he dismissed Nitze’s preoccupation with missile throw-weight as far too limited of environmental law dissertation a measure of the Soviet challenge. Furthermore, Kennan worried about the essay about or school, U.S. ability to maintain control and restraint with increasing nuclear forces that would look offensive to the Soviet Union. Thompson points out that by the late 1970s Nitze and Kennan, as leaders of rival organizations, the south essays, Committee on Public Danger and the American Committee on East-West Accord, focused on reducing tensions among the at work or school, superpowers, engaged in a public campaign against each other on talk shows, before Congress, and in the press. (pp.
270-272) Most of the reviewers note that Thompson does not take sides on analysis, Nitze and Kennan and is not uncritical of either of them. Botts notes that Thompson discusses Kennan’s contradictions, his involvement in FBI surveillance of Americans in essay about at work or school, the 1960s, and his growing criticism of U.S. democracy and leadership in foreign policy with overtones of dismay at the loss of leadership by white males with elitist training and culture. (pp. 40-41, 222, 237-239) Combs detects a pattern in Nitze’s behavior from Thompson’s study: when Nitze was out of jeff thompson power he lacked restraint and engaged in at work, several disreputable attacks on officials and friends such as Paul Warnke whom Carter picked to lead SALT negotiations rather than Nitze; when in a position of influence, such as Ronald Reagan’s arms control negotiator, Nitze attempted unsuccessfully to resume, negotiate a compromise agreement on intermediate range missiles. In conclusion, Thompson gives both men credit for their contributions to the successful end to the Cold War and stresses that they complemented each other with Kennan playing a “crucial role, both in framing the conflict and then serving as the nation’s conscience as those horrifying weapons hypnotized the superpowers more and more.
Kennan, the essay stress, outsider, accurately foresaw how the Cold War would play out. Nitze, the insider helped bring about the Cold War’s end by behaving as if Kennan’s prophecy would never come true.” (p. 313) Corke, however, found a “gendered binary where Nitze appears the masculine ideal and Kennan feminine,” and law dissertation, Corke offers a number of essay about contrasts in the depictions of the two strategists. (2-3) The reviewers do raise some reservations about Thompson’s study particularly with respect to the Cold War context and specific issues. Combs suggests that the Cold War context “is often rendered so briefly and jeff resume, with such lack of nuance that a non-expert would have difficulty judging the wisdom or foolishness of the policies advocated by” Nitze and about stress or school, Kennan. (1) Where the two advisers were in agreement on policy in the early Cold War, Combs points to two types of essay, a lack of analysis on the Soviet perspective and concerns.
When Thompson shifts to their areas of disagreement, Combs finds “far more precision and nuance” as Thompson develops more of the Soviet side on arms negotiations. Botts goes further than Combs in concluding that throughout the study Thompson failed to adequately explain “why Soviet leaders did what they did or how American policy influenced their choices” which makes it difficult to judge the essay about stress or school, debate between Kennan and Nitze: “Did Soviet leaders see their arms buildup as a way to open a ‘window of vulnerability’ for the United States that would break the two types, will of the free world as Nitze and his allies in the Committee for the Present Danger argued in about stress, the late 1970s? Or did they, as Kennan alleged, invest heavily in nuclear weapons because of of essay deeply-held anxieties about the vulnerabilities of their own society and their concerns about the West’s sophisticated nuclear arsenal and the first-use doctrine embedded in NATO war plans?” (3) Thompson does refer to post-1990s studies and interviews of Soviet military planners and strategists that tend to essay about or school, provide more support for Kennan’s perspective than that of Nitze. (pp. 261-262) Since Kennan produced a number of historical works and foreign policy prescriptions, Hamby would have welcomed more attention to brooklyn, these studies, although this would necessarily take some attention away from the close comparison of Kennan with Nitze, who was far more actively engaged in policy making and about stress, produced few studies besides a memoir.
Hamby notes Kennan’s reputation as a realist and the desirability of placing him in the context of foreign policy realism and his contemporaries such as Hans J. Morgenthau and Reinhold Niebuhr. Kennan’s many studies dealing with Russia, Soviet-American relations, and south, his personal experiences in Moscow in the 1930s would have strengthened our understanding on his assumptions about the Soviet challenge and or school, how to deal with Moscow. After the roundtable was organized, Nicholas Thompson was appointed senior editor of The New Yorker. Despite many efforts, we have not been able to make contact with him since that time and thus have decided to move forward with the roundtable. Nicholas Thompson is two types, a senior editor at the New Yorker , a contributor to CNN International, a contributing editor at Bloomberg Television, and a senior fellow in the American Strategy Program at the New America Foundation. Joshua Botts earned his Ph.D. in history from the University of Virginia in 2009.
His dissertation examines neoconservative strategic culture during and after the stress at work or school, Cold War. He also wrote “‘Nothing to essay, Seek and … Nothing to essay at work, Defend’: George F. Kennan’s Core Values and American Foreign Policy, 1938-1993,” which appeared in Diplomatic History in of essay, November 2006. About Stress! He is currently a historian at the U.S. Department of State. Jerald A. Combs (Ph.D. UCLA 1964) is Professor of History Emeritus at San Francisco State University where he retired after serving nine years as chair of the environmental, History Department and essay about stress at work or school, two years as Dean of Undergraduate Studies. He is the author of The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the Founding Fathers (University of cop exemplar California Press, 1970); American Diplomatic History: Two Centuries of about at work Changing Interpretations (University of California Press, 1983); and The History of American Foreign Policy (3d ed., M.E. Sharpe, 2008). His latest publication is “A Missed Chance for Peace? Opportunities for Detente in Europe,” in The Cold War after Stalin’s Death: A Missed Opportunity for Peace? edited by Klaus Larres and Kenneth Osgood (Rowman and Littlefield, 2006). Sarah-Jane Corke is an assistant professor at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
She graduated with a Ph.D. from the University of New Brunswick in 2000. Her first book is on American Covert Operations during the thompson resume, Truman Administration. She is currently working on a history of the Psychological Strategy Board. She has published articles in Intelligence and essay about or school, National Security and The Journal of Strategic Studies. Her U.S.
Covert Operations and Cold War Strategy: Truman, Secret Warfare and the CIA, 1945-53 (2008) was the focus of a recent H-Diplo roundtable. Alonzo L. Hamby is Distinguished Professor of History at Ohio University. He is the author of five books: Beyond the jeff thompson, New Deal: Harry S. Essay About At Work! Truman and American Liberalism (Columbia University Press, 1973), The Imperial Years: The United States since 1939 (Weybright Talley, 1976), Liberalism and of essay, Its Challengers (2 nd ed., Oxford University Press, 1992), Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (Oxford University Press, 1995), and For the Survival of Democracy: Franklin Roosevelt and the World Crisis of the 1930s (Free Press, 2005), as well as numerous articles and reviews. Review by essay at work, Joshua Botts, Office of the Historian, Department of State. The views expressed here are my own and do not necessarily reflect those of the santantonio, Department of stress or school State or the U.S.
Government. B y the late 1970s,” Nicholas Thompson remarks near the end of The Hawk and the Dove , “[George] Kennan and essay, [Paul] Nitze had become the diplomatic equivalents of Larry Bird and Magic Johnson: competing icons who admired each other and would be forever linked” (270). He might have added that, for one of them to win, the other had to lose. For forty years, George Kennan and Paul Nitze embodied competing impulses toward the nuclear arms race and the Cold War. Essay About At Work! Though the two men shared many of the same priorities at the dawn of the Cold War, by the end of the Truman administration they had parted ways on many of the central questions that American policymakers faced during the south park, next forty years. Their most consequential disagreement focused upon essay about stress at work, whether American policy should be guided by increasingly dire estimates of Soviet capabilities or nuanced, sober assessments of Soviet intentions. Kennan argued that the Soviet Union was weak and that its expansionist impulses derived from its leaders’ perceptions of vulnerability. Nitze countered that Soviet power steadily escalated throughout the Cold War, culminating with his fears that Moscow was poised to wrest strategic superiority from the of essay, United States in about at work or school, the late 1970s.
Kennan thought that a more sophisticated understanding of Soviet intentions could defuse Cold War tensions. Nitze believed that greater awareness of cop exemplar essay Soviet capabilities was necessary to snap the essay stress at work, United States out of its dangerous complacency. Kennan scorned the vulgarity of jeff thompson American culture, the mediocrity of essay about stress or school American society, and south essays, the incompetence of American political institutions. Nitze remained confident of the benevolent role that the United States played in the world. Nitze and Kennan, Thompson argues, “represented two great strains of American thought during the second half of the twentieth century.” “One can understand,” he continues, “much of the story of the United States during the Cold War by examining the often parallel, and sometimes perpendicular, lives of essay about or school Paul Nitze and George Kennan” (6). In The Hawk and the Dove , Thompson grapples with central themes in the history of the Cold War by tracing the convergences and divergences between Nitze’s (who was Thompson’s grandfather) and brooklyn cop exemplar, Kennan’s prescriptions for American foreign policy between 1945 and 1991. Essay At Work Or School! When the two men agreed, as they did on the Marshall Plan, limiting Korean War aims, and opposing American intervention in Vietnam, they were usually right (though, perhaps, not when they urged the unification and neutralization of brooklyn cop exemplar essay Germany in at work or school, the late 1940s or when they participated in covert programs designed to neutralize domestic radicalism in the 1960s). Even when they disagreed, Thompson concludes, “the two men complemented each other” (313).
For Thompson, Kennan “had an uncanny ability to predict many of the great events of his lifetime,” including how the Cold War would end, how the division of Germany would harden Cold War boundaries, how the pursuit of security would result in a nuclear arms race that threatened humanity’s destruction, and how fissures in park essays, the Communist world would give American policymakers opportunities to exploit (4). Essay About Or School! Nitze, on the other hand, was responsible for transforming Kennan’s prescriptions for jeff, containment into the strategy that kept the United States and its allies safe until the end of the Cold War. By following Nitze’s “militant version of essay about or school containment,” by “making the United States a less tempting target for the Soviets and negotiating deals that would make an attack less likely,” the United States outlasted the law dissertation, Soviet Union (312). In telling Nitze and Kennan’s story, Thompson employs a wide variety of stress published and unpublished sources, including interviews and privately held manuscripts unavailable to previous biographers. Thompson’s memories of Nitze and his use of Kennan’s diaries give his book a uniquely intimate perspective on their lives. That intimacy allows readers to jeff thompson resume, imagine Nitze family tennis tournaments and to glimpse Kennan’s anxieties about the propriety of his private conduct. More significantly for scholars, Thompson’s access to new sources also reveals new details about both men’s involvement in the Cold War. This is stress at work, especially true for Nitze, whose personal papers at the Library of Congress remain closed to the public. Narrative! Thompson uses these papers in essay stress at work or school, two ways.
First, he employs Nitze’s personal notes from significant meetings to link his subject to the ebb and flow of the Cold War. During the park essays, Kennedy administration, for example, Thompson traces the mounting pressure to intervene in stress, Vietnam through Nitze’s eyes (180) and describes the uncertainties in ExComm that prevented an immediate preemptive attack on brooklyn cop exemplar essay, Soviet missiles in Cuba through Nitze’s hand (184). Secondly, Thompson uses Nitze’s marginal notes on personal copies of Kennan’s speeches and essays to essay about stress at work, enrich and enliven the brooklyn cop exemplar essay, dialogue between the two men. About Stress At Work! For instance, after Kennan spoke before the Council on two types, Foreign Relations in 1977 to criticize his “friends” who “lose themselves in the fantastic reaches of what I might call military mathematics” and suggest that Americans set aside “all the arguments about who could conceivably do what to whom if their intentions were the nastiest,” Nitze marked up a copy of Kennan’s speech to challenge his friend’s characterization of Brezhnev as “a man of peace” and refute his fear that “the uncertainties [the arms race] involves are rapidly growing beyond the power of either human mind or computer” (269-270). As effective as Thompson is in using Nitze’s personal papers, his priority is engaging a popular audience. Historians still have to imagine the ways those sources will add to their understanding of Nitze’s role in the Cold War when they become available for public use.
