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Mark Rothko’s Untitled (Red): colour and the experience of the sublime. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased through The Art Foundation of Victoria, 1982 (EA1-1982) In a lecture at the Pratt Institute in recrystallization, 1958 Mark Rothko explained that ‘it was with the utmost reluctance that I found the figure could not serve my purposes’. Essays On Immigration. He remarked that, like others of his generation, he was unable to use the recrystallization lab report, figure without mutilating it, and student essays on immigration once he refused to do so he was forced to find an recrystallization, alternate means of expression. 1 Quoted in Dore Ashton, ‘Art: Lecture by Rothko’, New York Times , 31 October 1958, p. 26L. Rothko’s search for a new uncontaminated language for ocr as language, painting is the subject of the National Gallery of Victoria’s recently purchased Untitled ( Red ) 2 Untitled ( Red ) 1958, oil on canvas, 208.4 x 124.5 cm, purchased at auction from Sothbey’s, 20 May 1982. Provenance: Waddington Galleries; Alister McAlpine Collection; Beyeler; Sotheby’s. At the present writing Waddington Galleries were unable to give any further information as to the painting’s provenance (telephone conversation, October 1982, between the author and Waddington Galleries, London).
The painting has been exhibited several times in America and Europe. The following labels are randomly attached to the picture’s frame: Galerie Beyeler, Basle Exhibited ‘America, America’ October–December 1976 Cat. Lab Report. No. 50. Galerie Melki, 55 rue de Seine, Paris 6 No. 315. Jean Paul Ledeur, Paris 61 rue Raymond Losserand. Andre Chenue #038; Fils, No.
47. Robert Elkon 1063 Madison Avenue ‘Six American Painters’ October 1977 Date ca .1958. Marlborough Untitled, oil on day of the locust essay, canvas 5197. Lab Report. The canvas has been relined; the condition of the painting is and thesis, good. 1958 (fig. 1). It is recrystallization lab report, characteristic of the best of the artist’s work of the fifties, by which time he had ruthlessly stripped painting of all illustration and narrative. Rothko substituted a simple composition of colour bands, weightlessly suspended over a luminous coloured ground. Beckham. Of this highly reductive pictorial statement Rothko required much: that it communicate the initial religious experience felt by the artist as he made it, and that it embody human emotions and human drama which Rothko professed to be the central focus of his work. Colour, by imposing itself on the spectator, and by lab report, actively drawing him into its pictorial space, was to bear the burden of metaphysical content.
3 Two recent articles discuss colour as a vehicle of content in detail. Difference Between Format Of Research Paper And Thesis. See ? R. Firestone, ‘Color in Abstract Expressionism: Sources and Background for Meaning’, Arts Magazine 55, 7 March 1981, pp. 140–43; and A. Recrystallization Lab Report. Gibson, ‘Regression and Color in Abstract Expressionism: Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, and Clyfford Still’, Arts Magazine 55, 7 March 1981, pp. 144–53. Ann Gibson, op. cit., p. 149, points out that ‘Color in difference between format paper, their work [that of Newman, Rothko and Still] provides the atmosphere in which the intuitive transcendental leap which bypasses traditional symbolism, can take place’. This experience, what Dore Ashton has called ‘the state of being moved’ 4 Dore Ashton, ‘Beyond the Arabesque: Rothko’, A Reading of Modern Art , Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 1969, p. Recrystallization. 29. , is what is offered and contained in Rothko’s work. Until the purchase of Rothko’s Untitled ( Red ) in May 1982, the Gallery possessed no major work by an artist of the New York School. 5 The Australian National Gallery in Canberra is the only other public collection in Australia to hold paintings by Mark Rothko.
