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My Ed.D. thesis proposal: What does it mean to be ‘digitally literate’? I submitted the second version of debden coursework, my Ed.D. thesis proposal a while back now. I had to dissertations for martha, re-submit as I failed the first submission. This was a bit of a shock to the system, never having failed anything academically before. It was actually partly my supervisor’s fault – who has now left the University of Durham and brook coursework, doesn’t have a doctorate himself… :p.
I was advised to wait until I had the marks back for the thesis proposal before posting it on my blog. For Martha! Upon reflection, I could see this was a sensible thing to do, so now I’ve heard back and I’ve passed I’m going to debden, post it in its entirity. An Admission Introduction! I received 63% for coursework, the following, which isn’t disastrous but less than I would have hoped for. Because it’s my second submission, however, the mark that’s recorded is 50%. At the end of the dissertations for nova for1995 for martha day, I’m not overly concerned: my Ed.D. overall is pass/fail… #128578; The comments on debden brook, the following were: This is student on immigration a solid proposal which provides a detailed reflection of the relevant literature in which the proposed study is to be grounded. Although covered in less detail than the literature section, the proposal provides an appropriate methodological base for the research. Debden! The proposal suggests a cross-cultural component and it is important in this context that similarities as well as ‘discrepancies’ are identified and format of research paper, that the study does not become unmanageable.
In general this is a good solid proposal. The proposal itself follows after the ‘tag’ cloud that is indicative of its contents (courtesy of TweetClouds) What does it mean to be ‘educated’ and ‘digitally literate’? The impact of ICT and the knowledge society upon education in the 21st century. Society is changing at debden brook, an unprecedented rate. The nature of the family, how we connect with other people, the ways in which our leaders are held accountable, and the extent to which the media controls our lives are fundamentally different even from 25 years ago. Members of every culture and difference of research and thesis, society have the world of coursework, everyday experience mediated by of mass media technologies, traditions and cultural norms or expectations. (Petrina, 2007:168; Achterhuis, 2001:71) The technologies which mediate life in the 21st century in debden first-world nations are powerful communicative devices and on responsibility of mass, are developing at an incredibly fast pace. This means that the way in which the world is understood and presented to individuals can be somewhat incoherent and is certainly very different from brook that of of research paper, previous generations. In turn, unless they are willing to change to adapt to the needs and future requirements of learners, schools are in danger of becoming, ‘even more quaint and shaky against brook the backdrop of technology.’ (Smith Curtin, 1998:227) Schools are the link between generations: they bridge the compare contrasting gap between the knowledge and skills of the previous generation and that of the next generation. One of the roles of educational institutions is to ensure that young people have the knowledge and skills for the world of work.
But education is not simply about preparing young people for their working life, as evidenced by recent ‘personalising learning’ initiatives that have emerged across the western educational landscape. There remains something more holistic about the education system that aims at producing ‘educated’, ‘literate’ citizens. As we discover more about how the brain works and debden coursework, about how students learn best, so what we mean by an ‘educated’ person changes. Technology also has a role to play in this, as for some educational thinkers it to a great extent redefines what it means to on religion, be ‘literate’. Brook Coursework! Schools, therefore, are increasingly investing in and exploring educational technology in an attempt to ensure that they remain relevant to the world outside the school gates. Whilst there is a top-down drive to adopt such technologies, however, their pedagogical use is on immigration still being worked out at debden, a grass-roots level. With society in a state of flux and compare contrasting, of radical transformation schools need to find a way of bridging the gap between their traditional role and coursework, the technologically-mediated world in which their pupils now inhabit.
It is an open problem about write essays which Jacques Delors (Delors, 1996a:172), president of debden coursework, UNESCO wrote in 1996: …there is on religion vs science a decisive issue at stake here, and it is important that schools and universities should have a central place in brook coursework a profound change that is affecting the whole of on responsibility of mass media, society. There is debden coursework no doubt but that individuals’ ability to access and process information is dissertations southeasternuniversity for1995 set to become the determining factor in their integration not onlyinto the working environment but also into their social and debden, cultural environment. The concept that shall be discussed in what follows as ‘digital literacy’, therefore, would seem to be a key one for schools and individuals who want to contrasting essays, play an active role in the ‘knowledge society’. There is a tension at the heart of school life between preparing students for an uncertain future whilst continuing traditional notions of what constitutes a school. Successfully resolving this tension should result in educational institutions producing ‘educated’ young people who are ‘literate’ within the domains they shall operate, both now and in the future. However, due to the scale of social change witnessed over the last 25 years, coupled with the almost exponential rate of technological development and uptake, resolution of this tension is becoming increasingly difficult for schools.
What does an ‘educated’ person look like in the 21st century? Are traditional literacy skills enough? Although some work has been done in attempting to make a traditional curriculum more flexible, coherent and relevant, few explicit identifications of debden brook coursework, what constitutes a literate, educated person in the 21st century have been made (McCain, 2005:49). Write Essays! Having a clear focus as to what it means to debden, have the requisite tools for between paper and thesis, life in coursework the 21st century – to be ‘digitally literate’ – would enable schools to synthesise the traditional and the new more effectively. Whilst definitions are both historically and culturally situated (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8), it should be possible to identify common usage, at least implicitly, of what educators and policy makers mean when they talk about being ‘educated’ – and therefore ‘literate’ in a 21st century sense. In contrast to on responsibility of mass media, the view satirised by Charles Dickens’ character of Gradgrind in Hard Times (‘Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts’), to debden brook, be ‘educated’ in the 21st century is a more slippery idea to pin down. There is little agreement as to what the purpose of education is in the 21st century. Some thinkers on the topic are instrumentalists, seeing education as a means to a (usually vocational) end, whereas others stress the importance of the process. Likewise, as has been argued extensively, (Barton Hamilton, 2000:11-12; Muller, 2000:56; Delors, 1996b:85) ‘literacy’ ranges across domains and applies to essay, much more than reading and pencil-and-paper writing. Agreement upon what it means to brook, be a ‘literate’ person, therefore, is also difficult to find.
To have some clarity as to what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ will help move on the debates taking place at all levels in the western education system. Write Essay! Instead of these conceptions being an updated version of debden brook coursework, what was learned at school by the previous generation, there needs to be a thorough review of the needs of both students and compare, the workplace. An active examination of the coursework possibilities offered by new (educational) technologies should inform this review in order for it to be as forward-looking as possible. The views of stakeholders and interested parties need to be analysed and compared in order to discover motivations, potential conflicts and for nova for1995 for martha smith-taylor, areas of brook, agreement. Once these notions of what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century have been resolved then the way forward for education to move towards new pedagogies and ways of working should become clear. At present, however, the lack of clarity as to what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ means that teachers are subjected constantly to dissertations for1995 smith-taylor, new proposals and reforms that aim to resolve the tension between the old and the new. Debden Brook! Without an idea of the purpose of education, it would seem that these efforts are ultimately doomed to fail. To explore claims that traditional notions of literacy are not sufficient for 21st century education.
To analyse policy documents from write contrasting essays government down to school level in order to discover the level of coherence in evidence. Brook! To highlight discrepancies between pedagogy and practice regarding educational technology in schools. To survey briefly the situation in how to an admission introduction other countries regarding digital literacy skills. To come up with workable, 21st-century definitions of what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ (i.e. literate in the 21st century) Despite Tony Blair’s famous commitment to ‘education, education, education’, the Labour government in the United Kingdom is notoriously cagey when it comes to debden brook coursework, defining and setting out the purpose(s) of education and for nova, schooling. Implicit in many of the pronouncements made and reforms undertaken is a focus upon the financial well-being of the individual, and therefore the nation. Achieving ‘economic well-being’ is even enshrined in the compulsory Every Child Matters agenda to be implemented by schools (HMSO, 2003). Leaving aside the debden brook coursework use of education as a vehicle to economic prosperity, however, at write compare essays, least one of the purposes of schooling must be to produce ‘educated’ young people. What is meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century, however, is difficult to define. In the past this was much more straightforward, defined by the educational elite.
Today, however, even leading educational thinkers such as David Carr (2003:11-12) have difficulty in pinning down a notion of what it now means to be ‘educated’: The best we can so far say is that to be educated is to come to appreciate or value for debden brook coursework, their own sake the non-instrumental or teleological (intrinsically valuable) features of those forms of knowledge, understanding and compare contrasting essays, skill for which a reasonable educational case has or can be made. Just to coursework, have studied or have some knowledge or skill, however, does not make one educated. One must be able to communicate one’s learning in a meaningful way and put it into practice. Carr argues that the notions of ‘education’ and ‘schooling’ need to be untangled (Carr, 2003:15,134), much in the same way that clarification needs to be sought over essay on responsibility of mass media, the difference between being ‘educated’ and debden brook coursework, being ‘literate’. With the multiplicity of ways in which knowledge can be communicated in the 21st century comes new literacies to contrasting, be able to transmit and receive knowledge in these new ways. It has been fashionable of late to debden brook, ascribe to ‘literacy’ those characteristics that would have traditionally gone under the guise of being ‘educated’. (Delors, 1996a:174; Snyder, 2002:181; Rodriguez Illera, 2004:49-50) Literacy, with the emergence of new domains of application such as ‘computer literacy’ and ‘visual literacy’, has enjoyed an elevation in status. How To Write Essay Introduction! From being seen originally as being able to read and write or as a means to gaining an education, it is now widely regarded as an end in itself. Brook! An understanding of how to write essay, what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century should lead to a greater understanding of what it means to be ‘educated’, if indeed the debden latter is something over and above the former. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the adjective ‘literate’ means, ‘acquainted with letters or literature; educated, instructed, learned.’ To many educational thinkers, however, this is an outdated definition.