Thompson’s use of new sources from Kennan’s manuscripts is also enticing. Though two generations of scholars have explored the complicated story of “Mr. X” and his relationship to American foreign policy during the Cold War, their work has to be reassessed in light of the new information that has become available since his death. Previous Kennan biographers, for example, could not describe his participation in the FBI’s surveillance of domestic radicals in the 1960s. We already knew that Kennan argued with student radicals in the pages of the New York Times Magazine , but Thompson tells us about Kennan’s involvement in COINTELPRO. In the same vein, Thompson uses Kennan’s diaries to illustrate the depth of his alienation from American political and social life, providing additional support for essay about stress or school, a major theme in the existing literature. Thompson’s portrait of Kennan does not undermine prevailing scholarly views, but it does suggest that forthcoming work based on newly available sources – like John Lewis Gaddis’s authorized biography – will tell us a lot more about him than we already know. Thompson begins The Hawk and the Dove with vivid descriptions of santantonio Nitze’s and Kennan’s experience of the end of World War II. In April 1945, Kennan found himself in Moscow, confronted with a throng of Russians celebrating victory over Germany. He worried that Joseph Stalin would pursue a very different kind of vision from stress or school, his putative allies in Washington and, even more anxiously, that American policymakers would remain unaware of the environmental law dissertation, challenges the Soviet Union posed to U.S. objectives.
Nitze found himself interrogating Albert Speer, the logistical alchemist who kept the Nazi war machine moving despite relentless British and American strategic bombing campaigns targeting German industries. By the end of the summer, Nitze had been reassigned to the Pacific, where he evaluated the essay stress at work or school, atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The two men’s experiences – one absorbed in divining Soviet intentions and explaining them to disinterested officials in Washington and the other engaged in evaluations of strategic doctrines and examining the aftermath of a nuclear war – shaped their priorities for the next four decades. After establishing Kennan’s and Nitze’s personalities with accounts of the austerity and alienation that filled the former’s journey from Wisconsin to Princeton and beyond and the conviviality and confidence that the latter displayed as he marched from Harvard to Wall Street to Washington, Thompson surveys their contributions to Truman’s foreign policy. He provides the immediate context for initiatives like the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Airlift, the Korean War, and jeff, the hydrogen bomb, but his discussion of the Cold War is clearly intended for general readers and not professional historians. Indeed, as Thompson follows Kennan’s and Nitze’s lives in about stress, the aftermath of their heroic days in the Truman administration, his ambitious attempt to draw as much of the history of the Cold War as possible into his book leads to frequent tangents that seem unconnected to Nitze’s and law dissertation, Kennan’s fundamental debate. Narrative threads like U.S. Navy warrant officer John Walker’s espionage for the Soviet Union (214-216) appear and disappear without much explanation for how they relate to the whole. In an attempt to broaden his book, Thompson neglected opportunities to deepen his analysis of his key themes. The most significant of these missed opportunities lies in Thompson’s abbreviated efforts to integrate recent scholarship about Soviet decision-making with his evaluation of Nitze and Kennan’s debate about nuclear weapons and U.S. foreign policy. Without explaining why Soviet leaders did what they did or how American policy influenced their choices, Thompson can offer only essay about at work or school shaky conclusions in his assessment of the decades-long debate between Nitze the hawk and Kennan the dove.
Should American policy be guided by Nitze’s increasingly dire estimates of Soviet capabilities or by Kennan’s nuanced, sober assessments of Soviet intentions? With brief discussions of probable Soviet reactions to American restraint in 1950 (109), of Leonid Brezhnev’s anxieties about Soviet military spending (234), of jeff Soviet anxieties about essay about or school American technological prowess and intentions and brooklyn cop exemplar, the boundless appetite of the Soviet military-industrial complex during the at work, 1970s (261-262) and Mikhail Gorbachev’s prioritization of domestic reform over military spending in 1980s (307-308), Thompson gives his readers insufficient evidence to judge the merits of his protagonists’ cases. Did Soviet leaders see their arms buildup as a way to open a “window of antithesis vulnerability” for the United States that would break the will of the free world, as Nitze and his allies in the Committee for the Present Danger argued in the late 1970s? Or did they, as Kennan alleged, invest heavily in nuclear weapons because of essay about stress at work deeply-held anxieties about the brooklyn cop exemplar, vulnerabilities of at work or school their own society and thompson, their concerns about the West’s sophisticated nuclear arsenal and the first-use doctrine embedded in NATO war plans? Was the arms race a consequence of about at work or school Soviet malevolence or did it reflect a security dilemma that grew out of the thompson, sense of vulnerability that plagued both the United States and the Soviet Union in the nuclear age? Thompson never really engages this question, but his conclusion, that Nitze’s militarized containment and his zealous attention to the nuclear balance between the two superpowers kept the United States safe until the fulfillment of Kennan’s prophesy of a Soviet collapse, only makes sense if he embraces Nitze’s perspective. To the about at work, limited extent that his book addresses Soviet decision-making, the evidence does not address the veracity of Nitze’s fears and therefore does not justify Thompson’s claims. The Hawk and south park, the Dove is an engaging biography of two men who made significant contributions to America’s Cold War.
It offers general readers a compelling reminder of the fears and passions inspired by essay about, the nuclear arms race. It anticipates a new round of scholarship on narrative analysis essay, George Kennan and at work, teases historians with glimpses of the materials hidden in boxes of Paul Nitze’s papers in the Library of Congress. Scholars should appreciate those virtues even as they recognize its weaknesses. Thompson has vividly captured the lives of these “icons” of the Cold War that will be “forever linked,” but, because he does not establish which man “won,” we are still left to argue just who was Magic and who was Bird in law dissertation, the great Cold War debate. Review by Jerald A. Combs, Professor of History Emeritus, San Francisco State University. N icholas Thompson, the grandson of Paul Nitze, has written a fascinating dual biography of his grandfather and George Kennan, Nitze’s most prominent rival as a defense and foreign policy intellectual. Thompson’s connection to Nitze gave him access to essay about stress or school, a great deal of unexploited material, including the narrative, private papers of his grandfather and Kennan’s private diaries. He also gained revealing interviews with prominent players in the episodes that featured the at work or school, two protagonists.
With these resources, Thompson has been able to go beyond the extant literature, which has done well in south park essays, analyzing the policies of Nitze and Kennan, to delve more deeply into the rationales, motives, and emotions behind those policies. This book is intended for the general reader as well as the scholar. The writing is essay about stress, direct, clear, and filled with colorful anecdotes, personalities, and thompson resume, odd facts. Essay About Or School! The scholar will notice, however, that the brooklyn cop exemplar essay, Cold War context of the or school, conflict between Nitze and Kennan is often rendered so briefly and with such a lack of jeff resume nuance that a non-expert would have difficulty judging the wisdom or foolishness of the policies advocated by the two men. This is particularly the essay or school, case in Thompson’s descriptions of the early Cold War when Nitze and Kennan were in south essays, general agreement about the need to contain the Soviet Union. Thus, the author states baldly that Kennan favored a hard policy toward the Soviet Union because “he had seen the Soviets double-cross the United States repeatedly over the war’s final months.” (p. 49) He does not discuss what those double-crosses were or what the Soviet perspective on those issues might have been, and thus it is just assumed that containment was necessary. In describing the run-up to the Korean War, he states that “In the South the Americans had installed Syngman Rhee, a devout Christian with a Ph.D. in politics from Princeton.” (p.
127) He offers no further description of the chaotic and repressive situation in South Korea, but simply points out essay at work or school, that Stalin approved Kim Il-Sung’s request to invade and thus makes it a given that Nitze and jeff, Kennan were correct to approve U.S. intervention. He recites Communist moves in Europe in 1948, including the Berlin Blockade, without mentioning that the Allies had already decided to essay about or school, unite their zones and law dissertation, issue a separate currency, thereby challenging Stalin’s hold over eastern Germany. Thus, in almost every case where Nitze and Kennan were in agreement, the situation is described in such a way as to assume that their policies were correct. Thompson treats the areas in about at work, which Nitze and Kennan clashed with far more precision and nuance. He does simply label the two men hawk and dove in the title of the book and idealist and realist in body of his work. He is law dissertation, certainly correct that Nitze was a hawk who almost always urged massive increases in arms along with a considerable readiness to about at work or school, use them while Kennan for the most part urged restraint in the building and thompson, use of arms. Or School! He is also correct that Nitze was an idealist in that he believed that the United States, as the center of power in of essay, the free world, had to arm itself and act boldly to frustrate the Kremlin and change the world for the better.
If America wanted peace, it had to prepare for war by acquiring as much military power as it possibly could. Meanwhile, Kennan was a realist in that he believed it was best for the United States to avoid grandstanding and meddling in about stress or school, cultures it did not understand. Instead, the nation should cultivate “an attitude of detachment and soberness and two types, readiness to reserve judgment.” (p. About Stress! 133) But Thompson goes well beyond the labels of narrative analysis hawk and about, dove or idealist and realist in his analyses of the policy conflicts between the two rivals. First, he points out santantonio, that Nitze and Kennan were actually in essay stress, agreement at brooklyn essay several of what Thompson calls “strange” but “critical” moments in the Cold War. Nitze played a significant role in helping Kennan to implement his policy of containment, especially in essay stress or school, formulating the Marshall Plan. Nitze went on to agree with Kennan about avoiding the division of south park Germany between East and West, although Nitze abandoned his opposition long before Kennan did. Nitze and Kennan agreed on the intervention in Korea and essay at work or school, both argued against going north of the 38 th parallel. Law Dissertation! They both opposed the CIA intervention against Mossadegh in Iran. They also both opposed escalation in Vietnam, although Nitze temporarily backed away from his opposition at the very moment he might have had an essay about or school, effect on Lyndon Johnson.
Finally, after the analysis essay, Cold War had ended, Nitze came around to agree with Kennan that the United States should seek the total elimination of nuclear weapons. The disagreements between Nitze and Kennan, however, were far more profound and had much greater impact on American foreign policy than their agreements. The most important disagreement between them was the role of essay about stress or school military arms in containing Communism. Kennan opposed building the hydrogen bomb; Nitze favored it. Kennan opposed the park essays, creation of NATO; Nitze not only favored NATO but pushed for a major expansion of it in essay stress or school, authoring NSC-68. In NSC-68, he argued specifically that the United States should seek a preponderance rather than a mere balance of power.
He especially wanted a preponderance at the nuclear level on the grounds that it would permit a greater freedom of action at resume lower levels of conflict. As he put it in essay, chess terms, if you were superior at the level of the queen, you could more easily maneuver your pawns. Later on, as the environmental, Soviet Union built its own nuclear forces, Nitze argued more often that the United States needed to build its arms to prevent the Soviets from achieving a preponderance of power rather than to achieve a preponderance itself. About Stress At Work Or School! At times he supported arms control efforts that would have restrained U.S. arms building and thus seemed to narrative analysis essay, advocate at least some moderation in American policy. But Thompson points out in the most interesting part of his book that Nitze was almost always more restrained when he was in power than when he was out. As a member of the SALT I team negotiating arms control under Richard Nixon, he was willing to trade limits on missile defense for limits on the Soviet lead in large intercontinental missiles that could carry a great number of nuclear warheads. But he soon found that National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger considered the SALT delegation irrelevant to his personal negotiations. Kissinger first tried to get Nitze to act as a back channel to himself and the president, thus circumventing the leader of the delegation, Gerard Smith, whom they distrusted. When Nitze refused, Kissinger disparaged Nitze’s calculations as Talmudic and dismissed the about stress, delegation as a disaster. Nixon and antithesis santantonio, Kissinger even believed that Nitze had had a part in leaking the Pentagon Papers to the press. Consequently, Kissinger ignored the about stress or school, SALT team and brooklyn cop exemplar essay, traded an Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty for a temporary agreement limiting missiles but setting no limit on the size and throw-weight of the missiles.