They are: Multiform 1948, (assigned date), oil on canvas, 155.0 x 118.7 cm. Provenance: Artist’s Estate, Pace Gallery, New York. Purchased 1981. Untitled ( Brown, Black on Maroon ), 1957, oil on canvas, 233.0 x 193.0 cm, signed and dated on the reverse side of the trend, canvas, upper left: ‘Mark Rothko, Maroon on oil, 1957’. Provenance: Artist’s Estate, Pace Gallery, New York. Purchased 1981. Yet American painting of the fifties and sixties has left visible traces in the art of this country. That impact was especially pervasive in recrystallization lab report, the sixties, as ‘The Field Exhibition’, held in 1968, demonstrated. 6 ‘The Field Exhibition’ was held between 21 August and 28 September 1968, and was the exhibition which inaugurated the opening of the National Gallery of social trend, Victoria. Lab Report. Forty artists showed their work. For the first time contemporary Australian Abstract painting was brought together and acknowledged in day of the locust, a large-scale show, one which summed up an important direction which the art of the decade had taken.
Mark Rothko’s place among those other artists of the generation of Abstract Expressionists – Jackson Pollock, Barnett Newman, Clyfford Still and Wilhem de Kooning, to name only a few – has been acknowledged since the lab report, mid-fifties, when his work received recognition in exhibitions in level english, the United States and recrystallization lab report Europe. 7 Between 1 January and 22 February 1958 Rothko exhibited eleven paintings in of research and thesis, a one-man show at the Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. In a brief review an Art News reviewer listed the titles of recrystallization, four of the paintings. Two of those mentioned were dark pictures: Browns , Purple Brown . The remainder were lighter in treatment, and closer, therefore, to bend it like beckham into the world essay, the National Gallery’s Untitled ( Red ). In the recrystallization lab report, same year Rothko also represented the United States in the 29th Venice Biennale. He exhibited in London at it like beckham into the world, the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 13 March–19 April 1958, and the Museum of Modern Art in ‘The New American Painting’, 19 April 1958–8 September 1959. This exhibition travelled to recrystallization lab report, eight European countries. For a list of reviews of these exhibitions, see P. Selz, Mark Rothko , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1961, p. 42.
Like them, he was determined to find a new content for art, one which could speak directly to the spectator without reverting to the outworn modes of the past. Poetry Analysis Essay Rubric. He made clear his determination to invest his art with spiritual content. As a founding member of ‘The Subjects of the Artists’, the Eighth Street School established to encourage discussion among artists, Rothko showed an intense interest in the role that a new kind of meaning might play in painting. Simultaneously defending both Abstraction and lab report its content he and Adolf Gottlieb wrote in a letter to the New York Times in 1943: There is no such thing as a good painting about nothing. Essay. We assert that the recrystallization lab report, subject is day of essay, crucial and only that subject matter is valid which is recrystallization lab report, tragic and difference paper timeless.’ 8 The letter was written to the New York Times critic, Edward Alden Jewell. Recrystallization. The statement was written with the coursework, help of Barnett Newman, and was published on 13 June 1943. It is recrystallization, reprinted in full in D. Waldman, Mark Rothko, 1903–1970: A Retrospective , Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1978, p. 39. Even when it seems least evident to the viewer, subject matter in Rothko’s work has a central place. This is essay, nowhere more true, and more allusive, than in the Abstract pictures of the 1950s.
This is the dilemma that we share with the artist: what we see – colour alone – is merely a material manifestation of what is to be spiritually communicated. Although colour was his primary vehicle of expression, Rothko was irritated and dismayed when he was described solely as a colourist: I’m interested only in recrystallization lab report, expressing basic human emotions – tragedy, ecstasy, doom and poetry analysis essay rubric so on – the people who weep before my pictures are having the same religious experience I had when I painted them, and if you … are moved only by their colour relationships, then you miss the point. 9 Conversation between Rothko and Selden Rodman, in recrystallization, S. Rodman, Conversations with Artists , New York, 1957, pp. 93–94. While Rothko himself would have shunned the use of the word mystical, it is a term which brings us closer to the experience which he had hoped to communicate to the viewer. Analysis Essay Rubric. Equally he would have resisted any attempts to label him as a painter at the extreme end of a tradition of romantic landscape painting, where the experience of the sublime was the recrystallization, emotion communicated. Yet it is precisely in this domain that Untitled ( Red ) resides. Such a conceptual leap is made immediately when the social, painting is hung in the company of lab report, another great picture of the landscape sublime – that of J. M. W. Turner’s late Val d’Aosta , since 1973 also part of the ocr as level language, collection of the National Gallery. 10 For a full discussion of recrystallization, J. M. W. Turner’s Val d’Aosta , see M. Butlin, ‘A Newly Discovered Masterpiece by J. M. W. Turner’, Art Bulletin of Victoria , Melbourne, 1975, pp. 2–10.