In 1958 UNESCO defined literacy as ‘the ability of an individual to read and write with understanding a simple short statement related to his/her everyday life.’ The difficulty with both these definitions is that they categorise people as either literate or illiterate allowing for no shades of grey. Literacy is defined on a ‘macro’, global level without an essay understanding of literacy within a given domain or for a specific purpose. There is no scope with these definitions to be able to describe an individual as literate when it comes to pencil-and-paper-based reading and writing, but almost ‘illiterate’ when dealing within a domain mediated by technology. Understood broadly, literacy can be an elusive human construct: it means different things and involves different skills depending upon the culture and time period within which an individual operates. Whilst in the western world ‘literacy’ has traditionally meant the ability to read and write with pencil and paper, this makes a nonsense of societies with oral traditions and records. Postmodern educational thinkers have therefore attempted to deconstruct ‘literacy’, understanding it to consist in many different ‘literacies’. The main stimulus to this, as Kellner (2002:163) attests, is the widening use of technology in society: As technological convergence develops apace, individuals need to combine the skills of critical media literacy with traditional print literacy and debden, new forms of multiple literacies to access and navigate the dissertations for nova southeasternuniversity for1995 smith-taylor new multimedia environments. This depends on an enlarged view of literacy, one that goes beyond the mere functional skills set out in UNESCO’s 1958 definition.
Literacy becomes ‘gaining the skills and knowledge to read and interpret the text of the world and to successfully navigate and brook coursework, negotiate its challenges, conflicts, and crises,’ (Kellner, 2002:157) ‘the application of… knowledge for specific purposes in specific contexts,’ (Scribner Cole, 1981 – quoted in Rodriguez Illera, 2004:51), a ‘set of social practices’ that are ‘historically situated’ (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8,13). Literacy in the postmodern view is a fragmented notion: contextually dependent and essay on responsibility media, culturally constructed. New literacies are being formed all the brook time (Reilly, 1996:218). This has led to the compartmentalisation of different forms of literacy such as ‘computer literacy’, ‘visual literacy’, and ‘critical media literacy’ which served to demonstrate how, for example, an extremely literate person on compare, the traditional view could be ‘illiterate’ when it comes to communicating with the aid of technology. Whilst the postmodern deconstruction of literacy has been useful for purposes of clarification, something about the original holistic meaning of ‘literacy’ has been lost. Literacy is brook reduced to a science, as training within a given domain. There remains something of a binary distinction between those who are literate within a domain and those who are not.
UNESCO’s most recent definition in its 2004 position paper (UNESCO, 2004:13) recognises and addresses the limitations of both its own 1958 position and essay, that of postmodern thinkers: Literacy is the ability to brook coursework, identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. This definition is an write contrasting essays Hegelian-type synthesis of the original, 1950s holistic definitions of literacy, and its more fragmented definition under postmodernism. Literacy is a process, not a state (Rodriguez Illera, 2004) and as such underpins abilities within a given domain. It is better, therefore, to talk of someone having or lacking literacy skills within the domain of digital technologies, rather than ascribing to them a state of being ‘digitally literate’ or ‘digitally illiterate’. Shades of grey within each domain are recognised which build towards an overarching global ‘literacy’. As evidenced above, recent definitions of what it means to be ‘educated’ by those in control of education in the UK are hard to come by. Elsewhere in the western world they are more forthcoming, however.
A representative statement is brook enshrined, for example, in the definitions set down by Michigan State University as part of its VISION 2004 reorganisation: An educated person is someone who has learned how to acquire, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, understand, and communicate knowledge and information. An educated person has to develop skills that respond to changing professional requirements and student essays, new challenges in society and the world at large. Debden Brook! He or she must be able to take skills previously gained from serious study of essay on responsibility of mass media, one set of problems and coursework, apply them to another. He or she must be able to locate, understand, interpret, evaluate, and use information in an appropriate way and ultimately communicate his or her synthesis and understanding of that information in a clear and accurate manner. That is to say that being an ‘educated’ person involves taking skills and knowledge from one domain and applying them to another, as well as making links between areas of knowledge and keeping up to date with developments within one’s field and those which affect it. This definition appears to have more in common with traditional conceptions of wisdom than it does with those of literacy (Town, 2003:54). Put simply, becoming literate can be thought of as acquiring the skills to be able to participate in the discourse of a particular domain, whereas becoming educated is to essay on religion, be able to debden brook, range across domains and synthesise the dissertations for nova for1995 smith-taylor knowledge that has been gained.
The domains of knowledge within educational schools have traditionally been subject-based. Teachers are teachers of one or more specific subjects and the knowledge, if not the skills, learned are particular to that domain. However, as Muller (2000:2) states, knowledge is debden intrinsically social – which means that the boundaries and constituent elements of domains of knowledge are socially determined and defined. Essay! As a result, literacies change as societal definitions of domains of knowledge change. We view knowledge within a given domain through the lens of current literacies (DiSessa, 2000:65) meaning that what an individual can know and understand is coursework limited by and dependent upon their use of semantic and technological tools.
Limiting the ‘micro-literacies’ that make up the more holistic view of write contrasting, literacy (‘macro-literacy’) is to limit the ability of the individual to access some of the knowledge within a given domain. For example, using the ‘micro-literacy’ of familiarity with some digital technologies could allow Geography students to communicate in real-time with other students around the world. The knowledge they would gain from this would be of coursework, a different order from write compare contrasting that which they could construct from the inputs of teacher and textbook. Each ‘micro-literacy’ the debden students develop counts towards a more global Geographical ‘macro-literacy’. Between Format Of Research Paper And Thesis! In turn, this would feed into brook, an ever-higher ‘macro-literacy’ that enables the for nova southeasternuniversity for martha smith-taylor student to function in debden the world they inhabit. To be ‘educated’, therefore, could be understood as making links between various domains, which in turn depends upon compare contrasting both micro- and macro-literacies. Macro-literacies cannot be developed without first developing micro-literacies.
If knowledge is information contextualised within a given domain, and domains are dependent upon cultural and societal factors, then knowledge is affected by the rate of change of a society. When the rate of societal change and technological innovation is reasonably slow – or at least relatively stable – educational institutions are able to predict what an debden educated person will look like in ten to fifteen years’ time and prepare students accordingly. When the rate of societal change and technological innovation increases, however, these predictions become less accurate and student on immigration, strategies have to employed in order for educational institutions to be able to function. In practice this means schools sitting on a spectrum somewhere between reactionary measures and furiously attempting to keep up with the latest initiatives. The difficulty that schools face, as Bourdieu (1988, cited in Snyder, 2002:178) notes, is that to transform the present one must have a secure grasp upon it. Given the ‘precariousness’ of contemporary life this is difficult to achieve: the ‘sociality’ of knowledge means that domains of knowledge and debden brook, of enquiry are constantly shifting. Write Compare Essays! As a result educational institutions walk a tightrope between anticipating the world which their students will inhabit and introducing them to the knowledge and skills that have been and are currently being used by debden brook society. The rate of change of society in the 21st century is being driven to a great extent by developments in difference between format of research technology. As the brook coursework OECD report Learning to Change: ICT in Schools (2001:9) noted, Information and compare contrasting, Communications Technology (ICT) has changed the way we live and communicate with one another:
The ubiquitous presence and utility of ICT in debden coursework modern life are having a significant impact on the way we live, and even on the notion of an educated person. It has led to the concept of the knowledge society – sometimes also called the learning society or information society. There is a widespread awareness that these developments have profound implications for education, and that schools must change, but as yet little detailed consideration of the extent of the change needed and the advantages that ICT can bring. The growth of the knowledge society and the pervasiveness of the technology represent a major challenge and how to an admission introduction, a major opportunity for education. Education has a pivotal role to debden, play in society as it is the link between past and future generations. In the essay vs science past this link has been relatively easy to achieve, as the debden coursework knowledge and skills useful to acquire would vary only slightly within a generation. In the brave new world of difference between format of research, digital technology, however, fundamental shifts in required knowledge skill sets and knowledge can occur several times within a generation. The most important skill one can have in a world where knowledge has a ‘half-life’ (Machlup, 1962) is to learn how to debden, learn, to have a secure framework or scaffold upon for nova for1995 which new knowledge can be grafted and brook coursework, discarded when necessary. This changing nature of knowledge has been described by Siemens (2006) as knowledge having ‘broken away from its moorings, its shackles’. Nowhere is dissertations for nova for1995 for martha smith-taylor this more evident than in debden the realm of educational technology where, using the tools already available in most schools, learners across the world can communicate, interact and share.
The feeling amongst many writers uneasy with current western-style education systems is that tools which can (and in most cases should) be used to radically transform the way young people are educated in the future are being used to prop up the existing system. Tools which should be used to create new literacies are being shoehorned to supplement or gloss those of the past. Some writers talk of these digital tools being retro-fitted to dissertations for martha smith-taylor, outdated pedagogies to produce what could be termed ‘School 1.5’ instead of ‘School 2.0’. Ironically, when these tools do not lead directly to huge learning gains, at least on such measures as school league tables and the like, it is the tools themselves rather than the pedagogy and education system which are blamed. Using relevant technologies is essential in 21st century education when it is the principal way by which the world is mediated to individuals; new pedagogies need to be constructed to use the tools and technologies invented and used outside of the school gate. When tools such as online read/write reference resources become more accessible than books and debden brook, lecture notes, a shift occurs in the way that learners conceptualise not only research, but the world itself.
As many authors have noted, we use technology to shape the world – but tools, technological or otherwise, also shape us (Burnett, 2002:145; Apple, cited in Darder, et al., 2003:454; Demetriadis, et al., 2003:34; Provenzo, et al., 1999:40; Sutherland, et al., 2004:6) Although he could not have envisaged the online worlds available to us through the essay Internet, the effect of such tools on learners is put perhaps most succinctly by Dewey (1925, quoted in Blacker McKie, 2003:235): A tool is a particular thing, but it is more than a particular thing, since it is a thing in which a connection, a sequential bond of nature is debden coursework embodied. Between Format Of Research! It possesses an objective relation as its own defining property. Its perception as well as its actual use takes the mind to other things. The use of educational technology, then, mediates the experience of learners with regard to education and to knowledge, but then so does the brook use of any tool. This process of human-created tools mediating human experience has an impact upon education: learners need to be able to use and shape these tools for their own ends. To be ‘educated’ involves being able to leverage semantic and technological tools across domains in order to how to write an admission introduction, make connections. To view the debden brook coursework possibilities and potential impact of educational technology requires a re-imagining of teaching and learning. Even with a reconceptualization of what it means to be ‘educated’ and ‘literate’ in the 21st century, what does not change is the human element in for nova southeasternuniversity smith-taylor learning, a thread that winds its way from the Socratic dialogues through to 21st century classrooms and (virtual) lecture theatres. Although there were fears in the early 1970s when computers first began to be integrated into the mainstream that society would become dehumanised, the former still serves as a tool to the latter.
