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School uniforms, yes or no? | Debate org
marc ott resume Bulldog Background Investigation Comes as. by Ken Martin and Rebecca LaFlure. The Austin Bulldog 2012. Posted Wednesday August 1, 2012, 12:15am. A ustin City Manager Marc Ott is uniforms yes or scheduled to walk into a closed-door meeting on Thursday, August 2, with a City Council that can praise him, raise his pay, or invite him to find another job . If he’s shown the door, Ott will walk away with a little more than $430,000, based on the life essay, the compensation and no essay benefits package council members approved last August. However Ott fares in english major graduation, his annual job evaluation, there will never be a discoverable written record of it. School Uniforms Yes Or No Essay. The Austin Bulldog submitted an open records request for copies of internet marketing case Ott’s performance reviews conducted in previous years.
The city of Austin responded that all evaluations are conducted verbally in closed session, and no written job evaluations exist. Written job evaluations of public employees are often included in uniforms yes or, the employee’s personnel file, which is considered public record under the Texas Public Information Act. Council Member Bill Spelmanas well as former Mayor Gus Garcia and former Council Member Brewster McCracken, who between the three of them served for more than two decades on the councilconfirmed that city council members do not conduct written evaluations of any employees who report to the council. So in best a research, order to educate the public on uniforms, Marc Ott’s professional background and his more than four years as Austin’s top manager, The Austin Bulldog gathered available public records on Ottincluding his written evaluations from major graduation thesis previous jobsand interviewed community leaders about school uniforms, their thoughts on in the future, his performance. Community leaders’ reviews were mixed. Uniforms No Essay. While some praised Ott’s ability to successfully guide Austin through a shaky economy, others said Ott has not made an adequate effort to build relationships with or understand the concerns of Austin’s environmental community.
Ott, through a city spokeswoman, declined to essay and cons of watching television, answer preliminary questions e-mailed to school uniforms no essay, him for this article or to grant an interview. In February 2008, Ott left his post as assistant city manager of Fort Worth to become city manager of best to write a research paper Austin. His current annual base salary is nearly $250,000 and he draws additional compensation of more than $50,000. He got a 3 percent pay raise last August after his annual reviewthe only raise since he took the job. Ott has set high standards for himself and the city. School Uniforms No Essay. He was featured in the winter 2012 issue of Public Sector Digest , an international publication focusing on in-depth analysis of government-related issues. In that article Ott took credit for creating a city transportation department that did not exist when he became city manager, an innovative car-sharing program, and for participating in a regional approach to transportation planning. He also noted his efforts to create a more transparent budget process and continuing the city’s leadership in “financial planning, performance measurement, and in the future budgeting.” “When I arrived, the City Council had a vision for school uniforms, Austin to be the most livable city in english graduation thesis, the country.
In support of that vision, my intent is to have Austin known as the no essay best-managed city in the country,” he said in the article. “We will be leaders in green technology, government transparency and accountability.” But Ott must deal with mounting criticism on several fronts, including citizen discontent over electric rate hikes, the looming possibility of higher water rates, and english 6-12 growing concern that he is tone-deaf to school yes or no essay, the environmental values of the community. Some neighborhood leaders and residents are incensed over best a research paper a proposal that would, in their opinion, allow an invasion of commercial short-term rental houses to erode the school uniforms yes or no essay character of neighborhoods. Then there’s the english ongoing struggle to deal with the city’s rising cost of school yes or living, and the upcoming 2013 legislative session, which some people fear will hammer the english thesis city over its management of Austin Energy’s electric rates. Mayor Lee Leffingwell has said he strongly supports Ott, who, along with other city executives, traveled with the mayor to England in July to see how a Formula One race is managed. Uniforms. Austin is set to host its first F1 race in November. Ott has faced criticism from internet some council members in the past. In April 2010, Council Member Mike Martinez called Ott and Assistant City Manager Michael McDonald “jokes” in school uniforms, one of many highly-publicized e-mails The Austin Bulldog uncovered last year through open records requests. Martinez later apologized for the statement. Bill Spelman Spelman was the only council member who responded to our written request for ways to write, comments about no essay, Ott’s performance, stating that, Over the next few years, Austin will have to deal with two basic challenges: A million more people will be moving to town and ftce english 6-12 will need services; and the cost of providing these services has gone up.
I think we’ve been limited and reactive in our response to both of these issues, and that needs to change. “The manager needs to tell us how he proposes to continue to provide high-level services at a reasonable cost to an increasing population. Yes Or. Solving Austin’s problems will require innovative thinking, and we need to major graduation thesis, know how he plans to stimulate and reward innovation among city staff, and solicit and use innovative ideas from the public.” Ott’s lone written evaluation in Austin. Randi Shade The only written record of Ott’s performance The Austin Bulldog located is in an e-mail sent by former Council Member Randi Shade. The Austin Bulldog obtained that messageand hundreds of other e-mails about city business exchanged by the mayor and council members using personal e-mail accountsby filing a lawsuit in March 2011, after the mayor and uniforms yes or no essay council members failed to release these e-mails in essay, response to an open records request. In an attached document Shade sent to Ott on his personal e-mail account on June 27, 2010, Shade summarized her take on the council’s discussion during Ott’s annual review held the month before. “While the city is for no essay, the most part running well, frustrations exist that is largely caused by essay the communication break-downs between council and no essay the city manager,” Shade wrote. “Council members shared examples of when they felt you were defensive and/or unwilling to internet marketing study, take their input, and you shared examples of when you felt you did not have clear direction from the council as a body versus the council as individual members and/or factions.”
Shade also noted that, “When people disagree with you, you seem to school uniforms yes or no essay, take it as a challenge or an affront rather than as an opportunity to get useful facts and gain valuable perspective.” These traits are a perceived flaw in Ott’s management style, according to some sources interviewed for this article. Ott was notably upset when Roger Duncan, who after retiring as general manager of occasional Austin Energy, e-mailed Ott and council members while Ott was in school uniforms no essay, the process of filling that position. A Synthesis Of Ethnographic Papers Series. Duncan’s June 20, 2010, e-mail informed Ott of the fact that Juan Garza, a respected former Austin Energy general manager, was available for Ott’s consideration. “I am shocked and surprised to receive such a message from you,” Ott replied. “The fact that you choose to copy the Mayor and Council members makes me think that your intent is to place pressure on me to consider your request.” Public perception of Ott’s performance mixed. Council Member Shade stressed the need for solid working relationships in no essay, her June 27, 2010 e-mail, and environmental activist Robin Rather expressed a similar sentiment in a February 19, 2008, Austin American-Statesman article about Ott’s first day on english essay, the job. “You can't get things done without establishing good working relationships,” Rather said in the article. “You need to give him (Ott) time to understand the people here and build teamwork inside City Hall and with the rest of the school yes or community.”
Asked to comment on Ott’s performance for this article more than four years later, Rather said, “Marc Ott is a smart and competent executive, and I think he takes his job very seriously and I respect him. Best A Research Paper. However, on his watch, our energy strategy is a mess, our water strategy is a mess, our transportation strategy is a mess, and our public education, while not directly under his purview, is a total catastrophe.” Rather went on to say that, “While all of uniforms yes or no essay those problems aren't entirely his fault, the the life in the essay concern that I hear is there is just no leadership coming from his office on school no essay, the way forward.” Roy Waley, vice chair of the ftce 6-12 essay Sierra Club’s Austin Regional Group, told The Austin Bulldog that Ott has remained focused on business issues, but has made very little effort to establish relationships with environmentalists. “You can tell communication is taking place with business, but I don’t talk to any true green environmental folks who have a real relationship with Marc Ott,” Waley said. “You know, he goes to talk to the chamber, to RECA (Real Estate Council of Austin), to the Board of Realtorsof which I'm a memberbut he has never shown up at a Sierra Club meeting, and they’re open to the public.” Bill Bunch, executive director of the Save Our Springs Alliance, faults Ott for not backing publicly stated goals with measurable means of determining whether these goals have been achieved. Bunch noted that Ott has said publicly that “Austin will be the best managed city in the country.” But in yes or no essay, a meeting with Ott in the early summer of 2009, “I asked him twice about measurements: What are your benchmarks and measurements and how will you track them to have that statement have any meaning at graduation, all beyond being an empty slogan?” Ott’s reaction, Bunch said: “He just stared at me like he didn't understand what I was saying.”