Kissinger and Nixon figured that given the essay about or school, greater accuracy of environmental law dissertation U.S. missiles plus the fact that neither the missiles of the NATO allies nor America’s lead in aircraft-delivered warheads were counted against the American side, the two sides would achieve a rough parity. But Nitze was livid about the essay about stress or school, agreement, and his mood was not improved when Nixon and Kissinger kept the SALT delegation in Helsinki rather than bringing its members to the 1972 Moscow Summit where final adjustments to the agreement were made. Nixon and Kissinger called only at the last minute for the delegation to come to Moscow for the signing. Jeff Thompson! Nitze found himself stranded at essay stress at work the Moscow airport, arrived late to narrative analysis, the ceremony, and was left standing in the hall as Nixon and Brezhnev departed with their entourages. When Kissinger began negotiating SALT II. he again bypassed the SALT delegation and essay at work, omitted the issue of throw-weight from the agreement. Nitze resigned in the midst of the negotiations and in the process did his best to sabotage both SALT II and detente. He publicly said that no reasonable arms control deal would be possible until the president began to uphold the jeff, Constitution. He created a furor by leaking the existence of stress at work or school Kissinger’s back channels. He fed Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson, the leader of the Democratic hawks, questions he could use to embarrass Kissinger when Kissinger appeared before the Senate Armed Services Committee in defense of the SALT negotiations.
Nitze supported Jimmy Carter’s election, but when Carter did not select him for jeff thompson resume, an important defense position in about stress, the administration, he attacked Carter’s policies just as he had Nixon’s. As a member of the CIA Team B, appointed by President Gerald Ford to check on CIA National Intelligence Estimates of Soviet military strength that Nizte and other hawks considered too low, he embarrassed the Carter administration and the CIA by claiming the Soviets were far stronger than the park essays, CIA estimated and much more malevolently intentioned. He also organized the Committee on the Present Danger to publicize this view, and in the process brought together Scoop Jackson Democrats and Goldwater Republicans in a coalition that would be later dubbed neoconservative. Essay About Stress Or School! In the process, he testified before the Senate committee considering Carter’s appointment of narrative essay Paul Warnke to lead the SALT negotiations. Nitze, who obviously thought that he rather than Warnke should have had the position, told the committee that his old friend was not only wrong and weak on defense, but also was not a good American. He then helped to derail Senate ratification of SALT II. Once Nitze was back in power, however, his tendencies toward a measure of restraint returned. Appointed by Reagan along with many of stress at work Nitze’s fellow member of the Committee on the Present Danger to lead the administration’s arms control negotiations, Nitze took his famous “walk in the wood” to try to cop exemplar essay, fashion a compromise agreement over intermediate range missiles in Europe.
Both the Soviet and American governments rejected the agreement as unauthorized and too moderate. Moreover, while Nitze favored Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative and did his part to undermine the ABM treaty that hindered its development, he did not share Reagan’s illusions that Star Wars could actually intercept a Soviet missile attack. Instead, he thought it would be an excellent bargaining chip to trade for the Soviet giant missiles and essay about stress, their throw-weight. Santantonio! Thus, Thompson concludes, while Nitze was excessively hawkish in his policies and none too scrupulous in promoting them, he was ultimately a pragmatist willing to work things out with America’s adversaries. Thompson regards Kennan’s policies of restraint toward the Soviet Union more favorably than he does Nitze’s hawkish views despite the author’s relationship to Nitze. While Thompson ignored the Soviet side of things in his treatment of the stress or school, early Cold War, he makes good use of of essay Soviet sources in his account of the later period and concludes that Kennan was more correct about Soviet capabilities and intentions than Nitze. While Thompson implies that Kennan sometimes placed too much emphasis on the Soviet Union’s supposed intentions and too little on its actual capabilities, he defends Kennan against Nitze’s claim that Kennan went so far as to insist that Western Europe needed no more than a couple of essay about stress divisions to defend itself. Thomson also agrees with Kennan’s insistence that the containment policy he originally devised was intended to be primarily political rather than military, and that the militarized containment policy brought about by Nitze’s NSC-68 and antithesis santantonio, the Korean War went well beyond his recommendations. About At Work Or School! But Thompson goes on to point out the various times that Kennan supported CIA interventions and narrative analysis essay, military actions that pushed the essay about stress, boundaries of political containment.
Thompson also recounts the ungracious and dissembling way Kennan responded to those individuals, like political scientist C. Ben Wright, who called attention to thompson, episodes that challenged Kennan’s sense of his own past conduct. Thompson’s primary criticism of Kennan is not of Kennan’s policy of restrained political containment but the reasons Kennan advocated it. Kennan’s realist policy was not based exclusively on essay about at work or school, an attractive modesty about America’s supposedly unique virtues or the effectiveness of U.S. intervention into cultures it did not understand well. Instead, his approach was influenced by his belief that democracies were too irrational to follow a proper policy of the sort that wise and educated men like himself would advocate. This was especially true, in his opinion, of a democracy like the United States, which Kennan saw as declining in intelligence and morality as its core of Northern European manly culture was diluted and corrupted by the rise in influence of lesser ethnicities, genders, and cultures. This bigoted and analysis, reactionary side of essay stress at work or school Kennan has been exposed to some extent by environmental law dissertation, Kennan’s previous biographers, but it comes through more powerfully in quotations Thompson found in Kennan’s private diaries. In the about or school, end, however, Thompson takes a rather benign view of his two protagonists despite their various lapses. Jeff Resume! Kennan was often wise in his counsels of restraint. Nitze usually came around to a pragmatic view of American policy. And throughout their long rivalry, the two maintained a civilized relationship.
As angry and stress at work or school, dismissive as they might be of the one another’s views at times, they exchanged civil letters, hosted one another at south essays social events, and even toasted one another graciously at Kennan’s 80 th birthday party. As Nitze remarked during that party, he never had any differences with Kennan “except over matters of substance.” (p. 2) Review by essay stress or school, Sarah-Jane Corke, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. I n the law dissertation, spring of 1995, as I began the research for my doctoral dissertation, I traveled to Independence, Missouri.
One of my goals, while visiting the Harry S Truman Library, was to look at about stress at work Paul Nitze’s oral history. Narrative! When I asked to do so the archivist at or school the time, Denis Bilger, told me that it was unavailable. Resume! According to about at work or school, Bilger a few years earlier Nitze had sealed his account after someone had published an article that showed the former director of the Policy Planning Staff in a negative light. Cop Exemplar Essay! Bilger told me that my only recourse was to essay stress, write to Nitze and park, request his permission. Essay At Work Or School! I was initially skeptical but I sent the letter anyway. In my note I told him I was working on my Ph.D. and was looking at how covert operations designed to “liberate” Eastern Europe and “rollback” Soviet power could be understood within the context of a strategy of “containment”. Much to jeff, my surprise about about at work a month or so later I received his reply. The letter read in part: “The hope and expectation of the containment doctrine was that, if the two types of essay, USSR could be denied the capture and about at work or school, exploitation of additional territory by military means, their top people would look inward and begin to thompson, face their panoply of about at work or school external problems… We thought it might be useful and wouldn’t hurt much, to brooklyn essay, give the process a push by or school, overt or covert stratagems.” He went on environmental, to note that George “Kennan was a much more ardent supporter of roll-back efforts” than he. Apparently, Nitze “was leery of essay stress or school covert operations because he doubted the ability of the American “military capability to carry [them] through to success in the face of the Soviet reaction.” These were shocking words. This was 1995 and the first FRUS volume on intelligence would not be released until the following year. Thus I had to essays, wonder if perhaps Nitze was being a bit disingenuous.
His note contradicted the conventional wisdom that Kennan was the author of a strategy of containment, and at work or school, Nitze, under the guise of NSC 68, had not only militarized Kennan’s strategic vision but also called for a dramatic increase in the number of covert operations conducted by the CIA. Of course the political scientist Beatrice Heuser, and the historians Eduard Mark, Walter Hixson and Melvyn Leffler had all suggested that perhaps Kennan’s strategy went beyond that of the containment of the Soviet threat, and a few journalists had brought to light the covert operations that had taken place during Truman’s presidency. Aside from the vague references in the NSC policy papers, however, there was very little primary source evidence to support these claims. As a result, the majority of scholars remained wedded to the traditional argument. Despite the vast array of new evidence available today, and the number of books and articles that have been published on park, the subject, sadly this continues to be the case. Nicholas Thompson is no exception. Essay About At Work Or School! His is very much a traditional history of the cold war. Despite his orthodox interpretation, which is somewhat surprising given his position at Wired magazine, which purports to be “on the front lines of the 21 st century,” it troubles me that he remains wedded to the belief “that for the most part” the United States “was never actually trying to roll back the thompson, Soviet Union.” More importantly, perhaps, although he does recognize that Kennan was, at least initially, a strong advocate of essay or school covert operations, he gives us no hint whatsoever about how his grandfather felt about these campaigns.
Yet, despite the lack of a substantive discussion on jeff resume, his grandfather’s position, a subject, which perhaps only about stress at work I am interested in, I did find his biography noteworthy for what it tells us about the relationship between the two directors of the law dissertation, Policy Planning Staff under Harry Truman. About! However, what I took away from Thompson’s story was probably not what he intended. Throughout the manuscript he maintains that Nitze and Kennan were “friends,” albeit not best friends. (6) Yet I have to confess that I came away with a fundamentally different conclusion: Nitze really did not like Kennan very much. To be fair Thompson does concede that his grandfather liked to tell “slightly spurious stories” about the so-called father of containment. Yet to an outsider looking in, it would appear that his grandfather’s “spurious stories” directly impacted his grandson’s view of George Kennan. This tension comes out in the language that Thompson uses to characterize the brooklyn cop exemplar essay, two men. Throughout the book he sets up Nitze and Kennan as cold war archetypes: the essay at work or school, hawk and environmental, the dove—the realist and essay about, the idealist. But he goes farther than this and creates a gendered binary where Nitze appears the masculine ideal and Kennan feminine. For example he writes that Nitze was active and analysis, adventurous, an “insider,” and a “doer.” He was always “organized,” “logical,” “rational,” and “practical.” He was also “scientific” in how he approached the essay about at work, challenges he faced and was “great with numbers.” Moreover he was “popular,” and “confident.” Not only was he always “the smartest man in the room,” but he was a great dresser to boot. Apparently at one point in his life he was robbed and jeff thompson, the only about stress or school thing the thief stole was his clothes! (94-95, 281, 284) Kennan in contrast, was a “poet,” a “thinker” “a designer,” and “a luddite.” No one “felt deeper, thought harder or wrote more beautifully.” Moreover Kennan’s ultimate goal in life was simply to achieve “peace and quiet.” And when he got it, according to Thompson, “he used it to two types, flagellate himself.” …Hmmm….. Moreover, unlike Nitze he was always in “doubt, both of himself and others.” Kennan was both a “fatalist,” and “an outsider.” He was prone to “tantrums” and at one point Thompson tells us that his tactics “reeked of Nixon.” I have to assume that he does not mean this in stress or school, a positive sense.
Indeed, he later compares Kennan to a pterodactyl, which, at least according to analysis, my dictionary, is an extinct flying reptile. To make matters worse, unlike Nitze who was a snazzy dresser, Kennan was color-blind. (226, 254, 256) If you have not bought my argument yet compare Thompson’s use of language when he talks about how each man dealt with difficult challenges. In this context, Nitze becomes “alarmed” by events, while Kennan is essay about stress, “afraid.” His bias even comes across even when he is praising Kennan and criticizing his grandfather. For example he writes that while Kennan had “keen powers of persuasion,” they were “marred with profound vulnerability.” But when “Nitze lost his cool” it was because he was a fiendishly clever man… who was “slow to environmental law dissertation, take orders” and was challenging only those whose job he coveted. (192) The subtext here is of course that he was ambitious. A quality heralded in essay about stress or school, men but seldom in women. Park Essays! Women, at least in the olden days, were coveted precisely because of their vulnerability. Despite his reliance on gendered stereotypes, which I find more interesting than problematic, I have no doubt that this book will contribute to the growing historiography that challenges our perception of Kennan as the master strategist of the cold war; and rightly so.
It will also further damage Kennan’s personal reputation as we find out that not only essay stress was he a philanderer, a racist and an anti-Semite but he was also emotionally unstable as well. At one point he considered taking a cyanide capsule after “a fling with some dame.” (138) Now don’t get me wrong, this was a fun book to read and I have my own problems with Kennan, who by south essays, his own admission was a sexist. For this and a number of other reasons I enjoyed the book immensely. It was wonderfully written and contains a number of interesting insights into the characters of essay both men as well as some juicy tidbits that will keep you interested to of essay, the end. It will no doubt garner a wide audience beyond the readers of H-Diplo, which is a good thing.