In fact, using ICT is more than just a tool, as computers and other digital devices are flexible enough to adapt to the user and present them with many different communication and processing options. It is perhaps better visualised as a plethora of many intellectual tools. This nuanced view is brook coursework unfortunately missing in much of the discussions surrounding educational technology and between of research paper and thesis, the use of computers in schools more generally. Lemke (2002:45) perhaps demonstrates the most balanced understanding of the ways that educational technology can be used to enhance learning. New technologies can often do the job of simulating and talking about the typical activities of the community far better than the debden coursework average teacher in the average classroom.
Technologies will not, however, be able to substitute for direct participation, nor will they be able to replace thoughtful guidance of students’ critical reflection and analysis, nor the emotional encouragement of achievement and creativity that live teachers provide. The difficulty is that the majority of educators do not understand the revolutionary potential of ICT to their day-to-day teaching. What they see as akin to the television or overhead projector has, if not the ability to ‘blow up the school’ (Papert (1984), cited in essay Cuban, 1986:72), then certainly the ability to coursework, help create an environment where learners can construct their own educational tools. Essay! Micro-literacies can be thought of as having the ability to create, or at least modify, tools in order to debden brook, make sense of the knowledge within a given domain. Teaching youngsters how to use existing, outdated tools when a culture is dissertations for nova southeasternuniversity for1995 undergoing radical change, is at debden coursework, best anachronistic (Claxton, 2002:23). Educational technology is not the answer to everything – a teacher’s pedagogical outlook and teaching ability is still the biggest determinant factor in the quality of a learner’s education – but technology does allow different kinds of ‘ecologies’ to student essays, be created.
These are more likely to be focused on learning than on ‘teaching’. (Burnett, 2002: 145) ‘Learning ecologies’ demand a different approach to education than has been possible previously, and is reflected in some of the brook ‘personalising learning’ agendas that have made their way into on religion vs science, policy in some areas of western education. Instead of the school or teacher-centred model of learning that mass education has been built upon thus far, a learner-centred ecology has been mooted, especially by constructivists. The driving force behind this has been the possibilities opened up by ICT, which has driven curriculum change (OECD, 2001:15) and a rethink of what we mean by ‘literacy’. Debden Brook Coursework! The difficulty lies in what Levin Riffel (1997:18) call the between of research ‘logic of confidence’: schools can remain fundamentally unchanged so long as they are seen as embodying the right kind of activities and processes. Instead of taking steps to improve learning, tests are taken as a substitute. Progress is measured by teachers becoming adept at getting learners through examinations at debden brook, increasingly higher levels. As politicians also have an interest in these examination results, the whole system becomes somewhat of format paper, a charade. Given this barrier, the brook coursework greatest bequest of ICT to education thus far may have been simply to point out how stale and essay vs science, boring traditional teaching actually is (Burniske Monke, 2001:258). Whilst educational systems remain in the straightjacket of debden, results and are inextricably linked to a country’s political system, the possibilities of difference of research paper and thesis, new technologies are likely to be directed towards existing hegemonic power structures. However, as Blacker McKie (2003:241) argue, ICT may provide the perfect, invisible, weapon: a tool presented as neutral, but actually fundamentally value-laden and used to perpetuate the position of the debden coursework elite within society.
Whilst those in essay of mass positions of control can manipulate the education system and the political process to brook coursework, continue their hegemonic power, then the potential of technology and other innovations are likely to be minimal. Whilst the use of technology is not inevitable, as a society we have made a decision to put it at contrasting, the centre of our culture – much in the same way as we did with the automobile in the 1950s. (Balle, quoted in Eraut, 1999:89) To ‘jump off the wagon’ and consider a change of direction (Apple, quoted in Darder, et al., 2003:456) would involve a radical change in debden our civilization. An Admission Essay! Educators need, therefore, to debden, use the tools available – especially those being used outside the school gates, the cultural experiences of the majority (Beavis, 1998:242). To do otherwise is to prepare young people for essay of mass media, a reality that no longer exists – something that is brook perhaps best illustrated by the following tale told by Benjamin (1971, quoted in Tiffin Rajasingham, 2003:117), …a prehistoric tribe… decided to write contrasting, introduce systematic education for its children. The curriculum was specifically designed to meet particular survival needs in the local environment and debden, so included such subjects as sabre-tooth-tiger-scaring-with-fire. But the climate of the region changes and the sabre tooth tigers perish. Attempts to essay of mass media, change the debden brook coursework curriculum to meet new survival needs encounter stern opposition. There will always be opposition to major reforms or a new direction: tradition and write contrasting essays, the status quo are powerful conservative forces.
But education in the 21st century is about using knowledge and making connections to create educated people in a sense relevant to today’s society. To be ‘literate’ is brook coursework a relative notion depending both upon the domain within which one is operating and the relevance of that domain to contemporary life. Uniquely, in the 21st century we could be faced with a literacy problem despite over 99% of people in western society being able to read and write. Whilst it will remain possible, at least for the time being, for individuals to essay on responsibility, be considered ‘educated’ without using ICT, these individuals will miss out on a large chunk of what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century. Brook! The micro-literacies they lack, involving the ability to connect and understand the world mediated by digital devices, will serve as barriers to communication and expression. Technology introduces new ways for humans to communicate and create, introduces new micro-literacies that contribute to the wider ‘macro-literacy’ construct and, as a result, redefines what is meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century. What does it mean to be an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century? Is there such a thing as ‘digital literacy’? How do ‘micro literacies’ feed into wider ‘macro literacies’?
What is the most appropriate learning theory for the 21st century? The proposed thesis will be non-empirical; policy documents, official reports, and student, scholarly works will provide the data required. Whilst this negates problems surrounding ethical treatment of research subjects, issues remain as to how to debden coursework, approach and make sense of the data. There are two main methodological paradigms to make sense of dissertations smith-taylor, research data: the quantitative approach and debden brook, the qualitative approach. A purely quantitative approach assumes that objective descriptions of format of research paper and thesis, ‘reality’ can be made and that context-free generalisations are possible. A purely qualitiative approach, on the other hand, denies any reality external to that created by the enquirer. On top of this resides dialecticism, a meta-paradigm dependent upon the first two – and Pragmatism, more an heuristic to guide research using these paradigms. To attempt to understand domains, societies and digital spaces within the confines of brook coursework, a positivist quantitative paradigm would seem to vs science, be overly-restrictive. When discussing the physical world it is possible to coursework, hold a post-positivist approach, acknowledging the reality of the external world whilst holding that our relations to it can only ever be subjective.
When discussing arenas that include digital spaces and compare contrasting essays, connections, however, it is difficult to brook, see how even this nuanced view of the positivist project can be sustained. On the other hand, the qualitative paradigm also seems to write contrasting essays, suffer from a poverty of descriptive power when it comes to the ‘blended’ digital/physical arenas that constitute the ‘knowledge society’. People do agree upon the way the debden brook world is, connect meaningfully, and experience things in broadly similar ways. For1995! To take a blindly poststructuralist/postmodernist view and to insist on brook, the subjectivity of the external, therefore, would be to lose the and thesis ability to describe blended arenas and spaces in a meaningful way. Debden! A dialectical approach, meanwhile, whilst appearing attractive in synthesizing approaches, seems teleological which is something to be avoided. Certainly given the radically democratic nature of the Internet, for example, no individual or group can direct the ends of the masses. Difference Of Research Paper And Thesis! At the same time, the technology itself does not dictate what it is used for; this depends upon the human user(s). Perhaps the debden brook coursework best approach to essay, take, therefore, is the Pragmatic one.
This is a ‘multi-methodology’ that looks to understand the world from many viewpoints, therefore building up a more coherent picture. Debden Brook! This fits in well with the idea discussed above of ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ literacies and also gives more of student on immigration, a picture of what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Pragmatism was originally formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce in the pragmatic maxim: Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Brook Coursework! Then, our conception of of mass, these effects is the whole of our conception of the object. Debden Coursework! (quoted in Potter, 1996:94) By this, Peirce meant that concepts (and therefore knowledge statements) emerge from the effects of things such as tools and objects. We need, therefore, to know how tools – digital and otherwise – are actually being used rather than how it was that they were intended to be used. Objects and concepts cannot be separated and considered to have a separate ‘reality’ from the sum total of the effects they have upon people and the environment. Essay On Religion Vs Science! As a result, considering these effects from multiple points of view allows us to understand better those objects and concepts. In terms of debden brook coursework, ‘digital literacy’ this means analysing how government pronouncements work in essay on religion practice, how policy documents translate into ‘reality’, and brook, considering how representative are surveys and studies making claims about write introduction learners in the 21st century. The thesis, then, shall include data collection in the form of analysis of policy documents from government down to grass-roots level.
An adaptation of the eight-step process outlined by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) shall be considered as a model to move from research question through to analysis. This, briefly stated is: Formulation of research question(s) Outline of purpose of debden brook coursework, mixed research Selection of write compare contrasting essays, research methodologies Data collection Data analysis Data interpretation Legitimation Final report with conclusions drawn. The data being collected in this non-empirical thesis comes from a multitude of sources. As a result, the debden coursework Pragmatic method will allow for research from various backgrounds to dissertations for nova southeasternuniversity for1995, be juxtaposed and debden, synthesised where appropriate to give a bigger and more coherent picture.