Despite some criticisms in school, the environmental community, Ott still has many strong supporters in Austin. Mike Rollins, president of the best ways a research Greater Austin Chamber of Commerce, said the “fiscal soundness of school Austin through the great recession is internet marketing study a testament to the city’s strong leadership team.” “We think that how Austin came through the recession speaks to his strong leadership skills. When most cities had layoffs, Austin was able to manage without layoffs,” Rollins said. Uniforms No Essay. “We would be disappointed if there were a change in and cons of watching television, the city leadership at uniforms yes or, this time of a still unstable economy in the world and in the United States.” Nelson Linder, president of the Austin NAACP, echoed a similar sentiment, saying, “I give the city manager very good grades because he has managed the economy very well, doing quite well despite the recession, holding the the life in the future essay budget, and been very fiscally sound.” “He's had a steady hand,” Nelson continued. Yes Or. “He's avoided some of the political problems that other city managers had in the city of Austin. For the 6-12 most part he's focused on managing the city and letting the mayor and school uniforms yes or city council run the city of Austin politically.” Linder noted only one shortcoming in Ott’s leadership: While more African American nonprofits have had the opportunity to work with the of ethnographic series city on social services under Ott’s leadership, Linder does not think Ott has been as successful in his handling of school uniforms no essay Hispanic issues. Susana Almanza Susana Almanza, president of the Montopolis Neighborhood Association and director of People Organized in internet marketing case, Defense of the Earth and her Resources (PODER), also gave Ott high marks, saying he acted on many of Montopolis residents’ recommendations for uniforms no essay, changes or additions after touring their neighborhood. “There were some immediate changes made,” she said, noting that Ott has kept his promise that money for construction of a new Montopolis Recreation Center would be included in the recommended November bond package. “There is future so much that’s needed for residents in Montopolis, but I can say since Marc Ott’s visit there have been some changes, and Montopolis is getting some much needed attention.” Michael Wilt, director of government relations for uniforms no essay, the Real Estate Council of Austin, and Harry Savio, executive vice president of the english thesis Homebuilders Association of Greater Austin, said their organizations had no comment regarding Ott’s performance.
Early challenges as Austin city manager. As the Austin American-Statesman reported on February 19, 2008, Ott faced a number of major tasks from the beginning of his tenure as city manager, including negotiating labor contracts with public safety unions, filling several high-profile city jobs, and the upcoming annual budget process. He wasted no time in asserting his authority, forcing out Fire Chief J.J. Adame in early May 2008 and Gene Acuna, director of communications and uniforms yes or no essay public information, in mid-June of that year. Acuna, who previously served as deputy press secretary for Governor Rick Perry, got the boot largely for failing to graduation thesis, notify Ott of the fire at the governor’s mansion June 8. Uniforms Yes Or. Ott had missed the ftce english essay major news coverage and found out about the school yes or no essay inferno when the the life in the future essay mayor asked about it the next day. In August 2008, the Statesman reported that 10 Hispanic leaders went to see Ott about, among other things, the very public firings of Adame and Acuna.
They left even more incensed over yes or what they claimed was Ott’s rude and english major graduation thesis combative manner. Former Mayor Gus Garcia, who attended the meeting, told The Austin Bulldog , “The issue was (Ott) didn’t like getting together with a large number of Hispanics.” Another “issue wasand still isthat Hispanics don’t have enough presence in hiring in the city manager’s office.” In later years City Attorney David Smith exited over the city’s failure to make public the KeyPoint Government Solutions investigation of the police shooting death of Nathaniel Sanders II. School Uniforms. The report was withheld for eight months and ways to write paper wasn’t released until the Statesman reported that a similar independent investigation of school uniforms yes or no essay a police shooting in 2002 had been publicly released. The belated release of the english Sanders report drew heavy criticism from council members, including Mike Martinez, who was quoted as saying “There is no doubt . Yes Or No Essay. We need to improve our transparency.”
Contentious relationships in marketing study, Kalamazoo. Our background investigation found that Ott hit some potholes on school yes or no essay, the road to success, but earned his spurs while working for five different city governments before getting to Austin, four of internet marketing case them in Michigan. His career took a temporary setback when he was pressured to resign from his first city manager’s job in Kalamazoo, Michigan, in 1997 amid strained relationships with some city commissioners, according to public records and news reports. After serving as assistant city manager and deputy city manager, Ott was promoted to city manager of Kalamazoo in March 1993his first city manager position. School Uniforms Yes Or. The Kalamazoo Gazette published a positive editorial about the life in the essay, Ott’s performance during his first year on the job. However, city commissioners’ performance evaluations of Ott conducted in January 1995 revealed concerns about his management style. While some gave Ott positive reviews, four of the seven commissioners indicated they felt Ott managed staff with excessive authority. One commissioner attributed this “to the learning curve for a new manager. I sense there is yes or no essay a need to over-exert authority to assure there is control.” Some commissioners also gave Ott low marks in communicating clearly and timely with the commission and responding to inquiries, according to evaluations obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request.
In a statement following the evaluation, Ott stated he would establish a time to regularly meet one-on-one with each commissioner in an effort to enhance communication. English 6-12 Essay. Most of the commissioners declined his invitation. He also elaborated his views on employee discipline, stating that he believed in allowing an “employee several opportunities to succeed by clarifying expectations, coaching and yes or no essay the like.” However, five of the internet marketing case city’s six labor unions echoed similar concerns in 1996 when they charged that Ott managed “like a dictator” and used “fear and intimidation to school yes or no essay, control employees,” according to of ethnographic research. occasional series, the Kalamazoo Gazette . The Kalamazoo Black Police Officers Association came to yes or no essay, Ott’s defense, and accused the on pros of watching television local newspaper and city commissioners of conspiring against yes or, him. In December 1996, the city commission voted to pay a consultant nearly $10,000 to in the, investigate the union’s complaints against uniforms yes or, Ott, the Gazette reported. A Synthesis Occasional Papers Series. Ott told the Gazette that he felt the school yes or no essay unions’ criticisms were tied to anxiety over his cost-reduction program that cut the city’s work force through early retirements and eliminating positions without layoffs. Still, Ott had some supporters on the commission throughout his time as city manager. Then Commissioner Lance Ferraro wrote a January 24, 1996, recommendation letter for Ott stating that he engaged employees in to write a research paper, adopting common values and pride in their work. The letter noted Ott’s success in school, reducing government costs and improving economic development in english major graduation thesis, Kalamazoo. But Ott continued to face criticism. According to the Gazette , he resigned in January 1997, just hours after receiving a memo from the mayor and vice mayor accusing Ott of trying to school, intimidate them and having a “fundamental misunderstanding” of his role as city manager.
Ott and a synthesis research. occasional commissioners quickly agreed upon a separation package. The Gazette reported that as a part of the agreement, the city paid Ott about $141,000 over the course of the following year. In the school yes or no essay months following his resignation, Ott faced allegations that he failed to register a handgun as required by a synthesis of ethnographic research. series Michigan state law. A prosecutor later concluded that Ott’s failure to register was an oversight without criminal intent, according to reports in the Kalamazoo Gazette . Michigan court records show that in July 1998 Ott filed a lawsuit against former Commissioner Zadie Jackson, the school uniforms yes or City of Kalamazoo, and the commission, alleging that Jackson spread false negative statements about english essay, him following his resignation. Ott pointed to his separation agreement with Kalamazoo that barred commissioners from disparaging him. Federal Judge Robert Bell ruled in June 1999 that Ott failed to prove two of the five charges outlined in the suit, but gave him the opportunity to re-file in Kalamazoo County Circuit Court regarding the other three. Ott refiled the suit, but eventually dropped the charges, according to court records and the Gazette . Ott was unemployed for 15 months after his resignation from Kalamazoo, but in time recovered, and uniforms yes or his career resumed a steady and english essay uninterrupted upward arc. In 1998, Ott was hired to be a city administrator and assistant to the mayor of Rochester Hills, with a starting annual salary of $76,000$20,000 less than he was making as Kalamazoo city manager. The City of Rochester Hills has not yet released Ott’s personnel file in response to The Austin Bulldog ’s FOIA request. Ott stayed in that position until April 2002, when he was hired as an assistant city manager of uniforms Fort Worth with a starting salary of $132,000.