The structure of Rothko’s earlier work shows how much his initial concept was related to the landscape, or some sort of backdrop against which his figures could move. In pictures of the early forties the the world essay, horizon line is lab report, either extremely low, as in Phalanx of the mind , 11 Phalanx of the Mind 1944, oil on canvas, 54 x 35 , Estate of analysis rubric, Mark Rothko, illustrated in Waldman, op. Recrystallization Lab Report. cit., no. 33. or placed at social trend essays, the very top of the painting. In either case these neutral grounds provided a shallow space for recrystallization lab report, his biomorphic shapes. At about the same time Rothko began to float his figures in a watery space, where forms seemed to divide, multiply and grow. Significantly these works were often executed in bend it like beckham, watercolour, a medium ideally suited to the aquatic nature of his subjects. Recrystallization. Like the Surrealists Rothko used the free-floating atmosphere of the underwater world as a metaphor of the unconscious. One thinks, for example, of Louis Aragon’s hallucinatory description of a shop window of canes and umbrellas which metamorphosed into social trend a marine world, complete with beckoning mermaid. 12 L. Aragon, Paris Peasant , trans. S. W. Taylor, Pan Books, London, 1971, pp. 36–37.
In 1945 Rothko was still not ready to relinquish the figurative shapes which floated across the foremost plane of his paintings. He admired the way in which the Surrealists had ‘established a congruity between the phantasmagoria of the unconscious and the objects of daily life’. 13 ‘Personal Statement’, in A Painting Prophecy–1950 , David Porter Gallery, Washington, D.C., quoted in Waldman, op. cit., p. 49. But in three years’ time he had loosened his grip on these objects, and, by 1950, the reduction to the format of lab report, coloured bands was complete. The spectator was now the actor who replaced the swimming biomorphs. In colour and composition Untitled ( Red ) is closely related to other paintings of the fifties. It was exhibited in 1977 in ‘Six American Painters’ at the Robert Elkon Gallery in New York. At that time it was dated as being c. It Like The World Essay. 1958, although in its warm palette it would appear to be closer in spirit to works around 1953–55. 14 In its warm palette it is recrystallization lab report, similar to on immigration, the Ochre and Red on recrystallization, Red 1954 in the Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.; illustrated in Waldman, op. cit., no. Social Trend. 118. See also nos 110 and recrystallization 113 for analysis, others of comparable size, format and colour of the period.
We should not be too tempted to interpret the high-keyed colour as signalling light-heartedness, or even joy. In 1958 Dore Ashton made the following remarks when she referred to the dark red and black pictures which Rothko had begun in the same year: I suspect that in recrystallization lab report, part Rothko struck out with exasperation at the general misinterpretation of his earlier work – especially the effusive yellow, orange and pinks of three years back. He seems to be saying in these new foreboding works that he was never painting luxe, calme and volapte if we had only known it. 15 Dore Ashton, ‘Recent Show at the Sidney Janis’, Art and Architecture 75, April 1958, p. 8. What he was painting was an experience which had its historical roots in Romanticism. The sobriety of that mysterious presence, which both invites and evades scrutiny, links Rothko in spirit to Freidrich and Turner, rather than to Matisse and Bonnard. Unlike the French, Rothko could never accept the sheerly pleasurable or sensual as the poetry analysis essay, proper subject of art.
And yet Matisse had opened the door for Rothko. 16 In 1954 Rothko painted Homage to Matisse . At this time he either gave his pictures numbers or left them untitled. By entitling his tribute to Matisse, he noted the recrystallization lab report, special relationship which he had to day of essay, the French painter; illustrated in Waldman, op. cit., no. 107. He had abolished pictorial clutter and detail, and he had reduced objects to their essentials. Recrystallization Lab Report. In The Red Studio 1911 Matisse floated everyday objects in a red field, thus introducing the notion that colour could create the day of, full sensation of space. Appearances in Matisse’s work are often felt before they are identified, and this is also true of Milton Avery, the American painter for whom Rothko also expressed enormous admiration. With Rothko the object itself can never be fully identified. It must be felt. In ‘Notes of a Painter’ Matisse had observed that ‘a work of art must carry in itself its complete significance and recrystallization impose it upon the beholder even before he can identify the subject matter’. 17 ?. Matisse, ‘Notes of a Painter’, in A. Barr, Jr, Matisse, His Art and His Public , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1951, p. 102.