Steps 4-6, data collection, analysis and interpretation will therefore be somewhat combined rather than in on religion vs science distinctive ‘steps’. Step 7 (Legitimation) will have to come at the same time as Step 3 (Selection of methodologies) to debden coursework, give credence to for nova southeasternuniversity for1995 smith-taylor, the entire project. This will result, therefore, in a five-step process: Formulation of research questions(s) Outline of purpose of research Selection and legitimation of debden coursework, research methodologies Data collection, analysis and essay on religion, interpretation Conclusion. This process within the Pragmatic framework will allow an debden understanding to be gained of how the many stakeholders, interested parties and essays, pressure groups within the UK education system conceive of ‘digital literacy’ and what it means to be ‘educated’. A multi-methodological approach should ascertain the extent to which these conceptions are diverse. At times, ‘hard’ data – such as that provided by research from a predominantly quantitative perspective – will be analysed and at others a ‘thicker’, more descriptive perspective will be required. The thesis will not attempt to make general and sweeping claims about the debden coursework whole education system but instead, where appropriate, highlight conflicts, disagreements and disparities in the wording and implementation of policies surrounding digital literacies. This should inform what it means to be ‘educated’ in write contrasting essays the 21st century. Finally, a comparison shall be drawn with other countries in brook terms of varying approaches to 21st century education and what it means to be ‘digitally literate’.
Difficulties shall certainly arise here in terms of ease of access to policy documents below governmental level. However, where it would seem that the an admission policies and incentives evident in coursework another country or culture would benefit the dissertations southeasternuniversity smith-taylor educational system in England and Wales, these shall be highlighted. Those countries that it would be worth researching initially, it would seem, are Singapore (government commitment to digital infrastructure), the United States (for purposes of comparison), and another European country such as Sweden or Norway. Debden! This, whilst not the main focus of the thesis, should nevertheless give a flavour of global links, issues and concerns and situate the rest of the discussion in a context. The proposed thesis shall focus upon the concept of for nova for1995 for martha, ‘digital literacy’, using a Pragmatic method in brook an attempt to dissertations for nova for1995, understand the educational landscape within which it resides in debden coursework England and contrasting essays, Wales. Debden Brook! By comparing and contrasting research, governmental policy documents, the views of various groups within education and on the fringe, and what goes on in schools, a broad view of what literacy means in the 21st century should be obtained. These shall then be compared and contrasted both internally and write essay, with other countries, especially economic competitors to the UK as a whole. Achterhuis, H. (2001) Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn (Indiana University Press) Apple, M. (2003) ‘Is the New Technology part of the debden solution or part of the problem in education? (in A. Darder, M. Baltodano R.D. Essay On Religion Vs Science! Torres, The Critical Pedagogy Reader; London) Barton, D. M. Hamilton (2000) ‘Literacy Practices’ (in Barton, D., Hamilton, M. Ivanic, R. Brook Coursework! (eds.), Situated Literacies: reading and writing in context, London) Beavis, C. (1998) ‘Computer games, culture and curriculum’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Page to Screen: taking literacy into the electronic era; London, 1998) Blacker, D. J. McKie (2003) ‘Information and Communication Technology’ (in N. Blake, et al. (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education; Oxford, 2003) Burnett, R. (2002) Technology, Learning and Visual Culture (in I. Contrasting! Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: Communication, Innovation and Education in the Electronic Age, London) Burniske, R.W. L. Monke (2001) Breaking Down the Digital Walls: learning to teach in brook coursework a post-modem world (New York) Carr, D. (2003) Making Sense of Education: an introduction to the philosophy and theory of education and teaching (London) Claxton, G. (2002) ‘Education for student on immigration, the Learning Age: A Sociocultural Approach to coursework, Learning to Learn’ (in G. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for how to write an admission, Life in the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Cromer, A. (1997) Connected Knowledge: Science, Philosophy, and Education (Oxford) Cuban, L. (1986) Teachers and Machines: the brook classroom use of for nova southeasternuniversity for1995 smith-taylor, technology since 1920 (London) Delors, J., (1996a) Choices for debden brook, education: the political factor, in J. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France) Delors, J. (1996b) The Four Pillars of Education, in J. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France, 1996) Demetriadis, S., et al. (2003) ‘ Cultures in negotiation’: teachers’ acceptance/resistance attitudes considering the infusion of technology into schools’ (Computers Education, 41, 2003) Dickens, C. (2007 ed.) Hard Times (London) DiSessa, A.A. (2000) Changing Minds: computers, learning, and literacy (London) Eraut, M. (1991) Education and the Information Society: a challenge for European policy (London) Friedman, T.L. (2005) The World Is Flat: the globalized world in the 21st century (London) Johnson, R.B.
A.J. Onwuegbezie (2004)’Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come’ (Educational Researcher, Vol. Student On Immigration! 33, No.7, 14-26) Kellner, D.M. (2002) ‘Technological Revolution, Multiple Literacies, and the Restructuring of Education’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Lemke, J.L. (2002) ‘Becoming the Village: Education Across Lives’ (in G. Brook Coursework! Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for essay on responsibility media, Life in the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Levin, B. J.A. Riffel (1997) Schools and the Changing World: struggling toward the future (London) Machlup, F. (1962) The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (New York) McCain, T. (2005) Teaching For Tomorrow: teaching content and problem-solving skills (Thousand Oaks, California) Michigan State University (2004), VISION 2004 statement (http://www.msu.edu/unit/provost/Educated_Person.htm, accessed 3 October 2007 – cached at http://tinyurl.com/38f3am) Muller, J. (2000) Reclaiming Knowledge: social theory, curriculum and education policy (London) OECD (2001) Learning to Change: ICT in brook Schools Okan, Z. (2003) ‘Edutainment: is learning at risk?’ (British Journal of Educational Technology, 34:3) Petrina, S. (2007) Advanced Teaching Methods for the Technology Classroom (New York) Postman, N. (1993) Technopoly: the surrender of culture to technology (London) Potter, V.G. (1996) Peirce’s Philosophical Perspectives (New York) Provenzo, E.F., et al. (1999) Computers, Curriculum, and Cultural Change: an compare contrasting introduction for teachers (London) Reilly, B. (1996) ‘New Technologies, New Literacies, New Patterns’ (in C. Fisher, D.C. Dwyer K. Brook Coursework! Yocam (eds.), Education and Technology: reflections on difference between paper and thesis, computing in classrooms (San Francisco) Rodriguez Illera, J.L. (2004) ‘Digital Literacies’ (Interactive Educational Multimedia, number 9 (November 2004) Siemens, G. (2006) Knowing Knowledge (http://www.knowingknowledge.com, accessed 24 August 2007) Smith, R. P. Curtin (1998) ‘Children, computers and debden coursework, life online: education in student on immigration a cyber-world’ (in I. Snyder, Page to Screen, London) Snyder, I. Debden Coursework! (2002) ‘Communication, Imagination, Critique – Literacy Education for the Electronic Age’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Stonier, T. C. Conlin (1985) The Three C’s: children, computers, communication (Chichester) Sutherland, R. InterActive project team, ‘Designs for Learning: ICT and knowledge in the classroom’ (Computers Education, 43, 2004) Tiffin, J. L. Write Compare Essays! Rajasingham, (2003) The Global Virtual University (New York) Town, J.S. (2003) ‘Information Literacy: definition, measurement, impact’ (in A. Martin H. Rader (eds.), Information and IT literacy: enabling learning in debden the 21st century, London, 2003) UNESCO (2004) ‘The Plurality of Literacy and its Implications for Policies and Programmes (France) Wow Doug – looks pretty darn impressive to me. Essays On Immigration! Also looks like a heck of a lot of work. Well done! How dare they fail your first submission – it was a masterpiece ;o) PS love the quotation in your new header – very amusing :oD. Thanks for the praise, Jenny and Lisa! #128578; @Lisa: This is coursework actually the one of which you kindly agreed to proof-read a draft.
Have you noticed that the quotation in the header changes when you refresh the an admission page? :-p. I subscribe to George Siemens elearningspace and received an email today, with a link to your blog. It’s come at an opportune time, I’m considering concept papers for my ed.D. as well (at Nova Southeastern Uni). For a course leading up to debden, my concept paper, I wrote papers on social networking, globalisation and technological progress as well as trends in education. ON another note, where I teach ( an International School in Kuala Lumpur) is moving towards at 1:1 program. We’ve visted 3 different schools, where terms such as “21st century learners” and “21st century literacy skills” are mentioned, however not articulated. I loved your proposal, similar to the direction where I am heading. Hi Bron, glad you liked the proposal and you found it useful! #128578;
George Siemens has linked to this proposal, but for some reason it doesn’t seem to have shown up with a trackback… :-s. Thought your proposal was great. I’m starting my research for write contrasting, my Ed.D in primary schools in coursework the West of Scotland. My topic is very similar to yours, ‘The impact of life on literacy practices: Digital Literacy in write primary schools’. I’ll send you my first paper soon. I’ll send you my first paper soon.
That would be great Jane – thanks! It’ll be interesting to compare and contrast not only primary/secondary issues, but those of the Scottish/English systems. #128578; I#039;m leading an initiative at debden coursework, my universtiy that aims to smith-taylor, define and deliver Digital Fluency as a core graduate attribute. Debden Brook Coursework! 6 months into this work and people here are now getting really interested in the concept and its relevance to 21st century learning. Let me know if you#039;d be interested in this -happy to share what we#039;ve learnt so far. That sounds very interesting! With Jane at the Primary level, myself at essay vs science, the Secondary level and you at University level, we’ll have it all covered. Do get in touch via the debden contact form directly to let me know what you’re up to. #128512; quite impressive, indeed. would like to know what the evaluators thought to essays, be the missing 37 % ? I sympathise on the failure thing.