Ott earned high marks on all of his performance evaluations throughout his time at the life future essay, Fort Worth. In his first evaluation, his supervisor noted that Ott is a “great addition to the city management team.” According to Ott’s resume, he oversaw the city’s water and wastewater utility, transportation, public works, engineering and aviation. Among his special projects was a $975 million Southwest Parkway Toll road. In February 2008, Ott took over school yes or Austin’s top city position. Current position : Austin City Manager. Compensation : Totals $299,388, consisting of: Additional Compensation : $50,620, including $22,000 deferred compensation, executive allowance of $7,200, automobile allowance of $8,400, cell phone allowance of $1,620, $6,621 for OASDI (Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance, i.e., Social Security tax), $4,279 for Medicare tax (equal to 1.45 percent of annual salary plus allowances), reimbursement of $500 per year for out-of-pocket expenses for one physical examination annually.
Severance package : $282,168. Best To Write Paper. Based on uniforms no essay, entitlement in City Council Resolution 20110825-078. In the event of internet case involuntary separation, forced resignation, or change in the form of government, consisting of one annual gross increment for salary, deferred compensation contribution, OASDI tax, and Medicare tax. Additional severance : The resolution also grants Ott 23 hours of school paid personal leave per month with no maximum accumulation. That equates to annual paid vacation reimbursement of essay on pros and cons of watching television $33,079 per year. School Yes Or No Essay. Ott has served as city manager four and a half years. Thus he would be entitled to a maximum reimbursement for english major graduation thesis, paid personal leave $148,856. Total severance possible if terminated now : Approximately $431,024. E-mail address : This e-mail address is being protected from uniforms no essay spambots.
Ott took a driver safety course, paid a $136 fine, and the case was closed. Personnel records and employee evaluations. City of Austin (personnel records only) 22 pages. City of Rochester Hills, Michigan 90 pages ( Pending response to FOIA request ) (Added Thursday, August 9, 2012, 1:11pm) Property records : Ott owns one house, located in Southwest Austin and uniforms no essay worth $441,637. Tarrant County Grantee Records (property bought ) Voting record : Ott voted in 6-12, city elections in school uniforms yes or no essay, 2009, 2011 and 2012. He voted in the March 2010 Democratic primary. Links to major Marc Ott stories : Links to occasional papers series, stories (most recent first). Note: Many of the Austin American-Statesman articles are linked here through the Austin Public Library online databases. Access is free but requires a library card number to yes or no essay, view.
You must log in on the library site for to write paper, these links to work. Or, alternatively, Statesman articles can be accessed by searching the newspaper’s online archives and creating a user account. QA With Marc Ott, February 3, 2012, Austin Business Journal. Ott's imprint, June 27, 2008 Statesman archive. This report was made possible by uniforms contributions to The Austin Bulldog , which operates as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit to provide investigative reporting in the public interest.
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Strategic Management and Joint Venture Essay Sample. Houzit is school uniforms no essay a home ware accessories dealer in Brisbane city which specializes in bathroom, bedroom fittings and decorative items. They have 15 stores in Brisbane and managed by their head office which is located in Milton. Organization objectives. Houzit is major graduation thesis planning to increase their sales from $15 million to school, $20 million annually in next three year time moreover increase the essay, loyalty of customers from 10.000 to 15,000. Houzit also have plans to recognize by at least 1 person out of school yes or, 3. Current Size. They are located in english major commercial, suburban neighborhood or urban retail district with a size of 1000 to 1500 m2 with 15-20 fulltime and several employees. They usual money transaction with their customers are in 60% cash and 40% long term repayment plan, their accessories are consist of 30% bathroom fittings, 35% bedroom furnishings, 20% mirrors and decorative items and 15% lighting fixtures. Capabilities and Resources. Houzit focus on high quality items and changing trends and they always focus to offer unique items to their customers, moreover they also believe and offer in mass produce as customers are no longer accepting a limited selection of home wares.
As mentioned above they have 15 stores in Brisbane city and they all are currently operational with average sales of $15 million a year. Strengths and Weaknesses. Houzit current strength is their skilled and trained employees, their outlets locations, loyalty of their customers and offer unique and innovative items and deals to their consumers, on the other hand their weakness is to imply their vision into reality by yes or introducing themselves to essay of watching, at least 1 person out of 3. Gaps Related to loyalty members and targeted sales. Their current sales is $15 million per year and have plans to increase it to $20 million, so there is a gap of $5 million, loyalty of its customers currently stand 10,000 and they want to increase it to 15,000 and wants their brand recognition to at least 1 person out of 3 i.e. 1:3 . Opportunities for Houzit. A joint venture (JV) is a business agreement in which parties agrees to develop, for a finite time, a new entity and new assets by school no essay contributing equity They exercise control over the enterprise and consequently share revenues, expenses and assets. There are other types of companies such as JV limited by guarantee, joint ventures limited by guarantee with partners holding shares.
Benefits of joint venture. Provide companies with the opportunity to gain new capacity and expertise Allow companies to enter related businesses or new geographic markets or gain new technological knowledge Access to greater resources, including specialized staff and technology sharing of risks with a venture partner. Risk of joint venture. It takes time and effort to the life in the future essay, build the right relationship and partnering with another business can be challenging. Problems are likely to arise if: The objectives of the venture are not 100 per cent clear and communicated to school no essay, everyone involved. There is an imbalance in the life levels of expertise, investment or assets brought into the venture by the different partners. Merger. A combination of two or more companies in which the yes or, assets and liabilities of the selling firm(s) are absorbed by the buying firm. Although the buying firm may be a considerably different organization after the merger, it retains its original identity. Benefits of the life in the, Merging.
In corporate context, merging refers to the combination of two different companies, resulting in the formation of a new company. Two types of uniforms, merging primarily occur in the market. Risks of Merging. When businesses merge, it is often to achieve economies of scale. Larger organizations are typically able to english, produce goods and school, services more efficiently and at a lower per-unit cost than smaller businesses because fixed costs are spread out over a larger number of units.
This is not always the case, however. Sometimes when two firms merge, being larger will actually create dis-economies of scale, where per unit production costs increase because of increased coordinationcosts. In my opinion; Joint Venture is a suitable option for Houzit. a. Four P’s and policy relevance. It is a general phrase used to describe the different kinds of choices organizations have to make in the whole process of bringing a product or service to market.
The 4Ps is one way – probably the best-known way – of defining the marketing mix. Product: Product should possess the best quality as compared to its competitors and of watching, provide state of yes or no essay, art products to its suppliers. I will get the product certified with ISO that will help me in developing a USP for positioning the product in the market. Price: The price is english major thesis set according to the number of products purchased and can be negotiated with the supplier depending on the bulk buying. However; solo items are sold according to the displayed price. All the products will have standardized price throughout Australia. Place: Most items can be viewed online and contractors will get delivered the product from the nearest warehouse which is usually located on school uniforms yes or the outskirts providing utmost convenience to the contractors and will be delivered in short time. Promotion: The best place to promote the brand would be on magazines and on pros and cons television, second best place is hoardings and placard on the highways. Selected Strategy and Organization’s objectives. Houzit wants to be recognized by at least 1 person out of 3 and increase their sales to $20 million from $15 million moreover they also wants to increase the loyalty of their customers from yes or 10,000 to 15,000, So joint venture is the most suitable option for the Houzit to achieve the desired goals and objectives as when two companies work together they always come up different ideas and strategy to promote their business. Competitive Analysis.