I only essay about at work or school wish that Thompson had been as forthcoming about his grandfather as he was about Kennan. Environmental! But then perhaps Aleksandr Savelyev was right when he suggested “Nitze was a god”. (3) P.S. Despite Nitze’s letter to me, which I spent more money framing than any piece of art I have bought since, I was still denied access to his oral history. Perhaps I’ve never got over about that…. Review by Alonzo L. Hamby, Ohio University. G eorge Kennan and Paul Nitze, Nicholas Thompson tells us, “were the only two people to be deeply involved in American foreign policy from the outset of the Cold War until its end.” (2) Writing from a unique perspective as one of Nitze’s grandsons, he surveys a half-century relationship between two respectful antagonists who represent a yin and yang of sorts in post-World War II American foreign policy. Scholars of American foreign relations will find little that is new in Mr.
Thompson’s engaging narrative, save perhaps for an occasional tidbit regarding Nitze’s role in the Reagan administration’s arms limitations negotiations. Nonetheless, he has researched his subjects with a thoroughness that academics can admire. An editor at Wired magazine? he writes fluently and focuses as much on character as on law dissertation, policy. Essay Stress At Work Or School! Eschewing stereotypes, he depicts two individuals with considerably different personalities and modes of policy conceptualization, reacting to fluid situations with less predictability than his title leads us to expect. The Kennan story will be more familiar to most readers of H-Diplo. Mr. Thompson adds no new twists. He effectively recounts the saga of a boy born to a moderately well-off family in Milwaukee, only two months old when his mother died, raised by sisters and an indifferent stepmother, sent off to a military prep school, going on to college at Princeton.
The common theme in two types, all these phases of his life seems to be one of unhappiness, anxiety, and essay stress, loneliness, expressed from an early age through poetry that revealed a rare literary talent. The one hero of his formative years seems to have been a distant relative, also named George Kennan, with whom he shared a birthday. A prolific liberal-minded writer on south park essays, Russian culture and essay stress or school, politics, the environmental law dissertation, early Kennan seems to essay about at work or school, have sparked an interest in Russian history and culture that defined the career of his young cousin. The Foreign Service, a Russian/East European specialization, then postings to Moscow and other important European capitals followed. The Nitze story is less well known.
His father, a University of thompson resume Chicago professor of about at work philology, was rigorous and demanding. His non-conventional mother dabbled in radical politics, was attracted to avant-garde art, and took her son on trips to Europe. Mr. Thompson depicts a boy and young man who was well-adjusted, socially adept, and successful in almost everything he attempted. “Kennan never fit in,” Thompson observes, “Nitze always did.” (24) He moved effortlessly from Chicago to Hotchkiss prep school to Harvard, where he achieved the ultimate distinction of being elected to Porcellian. After graduation, he took a job with the law dissertation, prestigious financial house Dillon Read and became a protege of James Forrestal. About Stress! In 1940, Forrestal accepted a call to law dissertation, the Roosevelt White House as a presidential assistant.
One of his first acts was to essay at work, send a telegram to his younger aide: “Be in Washington on environmental law dissertation, Monday.” (38) The end of World War II found Nitze working with the Strategic Bombing Survey, interviewing Nazis (including Albert Speer) in Germany, then pondering the impact of nuclear weapons as he examined the ruins of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. Nitze’s conclusion in essay about stress or school, the Survey’s final report that the atomic bomb was not the major reason for Japan’s surrender, Thompson declares? “was not merited by the evidence.” (66) The author never quite explains this uncharacteristic analytical lapse. Perhaps Nitze tailored his conclusion to conform to Air Force doctrine that emphasized conventional strategic bombing. Nitze, the author tells us, does seem to have been convinced that the of essay, bomb, for all its power, was essentially another weapon. It is true that at the very beginning of the nuclear age conventional bombing raids were capable of inflicting equally extensive (if non-radioactive) devastation on essay, other Japanese cities. Throughout the rest of his career, Nitze would be among those strategists (Henry Kissinger among them) willing to think out loud about the unthinkable—a winnable nuclear war. His bottom-line conviction was that power and the willingness to use it constituted the bottom line of national strength. Kennan, back in Moscow for the opening salvos of the Cold War, received a request from Washington for an analysis of park essays Soviet obstreperousness in the months after the Japanese surrender. Essay About Or School! The result—his famous “long telegram” later published as “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” in jeff resume, Foreign Affairs —soon had him back in Washington at at work or school the head of south essays a new Policy Planning Staff under Secretary of at work or school State George C. Marshall.
One of his colleagues in the new enterprise was Paul Nitze. The two men admired each other and maintained a personal friendship for the rest of their lives; professionally, however, they were soon antagonists. In the long telegram, Kennan had laid down the doctrine of containment, but he also possessed the professional diplomat’s aversion to military force, had an acute understanding of the limits of jeff American power, and thought of containment as something to be pursued by soft means. Nitze, unencumbered by the inhibitions of the diplomatist, continued to assume the primacy of about at work or school power in narrative analysis, international relations. Kennan recoiled from essay about stress at work, American universalism, as expressed in the Truman Doctrine; Nitze welcomed it as a sign of American toughness and resolve. The two men agreed on the Marshall Plan, but diverged again on the North Atlantic Treaty, especially its military component, NATO.
They also were at odds on the decision to build the antithesis, hydrogen bomb. Nitze, the author makes clear, was no warmonger; he always sought deterrence, not preventive war. Essay About Stress At Work! Nor was Kennan a dreamy pacifist; in mid-1950, he backed the decision to use military force in Korea. Nearly thirty years later at the onset of the Iranian hostage crisis, he was willing to support a declaration of antithesis war against the Islamic Republic. Still, the general inclinations of the two were clear, and Nitze’s temperament meshed far better with that of Marshall’s successor as Secretary of State, the blunt, no-nonsense Dean Acheson. Nitze replaced Kennan as the about stress at work, head of analysis Policy Planning in 1949.
In 1950, Kennan began his disengagement from the department. By then, with Acheson’s encouragement and support Nitze had spearheaded the production of NSC-68, a policy document geared toward a defense buildup of essay stress at work or school wartime proportions. This early history of the Kennan-Nitze relationship established a pattern that would prevail for a period of some forty years in which both affected American foreign relations as influential policy formulators and/or critics. Many readers of antithesis santantonio this book will be struck by the limitations both displayed. Nitze’s NSC-68, for example, sought to remedy real deficiencies in deployable U.S. military strength, but overshot the at work, mark. Harry Truman refused to sign off on it until the jeff resume, third month of the Korean War; Dwight Eisenhower effectively cancelled it upon becoming president. As late as the 1980s, Nitze was aligned with individuals willing to argue that the United States could survive a nuclear exchange in which as many as twenty million Americans might be killed. Yet at the same time he was an arms negotiator in the Reagan administration and essay about stress at work or school, sincerely dedicated to the quest for a strategic arms limitations agreement. The quality of Kennan’s mind and the seductiveness of of essay his prose have obscured his own weaknesses, both as a man of action and as a thinker. Made ambassador to the Soviet Union in the final year of the Truman administration, he hardly had time to get settled before being thrown out for declaring that the experience was comparable to essay at work or school, his internment by law dissertation, the Nazis after Pearl Harbor. Essay Stress! As undiplomatic as it was truthful, the ill-considered remark deprived the United States of valuable services Kennan could have rendered from Moscow.
Appointed ambassador to jeff thompson resume, Yugoslavia by John F. Kennedy, he unnecessarily antagonized Yugoslav dictator Joseph Broz Tito, whom he criticized for essay about stress, supporting Nikita Khrushchev’s resumption of nuclear testing. He then irritated Kennedy and influential congressmen by lobbying too insistently for favored trade status for Yugoslavia. Narrative Essay! After two years he resigned, having failed to make the most of his position at a strategic outpost of the essay about stress at work, Cold War. As one of his subordinates put it, “he was a better writer than an ambassador.” (183) But perhaps he was also a better writer than a foreign policy thinker. Throughout his career, Kennan complained about being misunderstood. Walter Lippmann, who wrote a dozen articles, later published as a small book, attacking “The Sources of brooklyn cop exemplar essay Soviet Conduct,” is the best-known example, but hardly the only one.
Until Kennan published his memoirs, many liberals thought him an amoral cynic of essay stress at work Metternichian proportions. He was not good at managing the tug of war between the foreign policy realism to environmental, which he was rationally attached and the highly developed moral sense that he felt deeply. Perhaps it was this struggle that led him at times into foreign policy prescriptions that were almost other-worldly, such as his advocacy in the 1956 Reith lectures of German reunification and neutralization. At times, Kennan conveyed the impression that he believed diplomacy could be successfully conducted without deployable power. An elitist who believed foreign relations should be run by about or school, educated and experienced gentlemen like himself, he was tone deaf to the imperatives of brooklyn democratic politics. If nothing else, Paul Nitze served as a necessary counterbalance.
Kennan’s thinking requires much more development than Thompson gives it. Kennan’s classic American Diplomacy (1950) receives scant examination. His historical works are dutifully mentioned but given little or no analysis. His two volumes of memoirs, which the author rightly tells us rank with The Education of Henry Adams as literary masterpieces, rate two pages of summary. Kennan’s influential and widely read Russia and essay about stress or school, the West under Lenin and environmental law dissertation, Stalin (1960) is not mentioned. Nor is there any effort to develop a context for his thinking within a larger school of foreign policy realism.
Kennan was often bracketed with Hans J. Morgenthau and Reinhold Niebuhr, neither of whom appear in this book. By contrast, Paul Nitze comes across as little more than a pragmatic technocrat, and about at work, something of a one-dimensional foil to the visionary Kennan. Nitze, it is true, did not reveal a tenth as much of himself to a wide public as did Kennan and thus can easily be thought a man of analysis limited capacities. Still, the author’s memory of about Gramps sipping red wine and reading Joseph Conrad suggests a wider-ranging mind than we see in his narrative. (“Missiles are boring,” Nitze tells his grandson. “Conrad is thompson, interesting.” () It is a shame that we cannot know more about about stress at work or school what seems to essay, have been a complex inner self. Nicholas Thompson has given us a well-crafted piece of popular history that will motivate at least some of its readers to delve more deeply into the lives of its protagonists and to learn more about the Cold War in which they were soldiers. Response by Nicholas Thompson, The New Yorker. I t is an honor to have had my book critiqued by four scholars, all of whom clearly read with care. Each also asks questions I had not thought of, and offers lines of inquiry that I would like to about at work, pursue. I am of course, delighted, by santantonio, the various compliments.
As a general response, I note that there is a slight tension in the critiques and essay, the praise given to of essay, the book. The central theme of the praise is that the book is briskly written; the central theme of the criticism is about or school, that it would have been better had it delved more deeply into one of several complicated subject areas. Briskness and thoroughness are not, of course, mutually exclusive, and I would hope that all the reviewers would agree that there are some parts of the Cold War into which I dug quite deeply. But should add that one reason the book is readable is because it is relatively narrow. I constantly crossed out potential chapters and sections in two types, a desperate effort to essay about at work, keep the book relatively contained, no pun intended. I wanted to cover the Cold War, and the lives of two extraordinary men, in a volume that would not be so thick that it would menace people, unread, from law dissertation, their bookshelves. That defense is not of course absolute. I certainly could have added some material and left out other parts of the book. I agree, actually, with Professor Combs that I should have spent more time explaining the historical context in essay or school, situations where Kennan and Nitze agreed, particularly regarding policy toward Berlin in the late 1940s.
Professor Hamby is correct to flag the fact that I was not able to offer a complete and persuasive explanation for Nitze’s puzzling analysis of the law dissertation, bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; that episode remains, to essay about stress at work or school, me, one of the mysteries of his life. Professor Corke is correct to note that I do not add a great deal to the historical literature about Nitze’s involvement in early CIA operations; I just didn’t find any. Mr. Botts is, I believe, correct in his critique that I didn’t spend sufficient time explaining what recent Soviet archives teach us about the nuclear policy of the U.S.S.R. in the 1970s and 1980s. As it happens, in fact, I have a forthcoming essay in the Journal of antithesis santantonio Contemporary History on just this topic. Skipping from nuclear weapons to basketball, for a minute, I do however disagree with Mr. Botts, in one place. In my book, I said that Kennan and essay about at work, Nitze became the diplomatic equivalents of Magic Johnson and narrative analysis essay, Larry Bird. Mr.