Check out my post on the subject. I reckon this is debden brook coursework a good topic, but potentially broad. There’s certainly a wealth of material on the blogosphere that you could use. There are quite a few analogies with functional literacy that can be drawn. First if all: your work looks very good. I don’t understand what your evaluators might want more… I’m working (and it will be very probable also part of my PhD..) on a project about the concept of “digital competence”. We are developing also tests and other assessments. Maybe it could be useful share our works…
1. Is DL the same at all age levels (e.g., high school graduate vs college graduate)? 2. Is DL the same for essay on religion, all professions? 3. Who is to define DL — you? Pretty subjective and not very research based. 4. Put all research results in a table to see which one says what skill is brook coursework needed. 5. Won’t your results be outdated almost by the time you’re finished? Thanks for the questions and feedback. My response: 1. That’s certainly something I’ll be looking at. Dissertations For Martha Smith-taylor! My gut feeling is that they’d all be on the same spectrum, yes.:-) 2. I’d need some counter-examples to prevent me simply saying ‘yes’.
In the debden coursework same way that ‘literacy’ ranges across domains, so ‘digital literacy’ does, I think. 3. I’ll be looking at how others have defined digital literacy and whether definitions of other terms come close to what I’m getting at. I’ll be looking for consensus, common sense and tentative suggestions, not dogmatic statements about what I believe – so I hope it will be research-based and moving towards some type of objectivity. :-p. 4. I’m not entirely sure what you mean by this. Could you elaborate? 5. Perhaps, but hopefully not! Also, I’m undertaking the Ed.D. for a variety of reasons. One of the strongest is for my development and so I interact with a wide range of literature and resources.
It’s as much about me grappling with issues as it is about contributing something original.:-) 4. For Nova Southeasternuniversity Smith-taylor! If you’re going to research what others say about DL and what skills are included in those definitions, then it makes sense to put that info into a table so that you can compare visually across columns/rows. I’m due to start my Ed.D next year. Debden Coursework! It’s really interesting and student, useful to read your proposal. At present I’m considering focusing on debden brook, the relationship between the primary school and parents (stakeholders) in light of the Ed changes since 1988. Your proposal is essay on responsibility of mass media impressive.Incidentally,I just passed my Ed.D proposal.I am studying at the university of Sheffield.I am focusing on boys and literacy.But I am curious:How can a non doctoral research supervisor manage the work of a doctoral student?
@Andre: Exactly! I haven’t been too impressed with the lack of urgency in finding myself a new one, either… #128577;
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hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for debden brook, trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. Student On Immigration. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and debden, during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. Write Compare Essays. How would I write that on brook my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the format of research, related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the debden coursework, ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely.
Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of student on immigration luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to debden coursework, include your restaurant experience, then you might want to difference format of research, consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.
Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an debden brook has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. Dissertations For Martha. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template.
Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and debden, input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the dissertations for nova for1995 for martha, ‘Freeman’ template.
Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to debden, apply for essays on immigration, a competitive summer program with the USDA and coursework, South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to southeasternuniversity for1995 for martha, tap into the finance and coursework, accounting market. Looking for write essay introduction, an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work.
Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to debden brook, earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for for nova southeasternuniversity for1995 for martha smith-taylor, the fourth quarter this year. Brook. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and student on immigration, I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project.
Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and debden, click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out compare contrasting essays, our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret,
In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to brook coursework, the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and student, rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of coursework taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the difference between of research, functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume.
Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out debden brook, our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to for nova for martha smith-taylor, choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Debden Brook Coursework. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and essay on religion, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to essay on religion vs science, unlock your. Would You Rather Work for debden brook, a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for dissertations for nova for1995 for martha smith-taylor, a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is debden coursework, bound to essays, have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and debden brook, career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including:
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3 Instructor Environment - 3.9 Homework. The optional Homework Assignments area allows questions to debden brook, be scheduled which participants answer within their environment. This section includes several assignments that are complementary to the simulation. Dissertations Southeasternuniversity For Martha? The system also allows instructors to create their own, custom Question Bank, which can be used in brook, any Industry they create. Participants enter answers via the Homework section in their environment. Instructors can schedule more than one assignment for each round. Once an assignment is scheduled, instructors have the option of rescheduling or deleting the assignment. If instructors have entered round dates and times using the Manage Course | Schedule Rounds form, those dates will be carried into the Homework schedule. If dates have not been entered, instructors have the on religion vs science option of entering dates. Instructors can also override round dates by changing the debden brook deadlines on this form.
Instructors click the Grade link to review responses. A list with all assignments will display. Between Of Research Paper And Thesis? Clicking any assignment produces a list of the brook coursework participants, sorted by company. If instructors take no action, the default percentage entered on the schedule form will be awarded to each participant who responds (but not revealed until instructors check the how to write an admission essay introduction Reveal box - either individually, or as a group - and brook coursework, then select Save). To review and media, grade, instructors click on a participant's name. The participant's answer will appear, or if the answer was included in an uploaded document instructors have an opportunity to download and review that document. The Select Grade dropdown displays percentages between 0 and 150 (above 100 would be extra credit). For example, if the assignment has a Point Value of 100, and if instructors select 80%, the resulting grade of 80 points would be recorded for that participant; entering 150% would produce a grade of 150 points. Clicking the Save button completes the debden brook grading process. On Responsibility? Responses and grades are available from the Reports link.
Reports can be generated via four methods: Summary of coursework replies and points earned Listing of all replies (Use this method to compare contrasting essays, print responses.) Question/participant summary with individual detail Question/participant summary with complete detail (That is, all questions for debden brook, all participants.) The optional Peer Evaluations help identify individual contributions within group projects. Write Compare Contrasting? The Peer Evaluations are a non-confrontational method for participants to help teammates establish their strong and debden, weak points. Instructors may also use this feature to survey participants. The Questions link allows instructors to create and review questions. To create a question, click the Add Question button. When the new page opens, type or paste a question into the text box. Click the on religion Add Question button. Clicking any existing question allows it be edited.
Instructors can review the Eval questions by clicking Create and scrolling down the page. Capsim has three standard Peer Evaluations, instructors do not need to create their own. Debden? To create a custom evaluation, enter a name then select ten questions with the select box. Next, click the Create button. Essay On Religion Vs Science? The new evaluation is exclusive to the instructor who created it, and will be added to the standard evaluations and any other custom evaluations. Clicking the word Schedule next to any round opens a form The three standard evaluations and any custom evaluations are available via a select box. Debden? Choose an evaluation. If instructors have entered round dates and times using the Manage Course | Schedule Rounds form, those dates will be carried into the Peer Eval schedule. If dates have not been entered, instructors have the essay option of debden brook entering dates. Instructors can also override round dates by changing the deadlines on this form.
For each evaluation, the Student Peer Evaluation Summary table shows the evaluation response for each participant including the overall score. This area controls the settings for essays, the optional Success Measurements. The results are available from the Industry Scoring | Success Measures area (see 3.8.2 Success Measures). In the real world, companies have different goals. Brook Coursework? Some firms want higher profits; others want higher share of market, etc. The Success Measurement feature shows how well each team succeeds in reaching any combination of eight goals: Instructors may allow each company to decide which measurements it wishes to be judged upon. Companies can select values between 0% and 50%. For Nova For Martha? Therefore, companies must select at least two measures. Instructors may enter weights for each company. Instructors can select any value between 0% to 100%.
The Methods link allows instructors to: Choose between Average, Ending, or (in the case of profit) a Cumulative criterion. Selecting NA will prohibit participants from brook coursework, using that measure. Capsim recommends Cumulative for Profit, Ending for essay of mass, Stock Price, and Average for all other measurements. For measures selected as Avg, instructors may decide whether to weigh each round's results evenly or prorated to allow for greater emphasis on later rounds. The Schedule link allows instructors to choose the round by debden coursework which teams will be allowed to input their measures.
If Instructors choose Round 3, participants will be able to enter measurement criteria up until the end or Round 3. Instructors can enter/change weights at any time. Write Essays? Overriding dates cannot be entered for Success Measures, deadlines are driven exclusively by round completion. The schedule deadline applies to both Practice and debden, Competition rounds. If the write contrasting deadline is Round 1, and debden, three Practice Rounds are played, the difference between of research paper Success Measures will become available again when the simulation is reset to Competition Round 1. This area allows instructors to view the weights participants have selected, or enter or change them after the debden brook deadline has passed. The Industry Results | Reports | Report Availability link lets instructors determine by which round participants can view the results of on religion vs science their selections, which display for brook, participants as Final Score Relative and/or Final Score Ranking results (see 4.7.2 Debrief Reports).
Keeping the reports hidden until later rounds will prevent companies from seeing their competitors' selections, which could reveal strategies.
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Debden brook coursework | …
Cosi by Louis Nowra (Notes by English Works) Cosi ‘s depiction of the “funny farm”: what is normal? by Dr Jennifer Minter, English Works. Set in debden coursework, the remnants of a burnt-out theatre, and difference between and thesis, drawing upon the political and social context of the Vietnam War, Louis Nowra’s play Cosi challenges our perceptions about coursework love, madness and politics. Whilst the inmates in write an admission essay, the asylum suffer from various degrees of insanity and drug addictions, they often appear at times more “sane” than their visitors. The more the debden coursework audience personalises the an admission essay characters and the more we become aware of coursework, similarities between the an admission essay introduction inmates and the “normal” people, then the more we are encouraged to challenge the stereotypical perception of a “mad” person.
As the borders become hazy, we start to debden brook, think about the subtle signs of madness and darkness in our own lives. Nowra uses humour, irony and cynicism to blur the boundaries and subvert the contrasting distinctions between madness and sanity: The differences among the inmates shows that it is difficult to stereotype the brook patients. Justin tells Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… (5). He also tells Lewis, “A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) which alludes to the fact that the sane person is “clothed”; the “madman” nakedly exposes his madness. Lewis becomes a bridge between the two worlds and his commitment and attachment to the insane reveal his growing awareness of their problems and often their similarities The role reversal between Roy and difference format of research paper, Lewis and debden brook coursework, similarities between Roy and Nick shed light on the superficial distinctions. The fact that there is not a clear distinction between the characters who are obviously mad, and those who are suffering from an addiction, already makes the audience question the stereotypes of “madness”. Whilst some of the characters are obviously mad such as Doug and Ruth, characters like Zac and Cherry rarely exhibit obvious signs of madness. Likewise, Julie is suffering from a drug addiction and is much more capable, more aware and more realistic than the other inmates, but just as sad, nonetheless. Nowra constructs Lewis as a bridge between the two worlds, which enables him to show how these two worlds clash and dissertations for martha, collide. This function as a “bridge” also helps the playwright concentrate on similarities between the inside and the outside world so that the audience once again does not have a clear sense of distinction.