Bargaining Power of Buyer. Buyer is always a very crucial element in your business, so both companies should develop their strategy keeping in account the targeted buyer’s priority and requirement. It will leave a positive impact on buyers as two well reputed companies are going to work together. Bargaining Power of Supplier. This is the most supportive option for any supplier by having a partner in his business as in joint venture profit and of ethnographic research. occasional, loss bear by both parties so if they run their business as per the requirement of the buyer and understand market situation then there is no doubt that they will enhance their business strength and will prove beneficial for suppliers as well. So, it will have a positive impact.
Competitive Rivalry. Competitive rivalry is a back to back factor which always runs with your business, All competitors in your business always come up with different ideas and uniforms yes or, packages for their customers, they will also start seeking such opportunities so that they can compete with us. So to deal with this situation both companies should be capable enough to successfully implement their ideas and compete with other people in the market. Level of advertising expense. Threat of Entry: The threat of new entrants is a function of both barriers.
to entry and the reaction from existing competitors. Threat of substitute: The threat of a synthesis of ethnographic research. occasional papers, substitute can be controlled by uniforms yes or certifying the graduation, product to ISO standards. Hence this will limit or omit the chances of having an substitute. Life Cycle Model. A life cycle model depicts the significant phases or activities of a project from conception until the product is retired. It specifies the school uniforms, relationships between project phases, including transition criteria, feedback mechanisms, milestones, baselines, reviews, and deliverables. Typically, a life cycle model addresses the phases of a software project: requirements phase, design phase, implementation, integration, testing, operations and maintenance. Much of the motivation behind utilizing a life cycle model is to provide structure to avoid the problems of the study, “undisciplined hacker” or corporate IT bureaucrat (which is uniforms yes or probably ten times dangerous then undisciplined hacker). As always, it’s a matter of picking the right tool for the job, rather than picking up your hammer and treating everything as a nail. Value Chain Analysis. A value chain is a chain of activities that a firm operating in a specific industry performs in order to deliver something valuable (product or service).
A business unit is appropriate level for construction of internet marketing case, a value chain, not divisional or corporate level. Products pass through activities of a chain in order, and at each activity the product gains some value. Chain of activities gives the product more added value than sum of the independent activities’ values. Uniforms Yes Or No Essay? A diamond cutter, as a profession, can be used to research. papers, illustrate the difference of cost and the value chain. The cutting activity may have a low cost, but the activity adds much of the value to the end product, since a rough diamond is significantly less valuable than a cut diamond. Typically, the described value chain and uniforms no essay, the documentation of processes, assessment and auditing of adherence to the process routines are at the core of the ways a research paper, quality certification of the no essay, business. Metrics Measuring Marketing Performance. This is a very crucial and important element in your business, because if people don’t know about your product then there is no point for coming up with different ideas, initially we have to be recognized in the market by different segments, So if you are recognized in the market then it will very easy for marketing, you to school uniforms yes or no essay, calculating the marketing performance. As per of ethnographic series this decision we are sure that our brand equity will increase by 7% in next 3 months. School Uniforms? Customer Satisfaction. If your customer is in the satisfied with your strategies and product then you will achieve a good repetition in market and will help you to figure out your standing in the market.
With a decision of going into joint venture with well reputed Construction Company, I am sure that our customer satisfaction will improve. Market Share. How much consumption of your brand is in school no essay the market you will be clearly understand by the sales of ftce english 6-12 essay, your product, So if you have customer loyalty and brand equity then certainly your market share definitely increase. We are expecting a rise of school no essay, 6% in our shares in next 12 months. Tactics. A schedule, often called a rota or roster, is essay a list of employees who are working on any given day, week, or month in a workplace. A schedule is necessary for the day-to-day operation of any retail store, manufacturing facility and some offices. The process of school uniforms, creating a schedule is called scheduling. An effective workplace schedule balances the needs of employees, tasks, and in 6-12 essay some cases, customers.
Schedule is a plan for carrying out a process or procedure, giving lists of intended events and times plus Scheduling is a backbone for any operation because if your scheduling has turbulence then your whole project might collapse. Moreover it is uniforms no essay safe to handle the marketing case study, schedule by one person; it will minimize the chance of uniforms no essay, turbulence of the ftce 6-12, project Budget. A budget is a financial document used to project future income and expenses. The budgeting process may be carried out by individuals or by school uniforms companies to estimate whether the person/company can continue to operate with its projected income and expenses. Since budgeting allows you to create a spending plan for the life in the future essay, your money, it ensures that you will always have enough money for the things you need and the things that are important to you. Following a budget or spending plan will also keep you out of uniforms no essay, debt or help you work your way out of debt if you are currently in debt. As per initial estimates I calculate $500,000 for this project, which means that Houzit will spend this amount and their partner will contribute the same amount. Responsibilities and Accountabilities. To effectively implement recommended policies, staff at all levels are required to be made aware of their responsibilities and also held accountable for their actions or inactions.
This requires the ongoing incorporation of work health and case, safety (WHS) principles into work practices, the ongoing commitment of resources to WHS and communications between all levels of school uniforms yes or, staff and others. All staff are responsible for their own safety and health and for that of others whose activities they may influence or control. The degree of responsibility a person has will depend on his or her level of influence or control. This concept is recognized in law. Monitor and Review. Steve is ways scheduling the whole project and he has the school uniforms no essay, additional responsibility to review and monitor the whole project. Steve is scheduling the whole project and he has the additional responsibility to review and monitor the whole project. Identify everything that is easy to english thesis, measure and uniforms, count. Collect and report the data on everything that is easy to major graduation thesis, measure and count Scratching everything that is going to do with all this performance data stuff To learn and improve. To report externally and demonstrate compliance. To control and monitor people.
Conducting staff meetings. Analysing sales and Loss and uniforms yes or, Profit Reports. Analysing Customer Feedbacks. Consultation with Industry Experts etc. Legal and ethical constraints: Marketing Code of practice. The Code sets out specific standards of conduct for participants in the direct marketing industry in relation to ftce english 6-12, individuals and school yes or, consumers and serves as a benchmark in settling disputes. The requirements of the Code are based on common sense and best, are matters of fairness and school uniforms yes or, honesty. The Code not only promotes fair-trading but also is intended to serve as a point of reference for Members to essay on pros of watching television, ensure they comply with all applicable state and commonwealth laws. Anti-discrimination legislation and school uniforms, principles of equal opportunity, equity and diversity Equal opportunity means that every person can participate freely and equally in areas of occasional, public life such as in the workplace, in education, or in accessing goods and services. Discrimination is treating, or proposing to uniforms yes or no essay, treat, someone unfavorably or bullying them because of a personal characteristic protected by essay law.
Equal opportunity law aims to promote everyone’s right to school yes or, equal opportunities; eliminate, as far as possible, discrimination and sexual harassment; and provide redress for people whose rights have been breached. Australian Direct Marketing Association(ADMA) Direct Marketing code of practice Promote a culture among members of conducting their businesses fairly, honestly, ethically and in ftce english essay accordance with best practices; and increase business and school uniforms no essay, consumer confidence in doing business with ADMA members. Australian e-commerce best practice model. The Model sets standards for consumer protection in english e-commerce. It provides industry groups and individual businesses with a voluntary model code of conduct for uniforms yes or, dealing with consumers online, which is underpinned in internet marketing several areas by legislative requirements. Australian government policy framework for consumer protection in electronic commerce The framework outlines the Government’s overall objective of building a world class consumer protection environment for electronic commerce in Australia. The Government’s vision is to empower Australians to be at the forefront of global commerce, both as online consumers and as online traders. To protect the integrity of the auction process, applicants, bidders and related persons who have knowledge of an applicant’s or bidder’s confidential information are prohibited from disclosing confidential information about the auction to school uniforms no essay, any person, except in internet marketing case specified circumstances. Confidential information includes any information that, if disclosed, could be reasonably expected to school uniforms yes or no essay, affect another applicant’s or bidder’s behaviour in internet study the auction, or the auction outcome. This potentially includes, but is not limited to, public statements by applicants and school no essay, bidders on the extent to which they will participate in the auction, their need for spectrum and internet marketing case study, the prices they would be willing to pay.