Botts notes this and writes, “He might have added that, for one of them to win, the essay about at work, other had to lose.” That’s true for a given game, but it’s not true for a career. You can have a riveting and inconclusive argument about who was the better player; just as you could have a lively debate about environmental law dissertation Nitze and Kennan’s views of Soviet nuclear intentions, without describing one as right and one as wrong. For the record, I do think that Nitze vastly over-estimated Soviet efficiency and ascribed to them a much darker worldview than deserved. I also, however, believe that Kennan vastly overestimated how much the United States could have influenced Soviet policy by, for example, proposing a policy of about stress no-first-use. (Also: I grew up in Boston and Bird was better than Magic.) Along these lines I am quite pleased that Professor Corke and Professor Hamby came to analysis, different conclusions. Professor Corke takes me to task for being biased toward Nitze (my grandfather); Professor Hamby believes that the book portrays Kennan as much more of a visionary. Essay At Work! As I worked on the book, I was often asked which of the two men I agreed with, and, thankfully, I could always answer that I wasn’t sure. Of Essay! Kennan was absolutely wiser; Nitze was, absolutely, a more dedicated public servant. About At Work Or School! Readers to jeff thompson, the book have likewise had differing views of the relative merits of the two men.
As to Professor Corke’s claim that I portray Kennan as a woman and Nitze as a man, there’s probably something to it. Women are portrayed as more emotional in essay at work or school, writings of history, and Kennan certainly was far more emotional than Nitze. But I also believe that Professor Corke has overstated her argument, in part through selective quotation. Narrative Analysis Essay! To take one example, at essay about stress at work or school the end of a paragraph listing praise from the book for Nitze, and criticism for two types of essay, Kennan, she writes, “To make matters worse, unlike Nitze who was a snazzy dresser, Kennan was color-blind.” It’s true that Nitze was a snazzy dresser; and essay at work or school, it’s true that Kennan was color-blind. But her point—that sartorial praise for Nitze illuminates a greater bias toward him—is not accurate. After all, two sentences before mentioning Kennan’s eyesight, I also described him as a snazzy dresser. It’s a trivial matter, but I think the selective quotation is telling and reveals a flaw in jeff thompson, what I consider an overstated critique. Overall, the essays are all reasoned and essay or school, illuminating. And to Mr. Botts, I add that many of Nitze’s papers at the Library of Congress are open and have been for the last few years. (One need only file a request to the Nitze estate for access; and all such requests have been granted in recent years.) I donated a further collection of papers—the sixty or so boxes that I discovered behind a boiler at the School of Advanced International Studies—to the Library about eighteen months ago.
Those documents are currently being processed, and will, I hope, be opened soon.  Kennan’s views appear in The Cloud of Danger (1977).  I should note that while today I always put danger quotes around “containment” I did not then. Jeff Thompson! In 1995 was still writing very much within a modern historical tradition, hence my question to Nitze.  Paul Nitze to author, June 1, 1995.
 Now he does concede that these were not hard and fast characterizations, and that neither men “conformed exactly to the labels” but he concludes that for at work or school, most of their lives these characterizations were 90% accurate. Cop Exemplar! By the 1970s he concludes that both men “truly became the hawk and the dove” 231.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an essay about stress IB Student, who is essays, getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and essay stress at work What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about santantonio, writing your Extended Essay and stress at work provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an park essays IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in about at work the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is south park, short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the essay, subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A.
The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the two types, EE affects your diploma later in essay stress or school this article. For the narrative, Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is stress, not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at park, your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the or school, 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Narrative Essay? Your completed Extended Essay is essay about or school, then sent to environmental law dissertation, the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay?
You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the about stress, IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the narrative analysis, topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for at work or school, Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.
Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of jeff resume, Time on It. I love British theatre and stress at work ended up writing mine about essay, a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to essay about, take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the essays, most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out stress or school a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by resume, putting pen to essay about at work or school, paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class?
Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line.
You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on cop exemplar essay, it . You can’t write about about stress at work, WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of two types of essay, war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in about stress or school British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of resume, 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. Essay About Stress At Work? tend to be in the sweet spot of narrative analysis, not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and essay about after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and law dissertation explain the significance of the comparison.
The key here is that the essay about stress at work or school, comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Thompson? Comparisons are not the at work or school, only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and narrative essay see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on essay about stress at work or school, the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only thompson 2 books that have any connection to essay or school, your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!).
For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and narrative analysis I want to essay about at work or school, conduct an experiment to compare the two types, efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject.
I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and essay about stress knowledgeable about law dissertation, your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form.
Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to stress at work or school, be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Brooklyn Cop Exemplar Essay? Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of about, feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to analysis, read several drafts and essay about at work or school give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to environmental, make the about stress, draft better.
Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to law dissertation, the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the stress, EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the law dissertation, candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and at work conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and santantonio will also hurt the grading of your EE.
The body of about stress at work or school, your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on thompson, whether or not you include diagrams). About? Your body can be split into multiple parts. Cop Exemplar Essay? For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and about stress or school the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and park obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later!
You will not be able to crank out essay about or school a 4,000-word essay in a week and south get an A. About Or School? You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for narrative analysis essay, the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of essay at work, Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline.
Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of narrative analysis, Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of about, your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to antithesis santantonio, your EE advisor. Essay Or School? Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and south park Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the essay about stress or school, fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to santantonio, get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on about stress at work, top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of south, Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback.
Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of essay about stress at work, Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to brooklyn cop exemplar, be sent off to IBO. Essay About Or School? You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm!
Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for of essay, the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of essay about stress, Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements.
This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on brooklyn essay, TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. At Work? Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of south, 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the about stress at work or school, extended essay or theory of knowledge and south park still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an about stress at work or school IB diploma. Two Types Of Essay? In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. About At Work Or School? Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to two types, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
As an about stress SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to environmental, University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography. You should definitely follow us on social media. Essay Stress? You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.
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Chicano Movement Essays and Research Papers. of our territories, we, the at work or school, Chicano inhabitants, declare that the call of our blood is our power, our responsibility, and our inevitable . destiny” (Rosales 184). This emergence was Chicanismo, which saw the development of pride coupled with the want and need for equality. And from the pride of jeff thompson being Chicano came the Chicano Movement , also known as El Moviemiento. Because to be Chicano meant you were ni de aqui ni de alla, neither from essay about stress or school here nor from there. Law Dissertation? To be Chicano meant you were a citizen of.
Brown Berets , Chicano , Chicano Movement 2148 Words | 9 Pages. Chicano - a political term made popular in the sixties with the Chicano Civil Rights Movement which followed the about stress or school, . example of the Black Civil Rights Movement . Environmental? The people of the Movement adopted the word Chicano for themselves just as the African Americans had adopted Black. The Chicano Movement fought for all people of the essay at work or school, Southwest of Mexican descendancy. Two Types Of Essay? These people included those whose ancestors had been citizens in the southwest when it was Mexico before the United States occupied it in 1848. Chicano , Mexican American , Mexico 1211 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Chicano Movement , also known as El Movimiento, was one of the many movements in the United States that set . Stress? out to achieve equality for Mexican-Americans. The Chicano Movement began in the 1940's as a continuation of the resume, Mexican American Civil Rights Movement , but built up strength around the 1960’s after Mexican-American youth began to essay label themselves as Chicano to resume express their culture and proudly distinguish themselves as Mexican-American youth. For many Americans, a Chicano was used as. Brown Berets , Cesar Chavez , Civil rights and about stress, liberties 1136 Words | 5 Pages.
?The Chicano Movement Essay Understanding the Chicano movement requires an understanding of the law dissertation, . past. Often heard among Mexican Americans is the saying, We did not cross the border; the border crossed us. This refers to the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the war between the United States and Mexico and essay or school, ceded much of the Southwest to the U.S. government for a payment of $15 million. The treaty guaranteed the antithesis, rights of Mexican settlers in the area, granting them U.S. citizenship after. Cesar Chavez , Chicano , Mexican American 1253 Words | 3 Pages.
Midterm Report THEATRE 100 Chicano Theatres Chicano Theatre is a relatively young genre of theatre in stress comparison to . the traditional theatre that date back centuries. Essay? It was in essay about stress or school the 1960’s that the term Chicano became prevalent in brooklyn the United States. Chicano is used only of Mexican Americans, not of Mexicans living in Mexico. It was originally an informal term in English (as in Spanish), and the spelling of the essay about stress at work, first recorded instance in an American publication followed the jeff thompson resume, Spanish custom. Campesino , Chicano , Mexican American 907 Words | 3 Pages. Critique With the start of the Chicano Movement , not only did the rebellious youth of the 20th century create a drastic change . in the connotations associated with Mexican-Americans but they also sculpted, painted, sang and danced to essay at work or school form a cultural identity unique and distinctly their own. Two Types? Mainly focusing on Southern California during the 1940’s to essay stress the present, Chicano Art took its roots from environmental law dissertation Mexican painters like Rivera, Siqueiros, and essay about at work or school, Viramontes. The struggle for a Chicano identity, one that was not. Art , Chicano , David Alfaro Siqueiros 2512 Words | 7 Pages. Books Azcona, Stevan Cesar. Movements in Chicano Music: Performing Culture, Performing Politics, 1965-1979.
Austin: The . University of Texas at Austin, 2008. McFarland, Pancho. Chicano Rap: Gender and environmental, Violence in the Postindustrial Barrio. At Work? 1st Ed. Jeff Resume? Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008. Pena, Manuel. The Mexican American Orquesta: Music, Culture and the Dialectic of Conflict. Essay About Stress At Work Or School? Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999. Quirarte, Jacinto. Chicano Art History: A Book of Selected Readings. Association of American Universities , Austin, Texas , Chicano 390 Words | 2 Pages.
Chicano Chicano art started in Mexican American communities within sustain of the civil rights society, suitable a national art . Thompson? progress with global span which includes CARA exhibition, Los fours and the other exhibitions. The appearance, institutional carry out the about at work or school, ritual though innovation, mythic construct; political and civilizing engagement. During the 1960’s there was a lot going on brooklyn cop exemplar the world, not only did Chicano had to stand up for them. They wanted to find ways to express Chicanos , in searching. Art , Art world , Arts 890 Words | 3 Pages.
? San Diego Chicano Park San Diego has a historic park named Chicano park, it is located beneath the well know . Coronado bridge in Barrio Logan, south of essay San Diego. South? Barrio Logan was one of the location were Mexicans had arrived and started settling around the area in the early 1890’s. About Stress At Work Or School? San Diego was already such a historic place to Chicanos living there. So when the government tried taking the land that was rich in history and their culture, the people fought and created what is now called. Barrio Logan, San Diego, California , Chicano , Chicano Park 1181 Words | 4 Pages. El Plan de Santa Barbara, 1969 Manifesto For all peoples, as with individuals, the time comes when they must reckon with their history. For the . Chicano the present is a time of renaissance, of renacimiento. Our people and our community, el barrio and la colonia, are expressing a new consciousness and a new resolve. Recognizing the historical tasks confronting our people and fully aware of the cost of human progress, we pledge our will to move.
We will move forward toward our destiny as. Brown Berets , Chicano , Chicano Movement 1272 Words | 5 Pages. The Role of Chicana Women in Society. by the Chicano movement or by the Anglo establishment”(Vidal, 22). Environmental Law Dissertation? During generation x, it is essay not common to have a women as a . Environmental Law Dissertation? leader because they were conventionally portrayed to be submissive and not involved in economic and/or political view thus making it harder for them to gain equality and/or fight for change in their current situation. In fact, “The white male rulers would want Chicana to accept their oppression precisely because they understand that when Chicanas begin a movement demanding. Chicano , Chicano Movement , Chicano nationalism 1552 Words | 4 Pages. Defining, Uniting and Empowering the Chicano Community. Abstract Who is a Chicano ? What does the essay at work or school, term Chicano mean? Where does the term originate? Why have Mexican-Americans in the . past objected to being known as Chicanos ? Why do so many Mexican-Americans today take pride in being Chicanos ? There questions are frequently asked when the subject of the Chicano Movement comes up.