Rothko carried Matisse’s idea of the work of art as imposition to its logical extreme. He abandoned the object so entirely that only sensation, which demands the between paper, full participation of the viewer as experiencing subject, remains. In releasing his hold on a world which could be grasped, he gained access to a world which could only be imagined, felt, experienced. The impact of Rothko’s art has to do with ‘all of it and not anything that could be said about recrystallization, it. . . Bend Beckham The World Essay. that is its meaning’. 18 ?. Bloom, ‘Literature in the Reader: Affective Stylistics’, Self Containing Artifacts: The Experiences of recrystallization, Seventeenth Century Literature , University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, p. 393. Rothko’s art is marked by analysis essay, its continuity.
It may be fairly stated that from 1950 he painted but one picture, albeit in many variations. He took the watercolour technique from his earlier experience in painting aquatic themes and transferred it to oil painting. Like other paintings of the fifties Untitled ( Red ) is thinly stained, and lightly brushed with oil paint diluted with turpentine. Lab Report. There is little sense of the difference of research, artist’s hand; gesture is suppressed, there are few traces of drawing or texture. Rothko has intentionally blurred the edges of his colour bands. There is the sense that the personality of the artist has been erased, obliterated. Rothko also expressed the desire of creating a state of intimacy with the viewer. Paradoxically this was to be achieved through the recrystallization lab report, large scale of his pictures, which engulf the student essays, viewer. Lab Report. A large picture, Rothko explained, ‘creates an immediate transaction. It takes you into it.’ 19 Quoted by D. Ashton, New York Times , 31 October 1958, p. 26L.
While the english coursework, viewer is pulled into the painting, it resists full interpretation and participation because the artist’s traces have been effaced. There is the sense of intimacy and invitation, countered by abstraction and lab report absence. Compared to other pictures executed in 1958 Untitled ( Red ) is a medium-sized canvas. Beckham Essay. In the lab report, same year Rothko was busy on a series of large-scale murals which had been commissioned for the Four Seasons Restaurant in the Seagram Building. Three sets of murals were executed, although none of them were delivered. As he worked on social, them over the year they became increasingly tenebrous, ranging from orange and brown in recrystallization, the first set, to the final group of social trend essays, maroon and lab report black. It has been said that Rothko was disappointed and insulted when he saw the space proposed for the murals, and that he consequently refused to hand them over.
The first group were sold separately, the second abandoned, and the third series were given by between format, the artist to the Tate Gallery, where they hang as a group at recrystallization lab report, the present time. 20 For a full discussion of Rothko’s work in series see ?. E. Rathbone, ‘The Brown and Gray Paintings’, American Art at Mid-century: The Subjects of the Artist , National Gallery of day of essay, Art, Washington, D.C., 1978, pp. 242–69. At the very heart of Rothko’s art lies a dialectic between the material object and immaterial belief which was to find its expression in form. Rothko was not asking the question ‘What is recrystallization, painting?’, so much as he was struggling to demonstrate the day of, absolute, ‘the existence of the invisible in the visual’. 21 J. Recrystallization. F. Bend It Like Into The World. Lyotard, ‘Presenting the Unpresentable: The Sublime’, Artforum 20, April 1982, pp. 64–69. Like the 19th-century painters of the landscape sublime, Rothko dissolved the material into a dynamic and luminous expression of transcendental experience.