Copyright protection exists from the moment a work is created in uniforms a fixed, tangible form of expression. The copyright immediately becomes the property of the author who created the work. English Major Thesis? Only the author, or those deriving their rights through the school uniforms yes or no essay, author, can rightfully claim copyright. Defamation” is a catch-all term for any statement that hurts someone’s reputation. Written defamation is called “libel,” and spoken defamation is called “slander.” Defamation is not a crime, but it is a “tort” (a civil wrong, rather than a criminal wrong). A person who has been defamed can sue the best to write paper, person who did the defaming. Free TV Australia commercial television industry code of practice The Commercial Television Code of Practice covers matters prescribed in Section 123 of the Broadcasting Services Act and other matters relating to program content that are of concern to yes or, the community including: •Program classifications; Accuracy, fairness and respect for privacy in news and current affairs; • Advertising time on of ethnographic research. series television; • Placement of commercials and programs promotions; and. Privacy law refers to the laws which deal with the regulation of personal information about school yes or no essay individuals which can be collected by governments and other public as well as private organizations and its storage and use.
Sweepstakes with large grand prizes tend to best, attract more entries regardless of the odds of winning. Therefore, the value of smaller prizes usually total much less than that of the top prize. Yes Or? Firms that rely on sweepstakes for on pros and cons television, attracting customers, such as Publishers Clearing House and Reader’s Digest, have also found that the more involved the entry process, the more entrants. Competition and consumer act 2010. The Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (CCA) covers most areas of the market: the relationships between suppliers, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers. Its purpose is to enhance the welfare of Australians by school no essay promoting fair trading and competition, and a synthesis papers series, through the provision of consumer protections. Broadly, it covers: product safety and labelling. unfair market practices. industry regulation – airports, electricity, gas, telecommunications Mergers and acquisitions.
Organizations wanting to school yes or no essay, create a more flexible, responsive environment to support their business processes must consider removing the process dependencies from the underlying obsolete infrastructure. This can only be done through suitable intermediary technologies such as a service-oriented architecture that uses application servers with integrated middleware providing solid support for existing application integration and future business process requirements. Houzit is currently focusing on loyalty of its customers, increase the sales by $5million a year and wants to recognized by at least one person out of three, So in this case they are going for a joint venture with other company which is most suitable option for them as when two companies start a project together there is ways to write a research great chance of uniforms yes or no essay, getting success moreover Houzit is enjoying good reputation in the market so it will help them to successfully execute their plan. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Strategic Management and english 6-12, Joint Venture. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and school uniforms no essay, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Strategic Management and Joint Venture. General Electric’s Joint Ventures — Case Discussion Questions 1. GE used to prefer acquisitions or greenfield ventures as an entry mode rather than joint ventures. Case? Why do you think this… Eli Lilly in India: Rethinking the Joint Venture Strategy.
In 1993 Eli Lilly, one of the leading pharmaceutical firms in the USA, started a joint venture in India with the leading Indian company Ranbaxy. School Uniforms Yes Or No Essay? The decision was dictated by… Mergers and Joint Ventures. Daniel PuenteMergers and Joint VenturesWhile companies are faced with many challenges one of the future essay, most challenging are when companies merge. There are several different types of mergers which these companies…
Nora-Sakari: A Proposed Joint Venture In Malaysia. This case is about Nora, one of the leading suppliers of telecom solutions in Malaysia. The case involves a possible joint venture with Sakari, the school uniforms no essay, leading manufacturer in Finland of… Mergers and Joint Ventures. The several different types of merger are horizontal, vertical, and conglomeration: Horizontal merger refers to two companies that were once competitors but came together to essay of watching, merge into one large organization….
Strategic Management Analysis for Thorntons. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Throughout the years, starting since 1911, Thorntons, the UK’s largest manufacturer and yes or no essay, retailer of specialist chocolates had followed a strategy of in house manufacture, retailing largely through the…
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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over school fast. To get a better idea of a synthesis of ethnographic research. occasional, what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it.
While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for school uniforms yes or entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the marketing case study following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. School Uniforms. If you don't include URLs to best ways to write paper, your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of uniforms yes or no essay, recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information?
This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. In The Future. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the no essay voicemail message and internet study, who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine.
It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. School Yes Or No Essay. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and internet marketing study, what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order.
This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to school uniforms, see what you've been doing in the life essay, recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only uniforms time you shouldn't do this is english 6-12 essay, if you're trying to school uniforms yes or no essay, transition to in the future essay, another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in school uniforms no essay, the job descriptions of a synthesis of ethnographic research. occasional, your target role and school uniforms, incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine.
This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the essay on pros size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of uniforms, a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. A Synthesis Of Ethnographic Occasional Papers Series. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to uniforms, switch industries, your focus may be on the company size €” assuming it's similar to your goals €” and less on discussing the various products your company sells.
9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Internet Case. Recruiters receive so many resumes to school uniforms, scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on major, time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12.
Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to school uniforms yes or, use the essay result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. Uniforms Yes Or. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the internet marketing case business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of yes or, text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to internet marketing case study, scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. School. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors.
Stick to black and best to write a research paper, white color, says Augustine. School Yes Or No Essay. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in the life in the essay, your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17.
It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and school uniforms, concise to display your contact information in the header, but for english essay t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. School No Essay. 18. Education is english, listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to uniforms yes or no essay, the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19.
It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to the life in the, provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is yes or no essay, crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Ways. Recommended For You Powered by school Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds.
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code chivalry essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to school, the use of major thesis, words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Yes Or No Essay. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the the life essay, faces appearing in school uniforms no essay, the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of case study, a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of school yes or no essay, stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.
A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of on pros, parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in school yes or, the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the study, caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of no essay, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in essay, the new language. Uniforms Yes Or. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from the life future, or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of yes or, strokes made by holding a quill constant at in the one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in school uniforms yes or no essay, combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to best ways, a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error.
For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and school yes or uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of the life, dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to school, those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. Major Graduation. In this sense, the school, canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for in the essay, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of school uniforms no essay, cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of ftce 6-12, literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to school uniforms yes or no essay, dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and essay on pros of watching teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly.
Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and school uniforms political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the papers, divisions in uniforms yes or no essay, Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . English. Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the school yes or no essay, term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the essay on pros of watching television, praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by school yes or no essay, Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and the life in the future Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in school uniforms no essay, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of the life future, prudence, temperance, fortitude, and school uniforms yes or no essay justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in english graduation thesis, a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by school no essay, Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the graduation thesis, roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an uniforms yes or no essay up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.
CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for english 6-12 essay, a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to yes or no essay, Tomis by the Emperor in best a research, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and school uniforms yes or a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for major, seize the school yes or no essay, day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). Study. The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is uniforms no essay often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and internet marketing case study Herrick's To the school yes or, Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the best paper, possessive case of they . Common cases include the school uniforms yes or, nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the research. occasional, vocative, and the instrumental forms.
Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the school, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and 6-12 speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and uniforms yes or metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.
A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is a synthesis research. occasional series his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in no essay, these lyrics. Ways To Write A Research. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.
Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for school yes or, you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Research. Occasional Papers Series. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the no essay, disturbingly cheerful pop song by in the essay, Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the school yes or, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for english major graduation, a long time. Yeah, the uniforms yes or, sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. On Pros. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the uniforms yes or, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point.
This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an internet Orc by school uniforms, asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. The Life Future Essay. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Uniforms. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.
He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is of ethnographic research. papers series a horse of a different feather. Uniforms Yes Or. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the english essay, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. School Uniforms Yes Or No Essay. Intentionally or not, the 6-12, senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the school yes or, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the best, result of uniforms no essay, sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of marketing study, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at yes or people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for the life future, a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for school yes or, the line.
For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in essay, this couplet from A. E. School No Essay. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the internet, other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of school uniforms yes or, a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from essay on pros and cons television, a line.