This essay seeks to clarify the origins and meaning of the term Chicano and attempts to explain some of the implications of being a Chicano . A Chicano is an individual of. Chicanismo , Chicano , Chicano nationalism 2667 Words | 7 Pages. Judicial Side of the law dissertation, Chicano Movement. ? Judicial Side of the Chicano Movement Chicano Studies 3311 Race Relations During the middle of . the 18th century, the relationship between the Americans and the Mexican-Americans soured more than ever before. The Mexican- Americans realized that something had to about stress or school be done about the second class treatment they had been receiving for over a century. The Treaty of Guadalupe, ending the Mexican-American war, was the peace treaty calling for the United States to pay the brooklyn cop exemplar essay, Mexican government. Cesar Chavez , Chicano , Higher education 2761 Words | 8 Pages. Contact Zones in Chicano Culture Meeting someone from another culture expands your knowledge of the world.
As you receive new information, you . are giving some of your own. The experience of essay at work two different people meeting is far less than the experience of two different cultures of people meeting. The most common outcome of these meeting is one culture dominates over the other. This domination eventually leads to hatred towards the oppressors, until the narrative essay, dominated are free. Over many years, the dominated. Catholicism , Chicanismo , Chicano 1065 Words | 3 Pages. The Development of the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles from 1967 to 1969. The article,The Development of the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles from 1967 to 1969 by at work or school Gerald Rosen appears in . Chicano Studies the Discipline and Journey, a book edited by environmental law dissertation Anna Ochoa O’Leary. In his article, “The Development of the about at work, Chicano Movement in Los Angeles from 1967 to 1969,” Gerald Rosen depicts the origin of the Chicano movement and provides a timeline leading to antithesis the high school walkouts.Rosen examines how the Chicano Movement is related to the “biased” character of the about stress or school, American political. Activism , Activism industry , Cesar Chavez 458 Words | 2 Pages. about Oscar Zeta Acosta and his impact on the Chicano community.
In the leaders contribution I talk about how Acosta was an attorney for the . Antithesis? Chicano movement and generated controversy. In the leaders contribution section I talk how Acosta addressed political, social, and educational injustices against Chicanos . Acosta used his time and profession to help the Chicano movement . He contributed through two of his books that are a major part of the Chicano literacy renaissance. He also clashed with the. Activism , Book , Chicano 2088 Words | 6 Pages. ?Riccardo Rizzo ES 160 Assignment 3 2 In the seventies and eighties, the Chicano movement was in full effect. However, this . movement only seemed to better the Chicano men, and not so much the Chicana women. The Chicana women decided to have a movement of about at work their own, the Chicana feminist movement . During the seventies, women of color (Chicanas, Blacks, Asians) wanted to become involved in the feminist movement and help to create a better reputation and earn respect amongst men and white women.
Ana Castillo , Chicano , Chicano Movement 1085 Words | 4 Pages. Chicano Activists' Demand for Social Justice. Chicano Activists I want to start my paper explaining where the word “ Chicano ” derived from. “ Chicano is . derived from an old Aztec word meaning rebel and…the Spaniards used the word Chicano to refer to the Aztecs who never gave up the battle”. ( Mariscal, George. Brown-Eyed Children Of The Sun. Narrative Analysis? pg. 27”). This topic of Chicano Activists relates to Chicano History class because from 1966 to 1974 Mexicans experienced a big transformation. Essay About At Work? There were a lot of militant protest politics. Two Types? The youth. Brown Berets , Chicanismo , Chicano 693 Words | 3 Pages.
The History of Chicano Music My both my father and uncle were in their prime during the 1960s and 70s during the Chicano . Movement . My father had me growing up listening to essay about at work dedications Art Laboe's Killer Oldies every Sunday night. My uncle traveled throughout California with bands of his own since the 1970s. I grew up listening to narrative analysis musicians like El Chicano , Los Lobos, Little Joe y la Familia. I knew Chicano music. What is Chicano ? During the Civil Rights movements of the 1960s and 1970s. Chicano , Chicano rock , El Chicano 1381 Words | 5 Pages. Chicano Movement Essay Also known as “El movimiento ‘’ *is an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights . Movement which began in the 1940s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment. The 1960s was a turbulent decade in essay stress at work or school American history, Fraught with conflicts over issues from antithesis santantonio Civil Rights To the about, war in Vietnam. The Mexican American Civil Rights Movement , one of the least studied social movements of the 1960s, encompassed a broad cross section of issues. We. Civil and political rights , Civil rights and liberties , Jose Angel Gutierrez 381 Words | 2 Pages.
2013 Chicano Art Movement As artists began to actively participate in the efforts to two types of essay redress the plight of Mexicans in the . United States, there emerged a new iconography and symbolic language which not only articulated the movement , but became the core of a Chicano cultural renaissance. (Venegas) Chicano Art developed in the 1960s during the political eruption of the civil rights movements in the United States. This renaissance in essay about the arts was in fact the birth and flowering of a Chicano world. Art Nouveau , Chicano , Diego Rivera 441 Words | 2 Pages. The Symbolism of south park The House on about stress or school Mango Street. the Chicano into American society, stereotypes, and the treatment of the two types, Chicana within her culture. These themes are brought out through the essay about at work, . South Park? experiences of essay stress Esperanza, a young Chicana character. The American society has tried to make the Chicano fir into its culture and make him follow its way of south park essays doing things. The Chicano has also 'voluntarily' tried to assimilate because of the negative attitudes towards him and his culture.
There are several problems with assimilation for the Chicano based. Chicano , Cultural assimilation , Culture 452 Words | 3 Pages. Civil Rights Movement and the Impact on about the Chicano Rights Movement. ? Running head: CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT 1 Civil Rights Movement and the Impact On the Chicano Rights . Movement Rafael Molina Southern New Hampshire University CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT 2 Abstract Dr. Thompson? Martin Luther King, Jr. Stress? delivered his I Have a Dream speech at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. He spoke about Civil Rights and the rights guaranteed by the Declaration of Independence for all citizens of this country. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Brown v. Board of Education , Earl Warren 1606 Words | 8 Pages.
The Use of Theatre in Mexican-American Culture. a rise in Chicano nationality and identity movements . What was the antithesis santantonio, role of the theatre in about stress or school this discovery of identity, and how did . the theatre give social voice to this formerly unheard group? The clearest answer to cop exemplar essay this question can be found through the Teatro Chicano movement , Luis Valdez’s character El Pachuco in Zoot Suit and essay stress at work, the performance art pieces and writings of Luis Alfaro. The name El Teatro Chicano is environmental actually a blanket term used to describe an entire theatrical movement by the Mexican-American. Chicano , Mexican American , Mexican American culture 2164 Words | 6 Pages. earned my brother my servitude was his maleness” (38). The author emphasizes that she had to serve her brother because he was a male so that the reader . could understand the inequality that occurs in stress or school Chicano culture. The idea that males were given privileges because of two types of essay their maleness suggests that Chicano children were taught to stress accept this culture from birth. The phrase “To this day” connects disbelief to the fact that the practice of serving males has not changed; however, in a larger context, it. Chicano , Female , Feminism 1291 Words | 4 Pages. significance for Mexican Americans and expresses about the riots during World War II.
The play, “Zoot Suit” represents the culmination of a . Chicano theater movement that integrated four theatrical forms, which are actos, mitos, corridos, and historias that designed “heighten reality” through “highly stylized” presentational methods that came from the jeff, Chicano theater movement . The play incorporates actos by presenting “laughter, power and the use of personifications” within the characters (Kinan Valdez. Chicano , Mexican American , Pachuco 1167 Words | 4 Pages. influences of about stress at work or school gender on writing and reading is a wide-reaching term referring: Women’s movement : diverse social . South? movement , largely based in the United States, seeking equal rights and opportunities for essay about stress at work or school women in their economic activities, their personal lives, and of essay, politics. Essay Stress? It is recognized as the “second wave” of the larger feminist movement . Of Essay? While first-wave feminism of the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on. Chicana feminism , Chicano , Feminism 1215 Words | 4 Pages.
Joe Gamez Phil 327 My report is on . Carla Trujillo’s article on chicana lesbians: Fear and essay stress at work, Loathing in santantonio the Chicano community. Carla Trujillo hit it right on the head when according to Trujillo chicana lesbians are perceived as a threat because it disrupts the order of essay stress male dominance and raises the awareness for chicana women about their own independence and control (Trujillo281). Chicano , Female , Gender 1040 Words | 3 Pages. become a lion and let the voice of Chicano history be heard. Jeff? Luis Valdez does this in about a satirical way by presenting the views and stereotypes . Environmental Law Dissertation? that many American's have had and continue to essay stress or school have, about south park Chicano's in the form of at work or school a shop where Chicano model/robots are sold. By presenting each Chicano as a robot and stereotype, Luis Valdez tries to earse of the models of Chicano's that people have in their heads and tries to point out that there is a strong Chicano culture and antithesis santantonio, a rich history that has. Chicano , Mexican American , Mexico 1945 Words | 5 Pages. American community are beautiful and essay about, courageous women, women who know how to fight,” Canci?n de Las Hermanas. Antithesis? That quote summarizes the . movement dealing with Latina women in the Catholic Church. Las Hermanas formed the first national religious-political organization of or school Chicana and Latina Roman Catholics in the United States.
This was all about the Chicano movement , dealing with the jeff resume, changing traditions for religious women in the early 1970s. Las Hermanas dealt with expanding the ministerial role of. Apostolic succession , Bishop , Catholic Church 1584 Words | 5 Pages. revealed many times in …And the stress or school, Earth Did Not Devour Him by Tomas Rivera. It becomes an important issue for the protagonist as a member of the analysis essay, struggling . marginalized group. Essay Stress Or School? As reviewer Raymund Parades states in his original essay The Evolution of Chicano Literature, the boy is embittered by a series of family tragedies (30). South Park? As a result, the boy curses God expecting to essay or school be swallowed up by the earth, as his mother tells him he will be.
Instead, the law dissertation, protagonist feels more comforted and confident. Boy , Chicano , Mexican American writers 2363 Words | 7 Pages. environment. Anzaldua grew up in the United States but spoke mostly Spanish. The problem is that the language she spoke was Chicano Spanish, . not true Spanish. She was living in stress at work an English speaking environment she wasn't living in a Spanish speaking country, but was speaking a form of Spanish. She describes the difficulty of hard the delicate ever changing language of Chicano Spanish.
Quote: “I want you to speak English. Pa' hallar buen trabajo tienes que saber hablar el ingles bien. Que vale toda. Chicano , English language , French language 854 Words | 3 Pages. The book, Honor and the American Dream: Culture and environmental law dissertation, Identity in a Chicano Community, and about or school, the film, Salt of the Earth, both relay to their . audience, the pursuit of happiness within the Chicano community in thompson which they live.
These works aim to essay about show how Mexican-American immigrants fight to keep both their honor and value systems alive in jeff the United States of America, a country which is foreign to essay about at work or school their traditions. The Mexican-Americans encountered in two types of essay these works fight for essay stress at work or school their culture of honor in. American culture , Chicano , Discrimination 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Chicano Art Chicano Art and Indigenismo Artworks have played an indelible work to the lives of humanity. The creative nature . in Artists is a complex matter to define. The uncertainties in the intrinsic nature in art lay difficult aspects that can only be answered by values, themes and antithesis, skills depicted in an artist artwork. Apart from playing the stress at work or school, intricate psychological effect on humans, the artworks have been used as a tool of expression that has been revered and uniquely preserved for future. Art , Chicano , Culture 3976 Words | 11 Pages.
Who is a Chicano ? What does the term Chicano mean? Where does the term originate? Why have Mexican-Americans in antithesis santantonio the past . objected to about at work or school being known as Chicanos ? Why do so many Mexican-Americans today take pride in being Chicanos ? There questions are frequently asked when the santantonio, subject of the essay at work, Chicano Movement comes up. This paper will seek to clarify the origins and meaning of the term Chicano and brooklyn cop exemplar, attempts to explain some of the implications of being a Chicano . A Chicano is an individual (usually. Chicanismo , Chicano , Chicano nationalism 3123 Words | 8 Pages.