In his late work, such as the Gallery’s Val d’Aosta , Turner did much the same. Turner, it should be added, remained a realist, even in his most abstract works. 22 Butlin, op. Lab Report. cit. p. 4. His late unexhibited oil paintings, as Martin Butlin has pointed out in his discussion of Val d’Aosta , were pictures awaiting specific details and subject matter. It was Turner’s habit to introduce both on the varnishing day before the opening of the exhibition. What we see through the diaphanous light of Val d’Aosta is an incomplete mountain scene. The spectator would have been filled in later. A Mountain Scene, Val d’Aosta. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
Purchased, 1973 (E2-1973) For Rothko the spectator alone makes the picture visible. He is not painted into the final composition, rather he becomes part of it by being subsumed into it. An 18th-century commentator wrote of the sublime ‘that it produces a sort of internal elevation and expansion; it raises the mind much above its ordinary state; and bend essay fills it with a degree of wonder and astonishment which is certainly delightful: but it is altogether of the serious kind.’ 23 ? Blair, Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres , 2nd edn, London, 1787, p. 58, quoted in A. Wilton, Turner and recrystallization the Sublime , British Museum, London, 1981, p. Ocr As English Language Coursework. 10. Rothko was particularly sensitive to the placement of his pictures, and to the company which they kept. The vocabulary of the recrystallization lab report, sublime was also his.
He spoke of how ‘a picture lives by companionship, expanding and student essays quickening in the eyes of the sensitive observer’. 24 15 Americans , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 25 March–11 June 1952, p. 18. Recrystallization Lab Report. Like Turner, Rothko knew the special power of colour to move. Memory Holloway , Department of Visual Arts, Monash University (in 1982). 1 Quoted in Dore Ashton, ‘Art: Lecture by Rothko’, New York Times , 31 October 1958, p. 26L. 2 Untitled ( Red ) 1958, oil on canvas, 208.4 x 124.5 cm, purchased at ocr as english, auction from Sothbey’s, 20 May 1982. Provenance: Waddington Galleries; Alister McAlpine Collection; Beyeler; Sotheby’s. Recrystallization Lab Report. At the present writing Waddington Galleries were unable to give any further information as to the painting’s provenance (telephone conversation, October 1982, between the author and Waddington Galleries, London).
The painting has been exhibited several times in America and Europe. The following labels are randomly attached to the picture’s frame: Galerie Beyeler, Basle Exhibited ‘America, America’ October–December 1976 Cat. Day Of The Locust. No. 50. Galerie Melki, 55 rue de Seine, Paris 6 No. 315.
Jean Paul Ledeur, Paris 61 rue Raymond Losserand. Lab Report. Andre Chenue #038; Fils, No. 47. The Locust Essay. Robert Elkon 1063 Madison Avenue ‘Six American Painters’ October 1977 Date ca .1958. Marlborough Untitled, oil on canvas 5197.
The canvas has been relined; the recrystallization lab report, condition of the painting is good. 3 Two recent articles discuss colour as a vehicle of content in detail. See ? R. Difference Paper. Firestone, ‘Color in Abstract Expressionism: Sources and Background for Meaning’, Arts Magazine 55, 7 March 1981, pp. 140–43; and A. Gibson, ‘Regression and Color in Abstract Expressionism: Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, and lab report Clyfford Still’, Arts Magazine 55, 7 March 1981, pp. 144–53. Ann Gibson, op. On Immigration. cit., p. 149, points out that ‘Color in their work [that of Newman, Rothko and Still] provides the atmosphere in which the intuitive transcendental leap which bypasses traditional symbolism, can take place’. 4 Dore Ashton, ‘Beyond the Arabesque: Rothko’, A Reading of Modern Art , Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 1969, p. 29.
5 The Australian National Gallery in Canberra is the lab report, only other public collection in Australia to hold paintings by essays, Mark Rothko. They are: Multiform 1948, (assigned date), oil on canvas, 155.0 x 118.7 cm. Provenance: Artist’s Estate, Pace Gallery, New York. Purchased 1981. Recrystallization. Untitled ( Brown, Black on essay, Maroon ), 1957, oil on recrystallization, canvas, 233.0 x 193.0 cm, signed and dated on the reverse side of the difference paper, canvas, upper left: ‘Mark Rothko, Maroon on oil, 1957’. Provenance: Artist’s Estate, Pace Gallery, New York. Purchased 1981. 6 ‘The Field Exhibition’ was held between 21 August and 28 September 1968, and was the exhibition which inaugurated the opening of the National Gallery of Victoria. Lab Report. Forty artists showed their work.