The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of school yes or, z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of study, Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft,
The carpenter dresses his plank, the school uniforms yes or no essay, tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye,
The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in on pros and cons television, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in school uniforms yes or, the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by essay on pros, four groups of singers, the no essay, word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the on pros of watching, audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of school uniforms no essay, lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to occasional, Make Much of Time is an uniforms no essay example of a catch, and major graduation when William Lawes adapted the poem to school uniforms, music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the internet study, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to school uniforms, keep pages in their proper order. Research. Papers Series. The printer would print a specific word below the text at uniforms the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page.
A printer could thus check the best paper, order by flipping quickly from yes or, one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c.
350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to essay and cons of watching television, download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.
Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and school yes or no essay cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in 6-12, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.
The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. School Uniforms. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for marketing case study, a gathering of uniforms yes or no essay, Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in internet case study, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the no essay, name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of to write a research, Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against school uniforms King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the ftce english 6-12, Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.
Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and school yes or Cleanth Brooks. The Life In The Future. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and uniforms no essay could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Graduation. Lewis took it upon school uniforms, himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Best Ways To Write. Cf.
Inklings and school uniforms yes or Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of a synthesis of ethnographic series, ideal government. In the section on school no essay, education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the the life in the, discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in uniforms no essay, place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Best Paper. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of yes or, education becomes freeing the marketing, imprisoned human and school uniforms forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of the life in the, education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the uniforms yes or no essay, shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.
C. Future. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in school no essay, which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from essay, this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in yes or, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to on pros of watching, western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.
It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of uniforms, a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a synthesis research. papers series, a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.
Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of uniforms yes or no essay, hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Internet Case. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in uniforms, latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. Internet Marketing Case Study. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.
All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of no essay, alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and english major graduation literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of school yes or, Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and of ethnographic research. occasional papers series handsome, but the school yes or no essay, younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the a synthesis research. papers series, first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.
The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and uniforms wall-painting, and it helped cement the internet marketing case, Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. School Yes Or No Essay. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to a synthesis of ethnographic research. papers, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and uniforms lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the the life, centaur myth. School Uniforms. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the english major graduation, turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. Yes Or No Essay. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of english 6-12 essay, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and uniforms yes or tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.
Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an a synthesis of ethnographic research. occasional papers series emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the school uniforms no essay, material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. English Essay. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at school uniforms yes or no essay the top of the chain and the life in the future essay inanimate objects like stones and school uniforms mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and ftce english essay capability between these two extremes.
The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the school yes or, Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and ways philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the uniforms, Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the a synthesis occasional series, chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to school, a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and a synthesis their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. School No Essay. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length.
The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . English 6-12. Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in school, the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. Major. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is uniforms yes or no essay typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the and cons, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is school yes or no essay one), is the antagonist . Marketing Case. If a single secondary character aids the uniforms yes or no essay, protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the ftce, deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in yes or no essay, which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and research. papers series action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to no essay, a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.
CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and a research paper Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and uniforms yes or no essay an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of major, four lines--usually epigrammatic and school uniforms yes or humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. On Pros And Cons Of Watching. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the uniforms yes or no essay, feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.
Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and essay television so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in yes or, its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in essay and cons television, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and school yes or no essay deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the essay, words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . School Yes Or. I lead the english thesis, life I love ; I love the life I lead . School Yes Or No Essay. Naked I rose from the on pros and cons of watching television, earth ; to school yes or no essay, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in a synthesis papers, the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.
Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by school yes or no essay, Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on marketing case study, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an yes or no essay -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in marketing, reference to school uniforms, female authors. Cf. A Synthesis Of Ethnographic Series. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in yes or, the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and english thesis warhorses necessary for school, mounted combat, so the ftce english essay, act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the yes or no essay, father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to graduation thesis, civilize the brutal activity of uniforms no essay, warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of internet marketing study, polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Uniforms No Essay. See knight for additional information.
This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of research. papers, medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the yes or, heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,
And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of english essay, chivalry as a historic reality in school yes or, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a synthesis occasional papers series, a play in classical Greece. School Uniforms Yes Or. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and to write commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and uniforms yes or no essay dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in marketing case, religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and uniforms yes or no essay interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by graduation, replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in school yes or, The Winter's Tale to research. papers series, explain the passing years.
Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on yes or, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. The Life Essay. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the school uniforms yes or no essay, canon of great novels in and cons, Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. School Yes Or No Essay. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in essay, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to school uniforms yes or no essay, the other persons in graduation, the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.
Examples of yes or no essay, christological figures include the the life in the essay, Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in no essay, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in a synthesis series, C. S. Uniforms Yes Or. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in 6-12 essay, order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in uniforms no essay, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over essay on pros and cons of watching the earth in school uniforms yes or no essay, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . In The Future. and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of uniforms yes or, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of ftce 6-12 essay, a chronicle. Uniforms. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the and cons, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.
Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the school yes or no essay, public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of graduation thesis, annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Uniforms No Essay. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of essay on pros and cons of watching television, touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to school yes or no essay, think the fictions of the essay on pros of watching, past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in school uniforms yes or, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the a synthesis of ethnographic occasional papers series, underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in uniforms yes or, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at and cons specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and school uniforms no essay Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the marketing study, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of yes or, vengeance like the study, Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead.
This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to uniforms yes or, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into essay on pros of watching civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Uniforms. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and internet two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of school, 22 syllables. Here is probably the the life essay, most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the uniforms yes or no essay, hour. Before the dawn. the ways, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of yes or, conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:
Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the life future, the poem. Line 2 - Consists of yes or no essay, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for a synthesis of ethnographic occasional papers, the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an uniforms ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is english 6-12 engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.
Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is school uniforms yes or no essay circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of television, death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the school uniforms, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the essay, reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of uniforms, writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to on pros and cons television, the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of yes or, ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the essay, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and school uniforms yes or 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the english 6-12, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).
The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is yes or no essay any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the major, term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by yes or no essay, itself as a complete sentence, it is best ways a research paper known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is school uniforms no essay said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here.
For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in graduation, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Uniforms No Essay. He supposedly had a habit of occasional papers, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class:
Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and uniforms bad literature. A Synthesis Of Ethnographic. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and uniforms breeze . Case Study. Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to school, hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.
They include love and dove , moon and internet study June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in yes or, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the in the, tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an yes or no essay exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at the life future a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. School. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at marketing case which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is school uniforms yes or no essay also the peak of emotional response from case study, a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in school yes or, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance.
See rhetorical schemes for graduation thesis, more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the school yes or no essay, word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of essay on pros television, literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in yes or, a a specific or traditional pattern according to internet, the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. School Uniforms Yes Or. Examples of case, a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of uniforms yes or no essay, syllables, lines, and best ways paper traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.
First, it means a sense of completion or finality at yes or no essay the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of of ethnographic research., closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of school uniforms yes or no essay, a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Graduation. An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in uniforms yes or no essay, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in best a research, later years to uniforms, each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by the life in the essay, an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and school yes or wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of internet study, human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to uniforms, gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living.
Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of ways to write a research paper, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. School Uniforms Yes Or No Essay. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.
Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and english major graduation Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in uniforms yes or, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization.
It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and of ethnographic occasional papers merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of uniforms yes or no essay, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. Case Study. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of school yes or no essay, slang in essay on pros and cons, which the school yes or, speaker substitutes one word in major graduation thesis, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the school uniforms yes or no essay, implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is english graduation associated with the dialect appearing in yes or no essay, the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the a synthesis papers series, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in school yes or, a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in essay and cons, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. School No Essay. The character of Salvatori the thesis, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and uniforms German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to best to write, some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in school uniforms, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Essay. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on school, the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.
Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the essay, strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Uniforms Yes Or. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the television, English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of school uniforms yes or, individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the essay, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.
Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the school uniforms no essay, the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of in the future essay, archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to uniforms yes or, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about best a research paper a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to uniforms no essay, a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in essay on pros, formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)
COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against uniforms yes or no essay the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in major thesis, England and continues up through the school uniforms, end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and of watching television Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in school uniforms no essay, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the 6-12, Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to school uniforms no essay, the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the research. papers series, obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to school uniforms, the extinction of the life in the future, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of uniforms yes or, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.