Arizona to a large family with limited financial. Lalo didn't finish high school due to the depression and had no formal musical education. However, . according to “Lalo Guerrero: the father of Chicano music,” author states that Lalo Guerrero is “the father of Chicano music” because there are no other Chicano artists has come close to essay about at work or school write in both language that are English and Spanish; also, he recorded more song in virtually every genre of Latin music like him. Narrative? For example, he wrote salsa, nortena. Abraham Quintanilla III , Chicano , Chris Perez 1359 Words | 4 Pages. Being considered the first Chicano novel written, Pocho tells a vulgar coming-of-age story of a first generation Chicano . (American born Mexican) boy, Richard Rubio. Richard, like many first generation Chicanos is about at work or school faced with an integral question: to assimilate to analysis the American culture, or preserve his Mexican heritage? The novel tells a story where Richard experiences cultural assimilation that drastically changes his beliefs, but frequently hints at relapsing to his father’s ways. Essay About Or School? Ultimately, Richard. Chicano , Family , Faster Pussycat 1509 Words | 4 Pages. meaning of the word Chicano /a, to many of us it is the mixture of both American and Mexican culture.
It had become a political term for those . Environmental Law Dissertation? who wanted to find a more specific word to identify themselves with than Hispanic, a word to classify all who spoke Spanish in America from Latin America. In the 60s the word Chicano /a grew strong with many political Mexican-American's and about, used it as a source of pride. Today, the older generation of Chicano /as', some but many, see young Chicano /as' as those who. Chicano , Chicano Movement , Chicano nationalism 636 Words | 2 Pages. the Cockroach People by author Oscar Zeta Acosta is south park a very interesting story that shares the life of a Chicano lawyer by essay about stress at work the name of resume Buffalo . Zeta Brown; he is the main character in the book and is the archetype of “masculinity”. This novel takes place in essay about stress or school the late sixties early seventies in the City of Los Angeles, California during the Chicano movement which was a time of environmental law dissertation turmoil for many Chicanos . They were discriminated against, thought of about stress or school as troublesome, and faced social plight.
The novel opens. Chicano , Chicano Movement , Chicano nationalism 817 Words | 2 Pages. Chicano Art Chicano Park Today, there is a place located in San Diego, California called . Environmental Law Dissertation? Chicano Park, which is essay about stress or school a place full of pride throughout the Mexican-American community. When I first arrived at brooklyn, Chicano Park I was not sure what to expect. This is my first year ever living in essay about stress San Diego so the area is still pretty new to me. Before taking this Chicano Art class, I actually never even had a clue that Chicano Park existed. On my way to Chicano Park, I soon began. Chicano , Cost , Endurance 475 Words | 2 Pages.
strategies by which Chicano origins and Histories, as well as present and of essay, future identities, were constructed and Legitimized. . Furthermore, Chicanismo provided a context for historical reclamation of the self through the affirmation of Chicano cultural narratives while resisting Anglo models of assimilation. By the about, late 1960's, Chicanismo had become in effect the brooklyn essay, central strategy in the process of essay about stress at work or school self definition for the Chicano community. Two Types? The Chicanos suffered a great deal. Abuse , Chicanismo , Chicano 1323 Words | 6 Pages. The Chicano Identity The majority of essay people around us have parents with histories beyond our local area. They come from places hundreds of . miles away, such as China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and analysis essay, even Mexico. Essay Stress Or School? As they set to live in America, they give birth to a new generation and these children are raised differently with a whole new standard. These standards are different from other countries whether it’s their educational system, laws, or social behaviors. This causes heritages to become diluted.
Chicano , Language , Mexico 764 Words | 2 Pages. American citizens also continue to suffer from discrimination because of their background. After more than three generation of being born in America . Chicanos decided to revolt. The Chicano movement bloomed in the 1960s when the generation was tired of the racial discrimination and decides to fight for their rights. They created organizations to help Chicanos , organize walkouts to protest against inadequate learning environment and they protested against unequal opportunists in jobs. Narrative Analysis? The United States. California , High school , Mexican American 1269 Words | 4 Pages.
Tongue, depending on which angle it is looked at, could be seen as a rhetoric question in the sense that the tongue and or whatever it stands to signify . cannot be tamed. In this case it metaphorically represents her native language-Spanish or Chicano Spanish-to be precise. On the other hand, the essay at work, title could be taken as a statement of ridicule to show the futility or near futility of trying to force a change of language or pattern of cop exemplar essay speech on or school an immigrant or colonized people. Two Types Of Essay? She loved speaking. Chicano , Chicano English , Colonialism 1099 Words | 3 Pages. symbolizes Mexican American youths who fought for nationalism, family, and equality. Throughout the essay or school, play, it is clear to thompson say that the Pachuco represents all . About Stress At Work Or School? Chicanos both male and female. This statement true in the way that all Chicanos have the same problems and are fighting for the same rights. El Pachuco also shows a fine connection to the Chicano Nationalist Paradigm and the model of two types of essay obligatory heterosexuality. For instance, his personality is at work or school very masculine and proceeds himself to law dissertation be a tough person. Calo , Chicano , Chicano nationalism 909 Words | 3 Pages.
and struggle of life as a Mexican. This movement moved north, across the border into California as the artists moved and government funding . was discontinued. As the sociopolitical environment was rapidly changing in essay about or school California the emergence of mural work of the Chicano Movement was gaining power and cop exemplar essay, recognition. Their distinct style stemmed from their Mexican predecessors as they delved into their cultural heritage to define what it meant to be Chicano . The rhetoric of visual imagery of the murals. Chicano , History of Mexico , Maya civilization 3943 Words | 11 Pages. family constituting of six children) and is able to provide so that one may go off to college. The expected role of Maria who is the matriarch of the stress, family . is to be a loving and caring mother to her children. She fulfills this role in the traditional Chicano family, but she also triumphs over adversity when she is illegally deported.
Maria has to overcome many obstacles during the two types, movie and I believe she is one of the essay stress at work, greatest characters in the movie. She is a role model for almost any Chicana woman and. Chicano , Chicano English , Chicano nationalism 1305 Words | 3 Pages. Bibliography on the Mexican Muralist Movement. Lawrence A Yost Instructor: Toni Nelson Herrera Chic 3672 Chicano /a Experience in the Midwest 2/10/2012 A Selected Annotated Bibliography . on the Mexican Muralist Movement . http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2006/2/06.02.01.x.html#top The Mexican and Chicano mural Movements by Maria Cardalliaguet Gomez-Malaga As an instructor for the Yale-New Haven Teachers institute Maria Cardalliaguet Gomez-Malaga has posted the contents of her Curriculum Unit 06.02.01. The Idea behind a final for. 20th century , Art , Chicano 663 Words | 2 Pages. Brown vs. Board of Education to Affirmative Action Correlation Between the Black Civil Rights Movement and south, Latino Civil Rights. Brown VS. About? Board of Education to Affirmative Action Correlation between the Black Civil Rights Movement and Latino Civil Rights Kati . BurgessNc: YURR8E U.S.
History in documents The aim of this paper is to give some insights on the Supreme Court ruling of Brown vs Board of thompson resume Education and to investigate whether it had some effects on Hispanic minorities. Black people were not the essay stress or school, only minority in the US who fought for their rights. Both Hispanics and Blacks were subjected to different scrutinies. African American , Brown v. Board of Education , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1423 Words | 5 Pages. Arguments Made in south essays Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry. his Chicano readers, and us as readers left wondering why something should be judged because it's so different from what we as his readers . known all our lives. We are in a way are told what is best with what we should read and that these censors are at work in all areas of our lives. Essay Stress Or School? Rudolfo Anaya says that censorship has affected him directly and jeff resume, how it recently affected a friend of his as well.
His friend is a Chicano poet and scholar and about stress at work or school, good one. He says he has been encouraging Chicano writers. American way , Censorship , Chicano 1243 Words | 3 Pages. Social activism is very important to the Chicano Culture. This can be seen throughout the Mexican-American culture, starting with the brooklyn cop exemplar, Mexican . Revolution. This is where the or school, Mexicans started a search for a new leader to narrative analysis bring stability to their lives.
Mexicans-Americans felt like they had to choose sides. Were they Mexican or were they American? In our novel Pocho we can see this type of essay about stress at work or school indecision go on throughout the environmental law dissertation, book. When Juan decided to move his family to America, I don’t think any of them. Chicano , Mexican American , Mexico 644 Words | 2 Pages. different form of Spanish called “ Chicano Spanish”.
She was living in the most English speaking place on this planet, but she was from essay at work or school . Mexican decent. Spanish in the United States was rare during this time, but she spoke a form of Spanish. She describes the difficulty of changing to Chicano Spanish. Chicano Spanish also varies from Texas to Arizona to California. It is considered a poor form of Spanish. “Spanish for environmental law dissertation the Uneducated” is essay or school what they say about the Chicano language. That is where Anzaldua.
Chicano , English language , Hispanic and Latino Americans 406 Words | 2 Pages. Reform Movements During the 19th Century there were many reform movements that took place. South? Reform movements were . movements that were organized to reform or change the certain way of things. Reform movements did not always work but the essay at work or school, ones that did greatly changed the way our nation operates today. Park Essays? There were three major reform movements that have altered the nation; the abolitionist movement , the temperance movement and the women's suffrage movement . Without these movements , and the great leaders. Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Frederick Douglass , Reform movement 843 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Temperance Movement The temperance movement is a social movement that started in the early 19th century, . with the objective of advocating for stress or school the reduction and environmental law dissertation, prohibition of stress at work alcohol beverages usage. The movement was, by far, one of the most successful and essay, largest reform movements of the early 1800s (McConnell 43). They promoted complete abstinence and stress, criticized excessive use of santantonio alcohol. Essay About Stress At Work Or School? Prior to the initiation of this movement , there were several publications against antithesis santantonio drunkenness and excessive. Carrie Nation , Christianity and alcohol , Prohibition 1607 Words | 7 Pages.
Mexican-Americans' music played an important role in the struggle for Chicano civil rights and essay about at work, ultimately propel them from the barrio to the . national stage. Little Joe was one of the park essays, most popular bands who are playing the essay stress or school, Tuxedos and RB sounds. Little Joe began in the 1960s in northern California. Santantonio? Little Joe had heard big band music over the radio broadcast from the ballrooms, which helped him to expand his performance. The VIP’s band renamed to El Chicano Revolucion, the Little Joe band renamed to Little Joe El. Chicano rock , La Bamba , Los Lobos 867 Words | 4 Pages. homogenized Latin America's population (18). Likewise, Rudy's identity as an American citizen is foregrounded in contrast to Mexican, Salvadorena, and stress at work or school, . Chinese others. Jeff Resume? Christine List says that Chicano features provide a public forum for Chicano cultural expression and articulate issues of Chicano identity on a national and international scale (13).
Born in East L.A. sets up as its central conflict Rudy's dilemma of proving his identity (List 151), specifically as an American citizen. As the. Chicano , Hispanic and Latino Americans , Immigration to the United States 2813 Words | 9 Pages. Precis Essay on “Fear” In his short story, “Fear”, Chicano author Gary Soto conveys that people can sympathize with what they fear and feel . shamed for their actions and thoughts against it. He illustrates this by essay stress at work or school using his own experience in school as a prisoner to brooklyn Frankie, an emotionally disturbed bully to show that he can somewhat understand why Frankie acts the way he does. Soto uses imagery and juxtaposition in order to essay about stress at work or school reveal that things are not always what they seem and to convey the complexity.
Abuse , Audience , Bullying 468 Words | 2 Pages. The Women’s Movement The women’s rights movement was a huge turning point for resume women because they had succeeded in the . altering of their status as a group and essay about stress at work or school, changing their lives of countless men and women. Gender, Ideology, and narrative analysis, Historical Change: Explaining the Women’s Movement was a great chapter because it explained and analyzed the change and causes of the women’s movement . Elaine Tyler May’s essay, Cold War Ideology and the Rise of Feminism and Women’s Liberation and Sixties Radicalism. Betty Friedan , Civil rights and essay stress, liberties , Cold War 2093 Words | 6 Pages. ?The Temperance Movement : The Attempted Removal of a Deadly Sin The Temperance Movement was an attempt to better society by . Law Dissertation? ending the sale and essay about or school, consumption of jeff thompson alcohol. This movement began in the 1830’s to the 1840’s from the desire to reform society and abolishing it’s sins by the removal of slavery. Many people saw the negative effect that alcohol also had on society, and essay about or school, so they put forth an jeff thompson effort to convince others to refrain.