7 Between 1 January and 22 February 1958 Rothko exhibited eleven paintings in a one-man show at the Sidney Janis Gallery, New York. In a brief review an Art News reviewer listed the day of, titles of four of the recrystallization, paintings. Two of those mentioned were dark pictures: Browns , Purple Brown . The remainder were lighter in treatment, and closer, therefore, to the National Gallery’s Untitled ( Red ). In the same year Rothko also represented the United States in the 29th Venice Biennale. Poetry Analysis Essay Rubric. He exhibited in London at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, 13 March–19 April 1958, and the Museum of Modern Art in ‘The New American Painting’, 19 April 1958–8 September 1959. This exhibition travelled to eight European countries.
For a list of reviews of these exhibitions, see P. Selz, Mark Rothko , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1961, p. 42. 8 The letter was written to the New York Times critic, Edward Alden Jewell. The statement was written with the help of Barnett Newman, and was published on 13 June 1943. It is reprinted in full in D. Waldman, Mark Rothko, 1903–1970: A Retrospective , Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1978, p. Recrystallization Lab Report. 39. 9 Conversation between Rothko and Selden Rodman, in S. Rodman, Conversations with Artists , New York, 1957, pp. 93–94. 10 For a full discussion of J. Essays. M. W. Lab Report. Turner’s Val d’Aosta , see M. Butlin, ‘A Newly Discovered Masterpiece by J. M. W. Turner’, Art Bulletin of Victoria , Melbourne, 1975, pp.
2–10. 11 Phalanx of the Mind 1944, oil on canvas, 54 x 35 , Estate of Mark Rothko, illustrated in Waldman, op. Language Coursework. cit., no. 33. 12 L. Aragon, Paris Peasant , trans. S. W. Taylor, Pan Books, London, 1971, pp. Recrystallization Lab Report. 36–37. 13 ‘Personal Statement’, in A Painting Prophecy–1950 , David Porter Gallery, Washington, D.C., quoted in Waldman, op. cit., p. 49.
14 In its warm palette it is similar to the Ochre and Red on Red 1954 in the Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.; illustrated in Waldman, op. Social Essays. cit., no. 118. See also nos 110 and 113 for lab report, others of difference between of research paper, comparable size, format and colour of the period. 15 Dore Ashton, ‘Recent Show at the Sidney Janis’, Art and Architecture 75, April 1958, p. 8. 16 In 1954 Rothko painted Homage to Matisse . At this time he either gave his pictures numbers or left them untitled. Lab Report. By entitling his tribute to difference and thesis, Matisse, he noted the recrystallization lab report, special relationship which he had to the French painter; illustrated in Waldman, op. cit., no. 107. 17 ?. Beckham Into The World. Matisse, ‘Notes of a Painter’, in A. Recrystallization Lab Report. Barr, Jr, Matisse, His Art and His Public , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1951, p. 102. 18 ?. Bloom, ‘Literature in the Reader: Affective Stylistics’, Self Containing Artifacts: The Experiences of difference paper, Seventeenth Century Literature , University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972, p. 393. 19 Quoted by lab report, D. Ashton, New York Times , 31 October 1958, p. 26L. 20 For a full discussion of it like beckham into, Rothko’s work in series see ?. E. Recrystallization. Rathbone, ‘The Brown and Gray Paintings’, American Art at Mid-century: The Subjects of the Artist , National Gallery of bend beckham, Art, Washington, D.C., 1978, pp.
242–69. 21 J. F. Lyotard, ‘Presenting the Unpresentable: The Sublime’, Artforum 20, April 1982, pp. 64–69. 22 Butlin, op. cit. p. 4. 23 ? Blair, Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres , 2nd edn, London, 1787, p. 58, quoted in A. Wilton, Turner and the Sublime , British Museum, London, 1981, p. 10.
24 15 Americans , Museum of Modern Art, New York, 25 March–11 June 1952, p. 18.
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and recrystallization, Forms. Here is bend it like into the world essay your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and lab report, forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of language coursework, greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and lab report, unsung. Student Essays. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of lab report, momentary duration.
Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an essay expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is recrystallization a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for english language, satisfaction of lab report, these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. On Immigration. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family.
Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the lab report, spouses. It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Analysis. Each society recognises certain procedures for lab report, creating such relationship and rights.
The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in poetry, deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of recrystallization, marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of social trend, one or more men to recrystallization, one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and poetry analysis, involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the lab report, parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”.
According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in poetry essay, which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of lab report, legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out rubric, reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of lab report, marriage i.e. to essays on immigration, regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for recrystallization, this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father.
Although different thinkers have tried to ocr as level language, provide definition of marriage, but there is recrystallization lab report no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of on immigration, husband and lab report, wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. Level English Language Coursework. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship.
Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from recrystallization, one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and bend it like beckham essay, one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in recrystallization lab report, the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and ocr as level english, parent and children.
(8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to recrystallization lab report, conclude that the boundaries of social, marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Recrystallization. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of bend the world, members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of recrystallization, adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by essays the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of recrystallization lab report, marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and beckham into the world essay, extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function.
Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is recrystallization lab report sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on poetry analysis rubric “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in lab report, the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to essays on immigration, which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. Recrystallization. This explains on day of the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on lab report the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from poetry essay rubric, society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman.
On the lab report, death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is essays on immigration found and recognized. Recrystallization. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only trend, about 20 per cent of the recrystallization lab report, societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage.
The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family.
Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. Ocr As English. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the lab report, parents for social trend, looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is recrystallization completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of student, jealousy and other reasons. Recrystallization Lab Report. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family.
5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of bend it like beckham the world essay, marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of lab report, Living: It is only under monogamous way of student on immigration, living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions.
The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of recrystallization lab report, one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources.
One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of trend essays, independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10.
Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to lab report, their problem.
According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. Difference Between Of Research Paper And Thesis. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. Better status to Women:
Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution.
Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of recrystallization lab report, men many a number of women. According to essays, F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of recrystallization lab report, partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled.
It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the day of, sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. Lab Report. In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. Bend Essay. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in recrystallization lab report, many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda.
In India, polygyny persisted from the social trend essays, Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and lab report, privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses.
It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population:
When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and social, females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny.
Under this system the parents of recrystallization, lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Level Language Coursework. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on recrystallization the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. Trend Essays. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males.
7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is recrystallization another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the level language, women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.
Thus long period of recrystallization, enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. Coursework. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and recrystallization lab report, take another wife. 11.
Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in bend it like beckham, the family to care.
(2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. Lab Report. More importance is given to husband by several wives.
(4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of format paper, work at home. (5) Variety of recrystallization, Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women:
In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of essays, their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to recrystallization, inefficiency in their work. They are not able to the locust essay, socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in recrystallization, many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him.
4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to it like beckham the world essay, property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases.
6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. Lab Report. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in poetry analysis essay, common.
This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Lab Report. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis.
This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. Day Of The Locust Essay. They belong to different families. Recrystallization Lab Report. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of social, polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found.
For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in recrystallization, Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is poetry analysis essay less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to recrystallization, a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Essay. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources.
It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the recrystallization, division of ancestral property polyandry is between favoured. When all the lab report, brothers have one wife then the trend essays, question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and lab report, labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture.
All the poetry essay rubric, brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the recrystallization lab report, family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard:
Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the trend essays, family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the recrystallization lab report, family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the difference format and thesis, family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the recrystallization lab report, family. (4) Property is student essays kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family.
She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the recrystallization lab report, men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands.
It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on the locust essay mental health of the woman. According to recrystallization lab report, biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is student essays on immigration found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period.
They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women.
Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for recrystallization lab report, group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is practised by analysis the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world.
The Oneida community of recrystallization lab report, New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Essay. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Recrystallization. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate:
In levirate the wife marries the brother of the essay, dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of recrystallization, her dead husband. Coursework. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of lab report, one’s wife, the man marries the sister of his wife.
In simultaneous sororate, the day of the locust essay, sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from recrystallization, wife or wives. Concubinage is between format of research paper sometimes recognised by various societies as an recrystallization accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society.
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