At the outset of the play, Justin asks Lewis, “what ward are you from”, suggesting that he could easily be mistaken for an inmate. As the audience becomes increasingly aware of the inmates’ personal problems, we recognise important similarities. As Justin reaffirms to Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… But you get my drift? (5).” The fact that Lewis’ grandmother was certified insane also links him to the two separate worlds. As such, members of the audience are challenged to reflect upon their own backgrounds and problems and many would be able to identify with some aspects of the characters, especially where love is concerned. Debden Brook? One of the student essays reasons that Roy chooses the play is because of his disturbed childhood and the fact that he is seeking to recapture an idyllic world of debden coursework, love. He, too, has a story of madness hidden in the closet. He chooses Mozart’s opera Cosi in an attempt to recapture or rekindle his idealistic dream of childhood – a romantic idyll that he never experienced. He hopes that it will help him escape the depressing life at the asylum, and recapture his ideal. He wants the play to recapture “lullabies sung to me by my beautiful mother”. This is particularly sad given Roy’s life as an orphan. (64)
Another way that Nowra challenges the stereotypes of madness is evident in the relationship between Roy and Lewis whereby their role reversal seems to imply that Roy is more rational than Lewis. Initially Roy appears more capable and confident than Lewis and Lewis is hesitant, naive and inexperienced. As Roy constantly humorously reminds the audience, he “could direct a poofter to student, a man’s dunny”. Roy chooses the play, which becomes an important theme in Cosi. Debden Brook? Also the way Nowra sets Lewis up for ridicule makes the essay audience think that perhaps Lewis is, at times, more insane or peculiar than Roy. Debden Brook Coursework? Nowra vindicates Roy’s choice of play, which again shows that he is in difference of research and thesis, touch with the needs of the inmates. At times, Roy appears decisive and authoritative and has worthy dreams of introducing culture to the asylum. In this instance, he not only sets himself apart from those in the asylum but also from Australians.
Nowra caustically states that Australians are only familiar with the “culture” on cheddar cheese. Not only is the role reversal between these two main characters an debden, indicator of the inability to typecast people, but there are similarities between Nick and Roy. Both have visions of grandeur; both simplistically want to essay on responsibility media, change their environment etc. Is this another form of madness? As Nowra would also suggest, just because Roy is an orphan, or has visions of grandeur, or as it turns out brook has stage fright does not make him automatically insane. However, as their relationship develops, ironically Lewis grows in stature and confidence and Roy becomes diminished especially through stage fright, which perhaps gives the audience a glimpse into essay on religion vs science his insanity. He appears to be incorrigible – he irritates people to such an extent that he is constantly moved from “ward to ward”
Nick seems to share some of the “stereotypically” mad syndromes exhibited by Roy such as a delusional tendency towards self- grandeur, which once again encourages the audience to question who is “mad”. Again, Justin’s reference to the Emperor’s nakedness also sheds some light on the way Nowra makes us question the differences between sanity and brook, insanity. When Justin tells Lewis, “A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) this alludes to the fact that the “madman” shows his madness. His madness is clearly evident from his nakedness. As such Justin also alludes to the fact that the difference is that sane people conceal their madness in many subtle and not so subtle ways. Perhaps we can see that Roy’s delusions of on religion vs science, grandeur are obviously misplaced in debden brook coursework, the asylum and that this could be a sign of his madness. However, Nick also shows similar delusions, but they are perhaps more subtle. Essays On Immigration? Roy shares similarities with Nick, which makes us question whether Nick is insane or Roy is just as sane. As a visionary, Roy is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. He instigates the play and brook, has a grand idea of bringing “culture” to how to write an admission introduction, the institution. He wants to implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. “I aim for debden brook, the stars.” Similarly Nick believes that the essay on religion vs science moratorium ends up changing Australia “forever”.
He is just as arrogant and supercilious in his belief that politics is the only worthy ideal and can be stripped of empathy and sentiment. Nick is set up for ridicule by hypocritically sympathising with the Vietnamese victims but scorning and humiliating the “right wing nuts” and the ‘funny farm”. Also Nowra constructs characters such as Nick and Lucy to show that often there are also similarities between their outlook and behaviour and the inmates. In fact, there are many similarities between the brook patients and on immigration, the citizens in debden brook coursework, the world. For example, Roy and essay vs science, Nick both share a vision and both world views are legitimized throughout the brook coursework play. Nick is rather simplistic in his world view, believing that the march and moratorium can change the world. He is difference paper and thesis happy that Australia was “forever changed”. He belittles the play and believes that those who are focusing on love are being trivial. (Such people are “definitely mad”.) However, Nowra shows that Roy is just as idealistic, but perhaps he holds a more realistic vision about love and hatred.
Neither visions are more important than each other. As a visionary, Roy is debden brook coursework a perfect contrast to on immigration, Nick and is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. However, the similarities between characters enables Nowra to subvert the clear distinctions between “mad” and brook, “sane”. Roy instigates the play and has a grand idea of bringing “culture” the institution. he wants to implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. “I am for the stars.” Throughout the course of the play, Nowra suggests that typically “mad” people do have more difficulty with the concept of “illusion” than sane people do. Ruth struggles with the concept of the play and focuses on how many steps she must “literally” take.
She states, “I can handle something being an illusion and real but not at the same time”. Roy wants to use toy soldiers as a backdrop and he wonders whether the essay of mass media typically “mad” audience will recognize these as symbols. Henry also takes a literal view of the soldiers’ uniform and coursework, the Albanian communists, which he believes denigrates his father’s involvement in war. Conversely, there are signs of fantasy in Nick’s and Lucy’s world as they show aspects of Cosi in their own love relationships. Nowra constructs the characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of write compare, madness and brook coursework, fantasy. They believe it is so easy to “save the essays world” and make a difference. Coursework? Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of essay on responsibility media, ridicule. Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending, and yet they do not achieve perhaps any more or less than the brook coursework “mad” patients.
Personally, and professionally, Lewis changes and matures as he gains real-life experience. Lewis’s skills as a director are challenged as he directs the play, Cosi Fan Tutte, and gains in stature as he becomes personally committed to the inmates. His goal is to try to ‘bring them out of themselves”, but in such a gloomy and essay on religion, dark setting and the constant threat of Doug’s pyromaniac tendencies suggest that the play is doomed from the start. Initially Lewis is inexperienced and naive and has had very little experience either directing a play or working with certified patients, which makes the goal somewhat farcical. As a result, Lewis has a lot to learn, and ironically Roy, an brook coursework, inmate, helps him to dissertations for nova southeasternuniversity for1995, become more assertive and brook, sympathetic towards the actors. Difference Paper? Roy constantly reminds him that the brook actors are “crying out for direction” – not only because they have irrational tendencies, but they also have difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality. Because such characters already inhabit the boundary areas, they have difficulty thinking symbolically – that is they may struggle to differentiate “real” from write essays, “toy” soldiers. Coursework? Roy also reminds Lewis that he is dealing with a “mad audience”.
Not only does he specifically need to tell Ruth just how many steps she must take, but he also needs to protect Henry’s vulnerabilities and the sense of betrayal he feels on account of his father when Lewis wants to dress up the on responsibility of mass two protagonists as Albanians. Likewise, Ruth fears being set up for ridicule should she forget the words of a song. However, despite these difficulties Lewis does rise to the occasion and brook coursework, his choice to work on write compare, the play instead of joining the moratorium testifies to his growing confidence and desire to debden brook, stage a successful play – which he does. Even Roy, subtly admires Lewis’s ability when he gives him a list of instructions. Nowra positions Lewis’s involvement at the mental asylum as a journey of self-discovery. On Religion Vs Science? Not only does he have a personal link with madness, as his grandmother was certified insane, but Lewis must challenge his stereotypical attitudes towards madness. Lewis comes to appreciate that there are no clear-cut boundaries. Brook? He realises as Justin says that they are “normal … well not quite”. The fact that towards the end of the play Lewis drops his guard and how to write essay, becomes comfortable and intimate with the debden brook patients shows that he no longer fears them, because he sees them as people with foibles and shortcomings rather than as “madmen”.
Personally, he also matures and develops as a person. He shows greater sensitivity and compassion. As Lewis becomes more deeply involved in the play, he has to challenge his personal priorities and think about his commitment to people. Lewis must temper his arrogance and gains sensitivity and compassion towards the on religion vs science inmates. Debden Brook Coursework? At first he was dismissive of their ability to act, but he cajoles them and learns that he must be careful of setting them up for ridicule. He realises that they fear exposure and dissertations southeasternuniversity for1995 smith-taylor, humiliation; he must provide a comfortable and reassuring context for coursework, them to explore their creative side.
When he is forced to choose between attending the moratorium or practicing the play, he opts for the play which shows a fundamental shift in his views, values and essay on responsibility of mass, priorities. Lewis also becomes more assertive when he categorically states to Lucy that he will not let the patients down. He knows that if the play fails this could be embarrassing; they could look ridiculous which will severely harm their self-esteem. The sub-text of the play within a play, makes Lewis realise the significance of love as opposed to war. Initially he is flippant and debden brook, cavalier, but when it affects him personally he is insulted. He realises that war is not necessarily the “real theatre” and on immigration, that love plays an enormous role in coursework, people’s lives . In fact, although Nowra does not suggest that their lack of and thesis, love causes madness, it is a contributing factor in many of their conditions whether it be madness or addiction. His views on love evolve. If he previously echoed Lucy’s views that love is a “bourgeois indulgence of the privileged few”, he is forced to confront its significance when Lucy flippantly reveals her affair. Nowra states that Lewis is “stunned” thus showing the degree of his personal offence. Lewis spontaneously quotes Cosi , “Women’s constancy is like the Arabian phoenix..” which underscores his chauvinistic attitude which will be exposed as hypocritical. Debden Brook? Finally, Lewis’ choice also shows his shift from believing that the difference of research arena of debden, war is the how to an admission essay introduction most important issue, thus challenging the priority of Nick’s views.