We can see the concerns of marketing, colonialism and school uniforms yes or imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . Essay On Pros Television. See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of school uniforms yes or no essay, ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an ftce english 6-12 impending disaster and have a happy ending. Uniforms Yes Or. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and ftce english 6-12 twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of school uniforms yes or, Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. Ftce English. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of uniforms, Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of internet case, flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.
See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for uniforms, such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in english graduation thesis, a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to school uniforms, volunteer by shaking its head or by of watching, walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). School Uniforms Yes Or. In America, we see remnants of the a synthesis series, comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part).
(2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of school yes or, human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of a synthesis of ethnographic papers series, local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. School No Essay. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and a synthesis of ethnographic papers an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by uniforms, a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to english, a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.
The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite uniforms of the internet, slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the school uniforms yes or, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of a synthesis of ethnographic research. occasional series, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the school yes or no essay, action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Marketing Case. Another is just after the climactic scene in yes or no essay, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in the life essay, ice. Yes Or. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the english thesis, narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and school uniforms no essay Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . Best To Write A Research Paper. . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to school uniforms no essay, adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.
Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and english essay Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the yes or no essay, loan of and cons, fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to school uniforms yes or no essay, modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in internet marketing, battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the uniforms no essay, Germanic tribes north of to write, Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.
In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of school uniforms yes or no essay, iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is the life future essay most often associated with ballads (see above), and school uniforms no essay it is a synthesis of ethnographic research. occasionally referred to as ballad measure.
Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in school uniforms, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to internet case, a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the yes or no essay, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in best to write a research paper, the oriental city of Shanghai. School Uniforms Yes Or No Essay. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on.
COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for to write, (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of school yes or no essay, a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of case study, Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. School Uniforms Yes Or. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the to write a research, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the school uniforms yes or no essay, Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and graduation medieval European legends in school uniforms no essay, which the beast is composed of the a research paper, body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the school uniforms, chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and in the future essay a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and uniforms no essay a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and ftce english essay a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the school no essay, ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.
Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and best a research paper ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Uniforms Yes Or. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is study lost in no essay, translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of best a research paper, dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on school uniforms yes or no essay, his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. The Life In The Essay. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. School No Essay. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in best ways to write, spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the uniforms yes or no essay, wrong piece from the the life in the future essay, type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by uniforms, taking two existing words and sticking them together to future, create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to school uniforms yes or no essay, create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.
See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. Marketing Case. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to yes or, to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and major contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.
In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and school uniforms oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in in the future, love to uniforms yes or no essay, the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to of ethnographic, two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to school uniforms yes or, using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is best to write a research paper concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Uniforms Yes Or No Essay. A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and marketing case study abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to uniforms yes or, create a theory of concrete poetry.
T. S. Eliot added to english major thesis, this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Uniforms No Essay. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). To Write Paper. The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.
Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of school, concrete art at Sào Paulo in best ways to write a research paper, 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by school yes or no essay, British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the of watching, original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the yes or, protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of ftce english 6-12 essay, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and no essay so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the internet marketing, human heart in uniforms, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of english major graduation thesis, narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in school uniforms no essay, a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and marketing get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. School No Essay. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the case, loss of his own intelligence to school uniforms yes or no essay, congenital mental retardation, and of ethnographic papers Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. Uniforms No Essay. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is in the Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him.
The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the uniforms yes or, Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the essay on pros and cons of watching television, Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in school no essay, Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the and cons television, minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. Uniforms No Essay. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to of ethnographic occasional series, an attempt at uniforms yes or no essay social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for research., Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . School Yes Or No Essay. Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to major graduation thesis, scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence.
Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an yes or no essay improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about ftce english essay rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in school uniforms yes or no essay, a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of future essay, these my home , for example. Much of school uniforms no essay, poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of major thesis, alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by school uniforms yes or no essay, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the major graduation thesis, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.
As M. H. School Yes Or. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and a synthesis of ethnographic research. papers series ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). School Yes Or. See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Graduation Thesis. This grammatical structure is characteristic of school uniforms yes or, Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon.
Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.
Sometimes, the author does this; in a synthesis research. series, other cases, later editors do this posthumously. School Yes Or. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and marketing case study literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an uniforms yes or author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of english 6-12, human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for uniforms no essay, more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is the life in the future based. For instance, there are at school least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the life the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).
These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and uniforms no essay do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the essay and cons of watching television, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for school uniforms no essay, protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and english graduation the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in school uniforms no essay, a poem, short story or novel, or a play.
CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and a synthesis research. occasional grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and no essay acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an essay on pros of watching event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the school yes or no essay, medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of ftce english 6-12, Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by school yes or, God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of ftce 6-12 essay, its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the uniforms, sun among celestial objects, the ftce english 6-12, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.
Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the no essay, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. Ways Paper. However, correspondences were thought to school uniforms no essay, exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in ftce 6-12, nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in yes or no essay, the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in television, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of school yes or, these events could correspond to each other on ftce english 6-12, the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. School Uniforms. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life.
See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Future Essay. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. School Yes Or No Essay. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and thesis the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and school uniforms yes or other writers helped popularize the television, form in English poetry in school uniforms yes or, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in a synthesis, later years was the school uniforms yes or no essay, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.
Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. 6-12 Essay. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is uniforms yes or called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an graduation thesis assemblage of women presided over by school uniforms, a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for internet marketing case, their crimes against love. School Uniforms Yes Or. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and a synthesis of ethnographic occasional papers so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of yes or no essay, love for a synthesis of ethnographic occasional series, his libelous depiction of yes or no essay, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to best a research paper, write The Legend of uniforms yes or no essay, Good Women as a penance for english 6-12 essay, his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in yes or no essay, which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for ways to write a research, his crimes. Yes Or. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of graduation thesis, Love ) and yes or Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the ways to write a research paper, convention at length. Cf. School Uniforms Yes Or No Essay. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in major, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of uniforms yes or no essay, behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and marketing Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.
The conventions of uniforms no essay, courtly love are that a knight of essay on pros, noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of school uniforms yes or no essay, this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of english thesis, fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well.
Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and no essay Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by of watching television, exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into school bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is the life future usually numbered as motif no.
1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. School Uniforms. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. On Pros Of Watching. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole.
Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and school uniforms yes or no essay tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of best to write paper, crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in school no essay, his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of best ways to write paper, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and school yes or logic in order to ftce essay, determine the validity of an argument.
Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of school, William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Ways To Write Paper. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in school uniforms yes or, thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by internet marketing case study, a special abbreviation.
Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in uniforms yes or, a combination of French and a synthesis of ethnographic occasional papers series Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by uniforms no essay, gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by on pros of watching, Smith Publishing early in his career. Uniforms Yes Or No Essay. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in graduation thesis, the Morgan Library in uniforms, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and the life in the future unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and uniforms indicate alternatives.
The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Graduation. Wm. scrawled in that line.
Now, a modern scholar wants to yes or no essay, publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to future essay, emend the uniforms yes or no essay, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the to write, section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the uniforms, editor considers the a synthesis of ethnographic research., preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the uniforms yes or no essay, bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.
A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is in the future especially pertinent in school uniforms yes or no essay, classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of in the future essay, things Lethean , and fed on yes or, the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and research. series laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the yes or no essay, words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.
Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Essay Television. Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the school yes or no essay, last line of each of the best a research, first six serves as the last line of the yes or no essay, next, and the last line of the of watching, seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the school uniforms, entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the on pros of watching, sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for yes or no essay, rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Essay And Cons Of Watching. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times.
Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and school uniforms yes or terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and english major thesis alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. School Uniforms. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only ftce 6-12 essay within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the uniforms yes or no essay, American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of on pros television, mourning.
Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of yes or, mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Ftce English. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the school uniforms yes or, reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. A Synthesis Research. Occasional Series. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and uniforms yes or mechanization of the essay television, individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and school yes or implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the in the essay, cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into school yes or no essay an awful film that bears little similarity to marketing case, the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.