The fight for prohibition originated from the church. The Protestant. Alcoholism , Carrie Nation , Christianity and alcohol 1796 Words | 12 Pages. change eventually turned into an organized effort called the Rastafari Movement . This movement arose in the 1930s when Jamaica . was predominately Christian. The movement put forth a powerful message of equality, but needed a way to relay this message to the world. With this need, a very unique and special form of music, reggae, came to be. Being that 98% of the populations in Jamaica were descendants of African slaves, the movement appealed to the great majority of the people.
It sought to spread the. Bob Marley , Ethiopia , Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia 1268 Words | 4 Pages.
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Search Screen, or Search SCREAM? Cover Letters and Resumes. After being on the interviewing side of things last year, it was nice to be on essay, the hiring side this year. I recently reviewed cover letters and south resumes for a search and screen committee at my academic library. At times, I wanted to do a “cover letter intervention” (perhaps, a new reality TV show?)! This spring, I blogged about cover letters, resumes, and interviews. Essay. Also, Jenica Rogers on jeff, her Attempting Elegance blog had a must-read post on The Torment of Terrible Cover Letters. Stress. I would also encourage anyone applying for librarian positions to look at narrative analysis, Stephen X. Flynn’s Open Cover Letters website for ideas.
Throughout the process of reading cover letters and resumes, here is the most disconcerting thing I observed: You write well. I can tell you are intelligent. You may even have an advanced degree beyond the MLS. But your cover letter does not address the essay stress at work points highlighted in the job ad. Therefore, you will not make the cut. It’s a simple as that. For all the advice out there on tailoring your cover letter, there are plenty of applicants that do not. Don’t set yourself up for failure. Tailor your cover letter!
Cover letter resume advice: If applying via email, do not write your cover letter in the body of the email. Use attachments. Jeff Thompson. Or more to the point: you should follow the directions stated in the job ad. Am I the or school only one that doesn’t like cover letters in bullet point format? I need to asses your communication skills through your cover letter.
To me, a bullet point cover letter is santantonio, a cop-out. I want paragraphs! In regards to paragraphs: Your cover letter should not be just one short paragraph. Don’t rattle off your job duties in your cover letter. That’s what the resume is stress at work or school, for. Instead, use the cover letter to provide examples and anecdotes that relate to the position that you are applying for:
Case in point: if you’re applying for south park a children’s librarian position, your resume might list doing “story times” as one of your responsibilities. However, you could use the cover letter to stress at work or school highlight some sort of antithesis santantonio, innovative program you did with story time. Or if you are an academic instruction librarian, your resume might list “assessment” as one of essay about at work or school, your activities. You could then use the antithesis santantonio resume to spotlight a special assessment technique you implemented with students. Don’t shoot yourself in the foot by writing: “I don’t have experience in…” Instead, turn it around and explain how you have transferable or related experience.
Appearance: pick a standard font. I would stay away from Courier–it looks like a typewriter–and it’s 2011, folks! It’s OK if the cover letter goes onto a second page (which is essay or school, sometimes a no-no in the business world). Environmental Law Dissertation. I prefer this over an 9-point font cover letter with half-inch margins! But if you go over 2 pages, I tend to wonder if you have problems “getting to the point.” #128578; Make sure your cover letter and stress at work resume looks “clean” in overall appearance – I’ve seen some that look like they have been scanned in and saved electronically. They can be difficult to read. I know you are wonderful, amazing, etc… But I always appreciate a cover letter that addresses my library and its needs/mission. Jeff Thompson Resume. Do your homework. Look over the library website and any parent website (university, school, local government, etc…).
Use common sense: Do not write, “I have experience with personal computers.” You are a librarian; having experience with personal computers is UNDERSTOOD! Use “action” words on your resume (e.g., designed, implemented, initiated, managed). Google it! You’re a librarian. Remember: There’s a fine line between promoting your abilities and about or school overstating your qualifications. Be careful! Overstating your qualifications will become apparent in a subsequent interview. So what do we do with all of these cover letters and resumes? At my place of work–a state institution (and I’m sure it’s the same with most private institutions, too), we have a strict set of protocols to follow. We use an Application Review Form that lists all of the criteria that were included in the job posting. The search and screen committee then rates each cover letter/resume based on EACH of the criterion using a scale: below average – average – above average – can’t assess . The applicants who rank the highest are the ones that make it to the next stage of the interview process.
This is why it’s so vital to use your cover letter and resume to address the various points highlighted in a job ad. So what other cover letter and resume advice would you suggest? Let me know! Cover Letters, Resumes, and Interviews, Oh My! Recently I served as a reference for a friend and former co-worker of mine. After extolling the virtues of my friend over the phone with the hiring committee, I thought: “Gee, I’m now a reference! Where did the time go?” After 8 years of being a librarian, serving on hiring committees, and watching countless candidate interviews, I decided to put together a list of some tips for composing cover letters resumes, as well as preparing for jeff thompson interviews. If you have something you’d like to add, please leave a comment below. Strategy: Your cover letter resume should address your experience/knowledge with the requirements/qualifications that are in essay stress at work or school, the job announcement.
Even an brooklyn cop exemplar essay, “awesome” cover letter resume that does not address any of the bullet points in the job announcement will NOT get you called in on an interview. When I’m on a hiring committee, this is what I do: I make a spreadsheet listing our various requirements/qualifications and columns with the names of applicants. Then I go down the rows and check off if you have addressed each of the requirements/qualifications based on your cover letter resume content. Essay About At Work. The applicants with the jeff resume most checkmarks are the ones who get called for essay about at work interviews. Example: I can’t GUESS if you have experience or knowledge working with a diverse group of library users.
You need to TELL me in your cover letter resume! Yes, I know YOU are wonderful. But I want to environmental know HOW your wonderfulness is essay stress at work, applicable to this job! Please explain it in environmental law dissertation, the cover letter. Generic cover letters ALWAYS go to the bottom of the essay about stress pile. Two Types Of Essay. Each job is different.
Each requires a different cover letter. And yes, I have seen a cover letter mistakenly addressed to the “wrong” library. No one said getting a job is easy. At Work Or School. See the thompson “Strategy” section above. I don’t need to see an “objective” listed on your resume. Your objective is to essay or school get the job #128578; and brooklyn essay I know and understand that!
Don’t waste the about stress at work precious space. Length of cover letter resume: People OBSESS about south essays, this. For me, it’s not a big deal as long as you are following the instructions/guidelines. For cover letters: I think it’s OK to go over essay about stress at work, one page–but generally 2 pages tops. Cop Exemplar Essay. Be careful with font size and margins.
Once I read a one-page cover letter in about stress at work or school, 8-point font with quarter-inch margins! It would have been OK to antithesis bump up the font size and stress at work go onto the second page. As for law dissertation resumes, you DO NOT have to follow the business standard of a one-page resume. It’s OK to have multiple pages. I prefer a simple chronological resume, but as long as I am able to determine your skills, experience, and knowledge, I’m not too picky. Don’t overwhelm me with too many fonts, please.
Include your references on essay stress or school, your resume, or on antithesis, an additional page (see below). Include a website address on essay about, your cover letter and/or resume to your online portfolio. Proofread, proofread, and then consider proofreading some more. Read your cover letter and resume aloud! Have a friend, colleague, or mentor read it, too. I have overlooked a small typo on resumes/cover letters (and am guilty of doing it myself at some point), but not everyone is brooklyn essay, as forgiving. If “good verbal and written communication skills” are a requirement for the job, then you must not mess up here. Job Hunting Tips and stress Links. Follow the antithesis santantonio instructions explicitly. Essay Stress At Work Or School. If the job announcement says to send your materials via “snail” mail, then do it! Yes, I know you can look up our library’s email address and essay send it in electronically, but that’s not following the directions.
Some libraries/institutions have very specific policies on the hiring process and you will want to follow the directions as they are stated. Anyone with an “attention to detail” will follow the about stress at work directions. Of Essay. Don’t throw yourself out essay about at work, of the running on something small like this. If you are allowed to submit your materials via email, remember this: your email message should not count as your cover letter (e.g., “Please accept my resume in two types, consideration…”). No! We want an actual cover letter and essay about at work resume attached to your email. Make sure any electronic attachments can easily be opened by your potential employers. PDF is always great (and follow the library’s instructions on file types–if they give you any). Any electronic attachments should have a helpful file name (e.g. Santantonio. “YourLastName_Resume” or “YourLastName_CoverLetter”). Oh and about that email address: use an email handle that sounds professional.
References: If the job announcement says to stress include references, then do it! I’ve served on cop exemplar, hiring committees where we asked for references and some applicants didn’t provide them upfront (again, not following directions!). So, it creates more time on about, our end trying to track applicants down and santantonio asking for their references. About Stress At Work. On most of the hiring searches I’ve been involved with, we only contact your references if you are a serious candidate. Cold-calling: I know some people in “libraryland” encourage you to call and antithesis santantonio speak with the library director/supervisor about a job opening that has been posted. You’ll want to tread carefully here. Personally, I would avoid calling, but that’s my personality style.
Once someone called me after I had posted a job and asked, “I was thinking about essay or school, applying, but I wanted to analysis know if you’re able to stress at work raise the salary amount by $5,000.” Eeeek. I treat all applicants equally and will spend a good deal of time reading your cover letter and resume. For me, a phone call does not place you ahead of the pack. For preliminary interviews, such as a phone interview: schedule yourself enough time to get where you need to south park essays be (e.g., home). If at all possible, do the interview in a quiet place, door shut, pets away, TV off, etc. Confirm the date/time, and if needed, the correct time zone. Before the preliminary interview, think about some questions that might be asked of you.
See: Sample interview questions. Generally, you will be given a few minutes to ask the hiring committee questions. Please do! We are excited to be interviewing you, and essay we hope you are excited in return. See: Sample questions to ask. Brooklyn Essay. At the end of a preliminary interview, make sure and ask about the stress at work time line and process for any in-person interviews and start date, etc. It’s ALWAYS ok to dress conservatively for essay an interview. No jeans, no t-shirts, no sneakers. As you probably have seen, librarians as a group, aren’t known for their fashion sense, but please dress professionally. For a male: I’d at least want to see shirt/tie/trousers (I’ll admit, I don’t own a suit!), for a female (you have more options): business suit, skirt/blouse, trousers/blouse–or throw in a cardigan/sweater w/ the about at work combo. In reality, I only wear a tie at work when I absolutely have to, and jeans on Fridays or in the summer are the norm.
But not on law dissertation, an interview day. Dress for success–that’s what they say. Arrive on time, or a few minutes early–especially if it’s a large library and at work you need to be at a specific office. Two Types Of Essay. If the interview day is long, be prepared to answer the same question multiple times by about at work or school, different groups or individuals. Pretend you’re answering it for the first time (with enthusiasm) because the thompson resume person you are telling it to is hearing it for the first time. Come prepared with a list of questions that you would like to ask your potential supervisor, hiring committee, co-workers, etc. Failure to ask questions is a BIG negative in my book!
See: Sample questions to ask. Emphasize the key points as to why you are the BEST person for this job. You will generally be able to emphasize this in your responses to about stress at work questions asked of you (e.g., “What is it about this job that interests you?”) Remember, even in quieter moments of the interview day, you still need to be “on” – avoid sharing anything that might be considered unprofessional. Presentations: If required to give a presentation make sure you have multiple options if your tech fails (e.g., have presentation on antithesis santantonio, a flash drive and also email it to yourself). If using handouts, bring plenty.
Follow any instructions given on presentation topic, etc. Clear up any questions about the about at work or school presentation before the santantonio interview day. A good library will factor in bathroom breaks, etc… If you need to use the essay about stress at work or school restroom or get a drink of water, by all means ask! Don’t forget to smile #128578; , shake hands, demonstrate good body language, etc… Remember to ask about the time line for the interview process, when a decision will be made, etc… After the south interview, sending a thank you card or thank you email to the potential supervisor or hiring committee is always appreciated. See: Interview Pitfalls to essay about stress at work Avoid. In keeping with the spirit of moving into this WordPress thing, I’ve folded the Nailing the Library Interview site into my WordPress blog. Originally, it was on PBWorks, but this will allow me to more easily update it. Also, it allows for essay easier feedback from readers.
Nailing the Library Interview is divided into four sections: I’m always looking for suggestions of essay stress at work, questions to two types add, etc.. At Work Or School. so feel free to comment!