Lewis’s views about love and politics are tested and eventually he shows a change in priorities. Lewis’s flippant and cavalier view of love is tested. Previously he, like Lucy and Nick, prioritised to war as the “real theatre”. This is the time of the Vietnam War and many students are involved in anti-war marches. Lewis echoes Lucy’s and debden coursework, Nick’s beliefs that love is a “bourgeoise” indulgence. Student? Lewis also reflects the debden brook coursework view exposed in the opera that women could not be trusted. He also realises that many inmates lack love and student essays, that this may be a contributing factor to their sadness, loneliness and desperation. Roy’s admission. He is forced to realise that he is not that “constant” either and debden brook coursework, enjoys the attention from between and thesis, Julie and Cherry.
Lewis’s chauvinistic views are challenged. Women’s fidelity and constancy are a subtext and debden brook, he is found wanting; also social context of “free love” and independence. One of the defining aspects within “Cosi” occurs with the irony of “a play within a play”, namely the production of Mozart’s “Cosi Fan Tutte” which works to promote the importance of love within the wider spectrum of “Cosi”. It is no accident that Roy chooses a play so focused on love, and it this which serves as the basis for how to write essay introduction, underlying ideas of Lewis and the inmates about love and fidelity, regardless of whether or not they are agreement with the play. On numerous occasions ideas are extracted from Mozart’s opera supporting the importance of love and fidelity, such as the debden brook coursework idea that a “Women’s constancy is like that of the Arabian Phoenix, everyone swears by it by no-one has seen it.”. Between Format Paper And Thesis? Other characters draw upon the contentious idea of the play as a “comedy” and Henry remarks that “Cosi Fan Tutte” has corrupting influence, stating that “whether women can be true is a tragedy” not a comedy as Lewis suggests. Roy’s perception on debden brook, love’s place in the world is dissertations southeasternuniversity for1995 for martha unique as he demonstrates both the destruction it can cause as well as the debden brook coursework joy it can bring. Roy generally serves as the secondary protagonist, driving the plot through sheer determination at times coupled with sporadic fits of depression. How To An Admission? It is during one of those fits that the debden brook coursework darker side of Roy is revealed when he states that “love is what you feel when you don’t have enough emotion left to hate”, a reference to Roy’s dissatisfaction with personal experiences in love. This becomes clear when Roy’s true childhood is exposed.
Roy spent his childhood moving between orphanages, always deprived of love. His delusions about his mother’s “beautiful Parisian gowns” provides a form of media, release. To balance the presence of love in brook coursework, Cosi , Nowra also injects an element of realism into the play through politics, primarily those surrounding the Vietnam War. Set in a period of political turmoil, the characters of Lucy and of research paper and thesis, Nick prioritize politics over love, a concept which Lucy calls “an indulgence for the privileged few”. Brook? The concept of dissertations for1995 smith-taylor, politics and war is further embedded into “Cosi” symbolically through fire and darkness, and debden brook coursework, it this which weakens and almost destroys the production of “Cosi Fan Tutte” and by extension the ideas of love, demonstrating its vulnerability. This suggests that “love does shit all for essays, the starving masses” and for all that love is within “Cosi Fan Tutte”, it is useless with the “real” world of debden, Vietnam where fire and darkness prevail. Nick’s and Lucy’s attitude to the play about love reveals much about their own self-centred and rather arrogant attitude towards the vulnerable people in society.
Nick tells him that he is just performing an essay of mass, “opera about a few upper class twits” (76) at brook coursework a “funny farm”. (77) Lucy is insensitive when she tells Lewis that she is an admission essay introduction sleeping with him but having sex with Nick. Lucy belittles Lewis’s involvement in the play because she thinks a play about love is typical of the “upper class twits” who are removed from the real battle of life. Lucy thinks that “love is the last gasp of brook, bourgeois romanticism” (33) Lucy interprets love according to her narrow political framework. She tells Lewis, that “love is an emotional indulgence of the privileged few” (70). She hates him doing an opera about love and how to write, fidelity while thousands of Vietnamese are being killed by American troops. Nick is brook critical of their desire to do a play about love and infidelity in this day and write essays, age (41) “They’re definitely mad”. Nowra constructs these characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive.
Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness. That they believe it is debden coursework so easy to “save the world” and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and dissertations for nova smith-taylor, the belief in their own importance makes them a target of debden brook coursework, ridicule. In the world of Cosi , Nick and Lucy represent the “real world”. They are typical of the informed, educated students who are trying to make a difference. They are involved in “real life issues”, “important” issues of the day, such as politics. Contrasting Essays? They idealistically believe that they can make a difference and realize their world view. Brook? Nick believes that it is possible to make changes. He is “getting fed up with our society”. He is essays typical of those who “changes and we want them now!” Lucy also extols Nick’s virtues because she notices how he “gets things done and coursework, does things that matter (70).
The most important thing in their lives is the moratorium march which is critical of Australia’s involvement in Vietnam. An Admission Introduction? Following the march, Nick is really happy that “Australia was changed forever” today. 76. Self-importantly, Lucy declares her support for Nick: “He’s doing a play that’s relevant and he’s doing something about the war in Vietnam. After rehearsals we’ll go on to the moratorium meeting. It’s going to be huge. Absolutely huge. The biggest protest ever seen in Australia.” (70) Nowra deliberately constructs Roy as a character who hovers on the border between madness and debden coursework, sanity and difference between format, thereby challenges the audience’s preconceived and settled notions about brook insanity and the audience is often left in suspense wondering why Roy has been certified. As an intellectual and “cultured” person, Roy appears to be one of the most lucid characters in the play and cynically mentors the naive and simple-minded Lewis.
Such a role reversal between them is instructive and the play about love eventually mirrors to Lewis his own hypocrisy, which proves to be a fortuitous choice. Also similarities abound between Roy and Nick such as their simple-minded delusions of grandeur which once again undermines distinctions between sanity and how to essay, insanity. If Roy “aims for the stars”, Nick believes that their march single-handedly changed the world. Furthermore, Roy’s desire to “bring culture to this place” is portrayed in an honourable light, albeit sarcastically; however Nowra reserves his sarcasm not for debden, Roy but for Australians who believe that culture is the “stuff that grows on stale cheddar”. Although Roy does have anti-social tendencies and shortcomings such as his paranoia and stage-fright and a deprived childhood which has yielded to essay vs science, romantic illusions, it would be too simplistic to conclude that these are a sign of madness.
Notes on Cosi , Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes) For Excellence in VCE: please see our recently published Arguments and Persuasive Language.
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Crime Rates and Perceptions of Crime. The public perception of crime is that it has increased whilst official statistics show that overall, crime has decreased over the years. In this ‘risk society’, a fear of victimisation has become part of our lifestyle and we are constantly reminded of the debden, potential dangers of becoming victims of crime. Southeasternuniversity Smith-taylor? The famous study by Stanley Cohen (Folk Devils and Moral Panics (1972)) is a prime example of how society is encouraged to worry about certain groups and use them as a scapegoat to coursework blame society’s problems on. Sociologists are concerned with this topic as the fear of crime is becoming a bigger problem to tackle than crime itself.
1. 2 Research Question Why has the fear of write contrasting essays, crime increased when statistics indicate a fall in crime? What influences people’s perceptions of debden, crime and to what extent do these perceptions impact on society? The central concern of my research is to compare essays discover the reasons behind the growing fear of crime and if there is a causal link between newspaper readership and perceptions of crime. Need essay sample on Crime Rates and Perceptions of Crime ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. As (Blackie 2009: 77) suggests, my research question is to understand, explain and evaluate the reasons behind this problem.
This is a topic of interest to sociologists as media’s ‘construction of reality’ creates a distorted view of crime, with people more out of touch with the brook, reality of crime than ever. 2. An Admission Introduction? Data Selection The first table I have selected shows the sources most influential on the changes of perception of crime over the past few years (see Appendix 1), and the second table reflects the correlation between newspaper readership and perceptions of crime (see Appendix 2). I collected these tables from the debden, Home Office’s British Crime Survey on (‘Perceptions of of mass media, crime, engagement with the police, authorities dealing with anti social behaviour and debden community payback’ (Chaplin et al, 2011)). This information was gathered by a national face to face victimisation survey of people aged 16 and over from households in England and difference of research paper Wales where people were asked their experiences of crime. Debden? 3. Methodology The data I am analysing is quantitative data, since ‘it is not possible to become a social scientist without an understanding of statistics’ (Diamond and Jefferies, 2001: 1). It is also a form of secondary data analysis as the essay of mass media, data I am looking at coursework are derived from official statistics. When analysing table 3. 02 (see Appendix 2), I discovered a bivariate relationship between the type of newspaper read, and the public’s perception surrounding the amount of write contrasting, crime. There is a causal relationship here; depending on what newspaper you read your perception of crime is likely to differ.
As (Bryman, A and Cramer, D 2000) note, it is important to establish the cause prior to the effect. An effect cannot come before a cause. In table 3. 01 (see Appendix 1) there is a dependent variable and an independent variable. The dependent variable is the public’s perception of crime and the independent variable is the debden, type of source they hear it from. From analysing the variables within the tables I have come up with a hypothesis that media representations of crime can influence people’s view of crime. What I want to compare contrasting discover is if this amplifies people’s fear of crime. Firstly, I will be using formal content analysis to measure the amount of space devoted to crime and the types of crime covered in newspapers. I will then use thematic analysis to look for themes which underlie the content. My third and final analysis will be textual analysis where I will be closely examining the text used in newspapers to see how it encourages a particular reading and creates an impression. Some of the advantages of using secondary data analysis include firstly it is more structured and standardised which gives us more reliable and repeatable results.
It allows us to study larger numbers which gives results that are more representative of a population. As it is a detached and objective method, the researcher merely manipulates the variables and records the results. Their subjective feelings have no effect on debden coursework, the outcome of the experiment. If subjectivity becomes involved it could interfere with the outcome. In the vs science, British Crime Survey they used interviews to find out people’s views.
This made the results easy to quantify especially when answers are pre coded. This also makes them suitable for hypothesis testing. However, there are also disadvantages to using quantitative data. As we are analysing from a secondary source, there is a lack of familiarity with the data which may cause confusion with the data presented. It does not allow the researcher to be personally involved, thus they produce a more superficial understanding. The British Crime Survey 2010/11 gives us an overall view of the debden, statistics involved; however it does not give a deeper understanding and a more valid picture of the other factors that may be relevant. The results of quantitative data are limited as it produces numerical descriptions as opposed to a detailed narrative which gives us a less detailed account of the public’s perception on essay on religion, crime. Brook? 4. Contrasting Essays? Analysis The world appears to have become a dangerous place to live, there is a ‘fear of crime’ and a ‘fortress mentality’. The increased sense of insecurity makes many unable to deal reasonably with the problem of crime. Brook? One of the reasons crime has decreased is the privatisation of between format of research paper and thesis, public space in recent years.
CCTV are used to control how people access these public areas. The police have also become confined to certain parts of towns and cities due to ‘tipping’ which allows them to keep a watchful eye on a specific area. Baldwin and Bottoms (1976) looked at the process of ‘tipping’, which is when councils put all antisocial together in the same place. This leads to concentration of debden brook, crime in a given area, which can also have the opposite effect of creating more crime. The process of tipping is similar to the broken window theory of Wilson and Kelling (1982). It’s a zero tolerance where there is no acceptance even of the smallest crimes. This will not allow them to grow into bigger problems. The media devotes a great deal of time and difference between format paper and thesis coverage to crime and deviance. They are accused of giving a distorted image of crime, criminals and debden brook coursework policing.
There are studies that indicate that the proportion of news devoted to crime has increased over the past 50 years. An example is a study that found the proportion of space given to crime reports in the Daily Mirror and the Times from 1945 to 1991 increased from 8% to 21% (Reiner et al. , 2000). The coverage of violent and sexual crimes is significantly greater than their incidence as measured by official statistics, victim studies and self report studies. Homicide accounts for for nova southeasternuniversity for1995 smith-taylor, one third of all crime news. William and debden brook Dickinson’s (1993) study of 10 national newspapers in 1989 found 64.
5% of crime stories were about violence against a person, whereas the British Crime Survey only write essays, showed 6% of crimes reported by victims in 1989 about violence. The amount of violent and sexual crimes tended to be more frequent the more ‘down market’ the newspaper. Although murder stories attract much of the public eye, it only accounts for 600 or 700 offences a year, with most of these being domestic violence. Table 3. 03 (see appendix 2) shows the difference between tabloid newspapers and debden brook broadsheet newspapers and people’s perception of crime. 81% of people who read ‘popular’ newspapers believed crime had increased, in comparison to 59% of people who read ‘broadsheet’ newspapers. This shows how the write an admission introduction, type of newspaper affects people’s view of crime and how the media want certain groups to debden coursework worry about crime more than others.
If the working class are living in fear of crime, they are less likely to rise and revolt, as they are too busy fearing the ‘vicious’ streets. Crime news focuses on the actual incident of the crime rather than the causes. However broadsheets such as the essay on religion vs science, Guardian are more likely to contain an analysis of the causes of crime (Carrabine et al. , 2002). Tabloid readers are mostly working class as they tend to prefer the cheaper and debden brook coursework less intellectual types of newspapers. Format Of Research? Simmons and Dodd, 2003) discovered tabloid readers are twice as likely to be ‘very worried’ about burglary, mugging, physical attack and rape. An important fact is that the victims of debden brook coursework, crime are mostly the poor, working class and ethnic deprived groups. Much crime is done by the working class on essay on responsibility of mass, the working class. Brook Coursework? Ironically, the media shows victims being mainly women, white people and high status individuals. This shows how the media are manipulating our view of crime, making us believe the working class are committing the crimes whilst the privileged are suffering from the crimes.
However, there is another view. The British Crime Survey found that people who live in inner-city areas and council estates are particularly concerned about crime, particularly violent crime. These are the essay of mass media, areas where most working class people live and the areas where violent crime is debden more likely to happen. How To An Admission Introduction? Tabloid newspapers may merely be reflecting their concern with crime rather than shaping it. As Crawford et al. , (1990) says, ‘in inner city areas, mass media coverage of brook coursework, crime tends to reinforce what people already know. ’ From looking at table 3. 1 (see Appendix 1) it shows the major sources that influence people’s perceptions of crime is news programmes on TV/radio, local newspaper and tabloid newspapers. Different sources of information affected the different perceptions of crime. The people who thought crime had increased nationally were most likely to find out about crime through TV programmes or radio (62%), local newspapers (35%) or tabloid newspapers (35%) as their source of information.
Both tables are ordinal data as the on responsibility, events are ‘placed in ordered categories along a single dimension’ (Fowler Jr. 2004). The main sources of crime news derive from the brook, police and courts. However, it is difference format of research paper important to coursework note that the way the statistics were collected may affect the data. There is a dark figure of crime that does not get reported and that the police consider not worthy to be recorded. Format? Not all crimes are reported and the police record an even smaller proportion of property crime. The official crime index excludes for offences ranging from drunk driving to white collar violations. Marxists believe capitalism exploits the working class and this gives rise to crime.
Capitalism encourages the middle class to be greedy and brook coursework self interested. This sometimes leads to corporate and white collar crime however this is not the media’s main focus. On Religion Vs Science? Marxists also argue street crime is debden coursework disproportionally prosecuted, that the poor commit compared to the white collar crime that the middle class commit. Stuart Hall’s (Policing The Crisis (1978)) study applied a fully social theory of an admission essay, deviance to the study of debden, mugging. Hall’s study shows how the media will focus on a particular minority and create a moral panic, often to cover another problem. The myth of the how to essay introduction, black mugger served as a scapegoat to coursework distract attention away from the real causes of problem such as unemployment. The black mugger came to symbolise the disintegration of the social order. This is on responsibility also apparent in debden coursework today’s society as we are encouraged to fear the ‘hoody’ youth and believe the majority of essay media, them carry a knife. Journalists are dependent on official sources for their information.
These sources have become primary definers – they define what counts as crime, what counts as justice and what they believe to be significant. In doing so, they reflect the debden brook coursework, concerns of the powerful – the agents of social control and the state (Hall et al. Write Contrasting? , 1978). The British Crime Survey includes questions about perceptions of crime and the concerns. It also asks questions about newspaper readership. Findings from the surveys from 2001 to 2003 show that over the three years, a growing proportion of respondents thought that the national crime rate had risen ‘a lot’ (25% in 2001, 30% in 2001/02 and 38% in 2002/03). In comparison, the debden, British Crime Survey indicated a steady fall in crime over these years. The 2002/03 survey shows that 43% of those who read a tabloid newspaper believed the write essay introduction, crime rate had increased ‘a lot’ compared to 26% of broadsheet readers (Simmons and Dodd, 2003). The news media tend to portray a positive picture of the Criminal Justice System. Things such as the success and justice of the police are often exaggerated.
There are some stories of the corruption of the coursework, police however this is presented as an individual’s failings, rather than the difference between format, Criminal Justice System (Chibnall, 1977). The legitimacy of the Criminal Justice System is protected. This underlies many news reports on debden coursework, crimes. The mean ‘is the average of the distribution of the variable’ (Seale C 2004: 327). The most common expression for the mean of a statistical distribution with a variable is the average of all the terms. In order to discover the mean, you simply add up the difference paper and thesis, values of all the terms and then divide by the number of terms.
There are other expressions however these forms are hardly used in statistics. ‘The median is the debden coursework, number positioned in the middle of a distribution, below which half the values fall’ (Seal C 2004: 328) The median for table 3. 1 (see appendix 1) is student Broadsheet newspapers at 20% . The mean for brook, table 3. 03 (see appendix 2) for the tabloid newspapers are The Daily Mail and The Daily Star both at 81% saying crime has increased. The median for the broadsheet newspapers are The Times and difference format The Financial Times at 60% and debden coursework 50%. Difference Format And Thesis? The mode is debden brook coursework defined as ‘being the most frequently occurring value in a distribution’ (Seal C 2004:328). The mode for table 3. 01 (see appendix 1) this is the variable that occurs most often. The variable that occurred most often in both tables was the newspapers and more specifically tabloid newspapers. Conclusion In conclusion, the essay on responsibility of mass, tables and data provided have proved there is an obvious causal relationship between newspaper readership and perceptions of crime. Brook? It has effected society as we have almost become reliant on sources of dissertations for nova southeasternuniversity for1995 for martha, secondary data such as newspapers to feed us with knowledge of crime, which has created a distorted view. We become sucked into the manipulation of the media and believe what we read to be fact, even if we do know at the back of our minds it is an exaggerated version of the debden, truth. Crime has always been a staple ingredient of human’s fascination and it will always make headlines.
The main influence of people’s perception of crime comes from the media. The media has a huge part to essays play in debden coursework shaping the way we think and hear about on religion vs science, things, therefore they are also able to manipulate our view, but ultimately it is our choice to believe it or not. For Durkheim (1893) ‘Crime is normal and debden coursework an integral part of all healthy society. ’ It is also important to realise that we do need crime in society as it affirms our cultural values and dissertations for nova for martha smith-taylor norms and promotes social unity.