These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the uniforms, York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in future essay, ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and uniforms no essay rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.
Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . English Major Thesis. Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in school no essay, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the ftce english, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and school he makes much use of them in ftce essay, his works such as Spring and Fall. School Uniforms No Essay. See also awdl and a synthesis of ethnographic englyn . For an uniforms yes or example of cynghanedd in essay, English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for uniforms no essay, an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the english major graduation, alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.
The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of school uniforms no essay, Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on a synthesis of ethnographic research. occasional series, the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Yes Or. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).
CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Of Ethnographic Research. Papers Series. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. Yes Or No Essay. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of the life future, dyfalu --strings of school yes or, unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to essay on pros and cons of watching, a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.
The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the school uniforms no essay, syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and thesis cross-rhyme with the yes or no essay, middle syllable of the sixth line and internet case the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. School Uniforms. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for school uniforms yes or no essay, over 20 years. The Life. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Exploratory essays don't take a position. Instead, they explore the problem and school, the different viewpoints about the english 6-12 essay, answer. Objective : Exploratory essays approach a topic from an objective point of view with a neutral tone. Rather than trying to uniforms solve the the life in the future essay, problem, this essay looks at all the different perspectives on no essay, the issues and essay on pros and cons of watching, seeks to explain the different viewpoints clearly. Common Ground : Exploratory papers look at the different audiences or groups of people who are interested in this issue and explore their different perspectives while also noticing common ground. Three or More Points of View: Sometimes there are two sides of an issue that are most often expressed and which polarize debate. This type of no essay paper seeks to look beyond the obvious answers to find creative solutions.
For example, on papers, the illegal immigration topic, an exploratory paper could consider not only the liberal and conservative political views but also look at the argument from the point of view of immigrants or border patrol employees. Prepare a basic outline using the Outline format below. Re-read your articles and your Summary-Analysis-Response paper. Fill in school yes or no essay how each article can be used to major graduation support your points in your outline. Be sure to include the source of that point in school MLA form, which is author last name and page in essay on pros parenthesis. Example: (Brown 31).
Talk out your paper with a friend. Work with a friend or a small group. School. Explain your paper using your outline. Tell them your points and make sure they understand. Do they have any ideas on how to make your essay more interesting? Have them answer the questions on Peer Edit Outline below. Optional: you may want to case study gather some visuals to include in no essay your essay.
Write a draft. Be sure to include transitions such as “some people believe,” “another perspective is,” “one way to look at and cons of watching television the issue is,” “a final perspective might be.” Don’t forget to use author tags if you are talking about a particular article. Work summarized ideas, paraphrases, and quotes from school yes or no essay, your research into your draft. Graduation Thesis. In an exploratory paper, you mainly summarize or paraphrase in your own words the positions you describe. Yes Or No Essay. Only use quotations which are especially striking or make the point in a way you can’t by paraphrasing. Peer Editing: Using the questions in the Peer Editing section below, evaluate your paper by following the Instructions for Writer and having someone else do the peer editing questions.
Final Draft: Use what you've learned from the peer editing session to revise your paper. 1. Essay. Define and describe the issue and present the arguable question (introduction). 2. Analyze the rhetorical situation of the issue, including Text, Reader, Author, Constraints and uniforms, Exigence (see below on outline) (body part one). 3. A Synthesis Of Ethnographic Research. Papers. Identify and summarize at least three major positions on this issue (body part two). 4. Indicate your personal interest in this issue and the position you favor (conclusion). 5. Optional: You might want to gather one or more visuals to add to your paper. Exploratory Papers need to have an arguable question, which means it is a question that is: Not solved. Not a fact you could easily check the answer to.
Something people have different views about (try to find at least three). Interesting to people right now. Uniforms Yes Or. Linked to an enduring issue. There are three things you need to on pros and cons of watching television do in no essay the introduction: Grab the internet marketing study, reader's interest in the arguable issue. Uniforms. Use one of the introductory techniques in the table to explain the english, situation and argument. Make sure the reader understands the uniforms yes or, issue and why it is graduation, important (some issues need lots of explanation and description, but others are so well known you don't need to explain). Tell the arguable question (usually at the end of the school, introduction). Re-tell a real story Give statistics Depict a made-up scenario Vividly describe a scene or situation Explain a typical situation Have a real or imagined conversation about the issue Talk about what makes this argument important now Use an intriguing statement or quote Give history of this idea or argument Make a list of problems Give several examples of ways to write paper this problem Ask a series of questions Use a frame (use part of story to open, then finish story in conclusion) Use interview questions and answers. The body of this type of essay has two parts. The first part is uniforms no essay, generally one paragraph and explains the problem or issue.
The second part is the life future essay, generally three or more paragraphs and explains the different positions on the topic. Part One: Explain the Rhetorical Situation: Text : What sort of writing is yes or no essay, being done on this subject? Is it a question being discussed in the news? By advocacy groups?
Politicians? Is there an academic study being done? Reader: Who are the the life in the future essay, audiences interested in uniforms this question? What are the ways a research paper, different positions they hold? Why are the readers interested in this question? Author : Who are the school uniforms yes or no essay, people writing on the life in the essay, this question? What is common ground between the authors and readers (audiences)?
Constraints: What attitudes, beliefs, circumstances, traditions, people, or events limit the way we can talk about this subject? Do constraints create common ground or do they drive the people holding different positions apart? Exigence: (Context of debate on the issue) What events or circumstances make us interested in this question now? What is the history of this issue and question? How has interest in this question changed over time? What enduring values (big life issues) does this debate relate to?
Part Two: Three or More Positions on the Issue. For each of the three or more positions, you need to write a separate paragraph. Uniforms No Essay. In each paragraph: Explain the position. Tell why people believe that position. English Major. Give the best arguments for that position. School Uniforms No Essay. Explain how those arguments are supported. You can also do some contrast and comparision between the essay on pros and cons, positions.
That makes an especially effective transition. For example: In contrast to school uniforms yes or no essay the idea that homelessness is caused by a lack of homes, faith-based homeless agencies often argue that there are relationship issues which are at the heart of the problem. A third position suggests that it isn't lack of on pros and cons housing or poor relationships which are the root of the problem, but rather substance abuse and mental illness. Sample Starting Sentences for yes or, Body Part Two. Start each of the paragraphs with a clear sentence stating the different position.
Here are examples of how to begin each paragraph: Position 1: Many people believe… What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for the life, this point of view? What part of the article is helpful? Position 2: Other people would contend…
What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is helpful? Position 3: Another way to look at this question is…. What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is school uniforms, helpful? The conclusion of your essay is where you can tell your personal opinion on this issue. You can also explain why you are interested in on pros and cons television this particular topic. Your position may be one of the ones you describe in school uniforms yes or no essay the body or it may be something you have thought up yourself. In the conclusion, you can use some of the same techniques that you use in case your introduction.
Here are some other ideas: Finish the frame story. Add the final evidence you find most convincing. Tell the reader your own conclusions and uniforms yes or, point of best to write view. School No Essay. If you aren't sure what you think, then say that and explain what you think are the most important points to consider. Challenge the reader to decide. Outline the main things we need to think about when we make a decision about ways to write paper this question—what is important and uniforms, what is not. After you have written your outline, get some help by practicing talking about your paper idea in a small group, or in front of the whole class.
Take turns in your group having each person share about essay their paper using their outline. Then the school uniforms yes or, group can respond to case questions, comments, and suggestions. It helps if you write down your comments so the person can remember. In my class, I hand out these questions, or sometimes write them on the board and have students choose one or two to answer. Is the introduction interesting? Do you feel you understand the issue and the question? Do the uniforms no essay, question and the three positions match up?
Is there a contrast in the positions? Are there other positions you think need to be considered? Is the context/constraints of the question clear? Is there other supporting evidence you can think of? Is the response interesting? Does the author respond to the ideas and connect them with their own thoughts and/or experiences? How can they do that better? Anything you think is missing or needs to be explained or expanded? Having someone else read your essay and give you some feedback is a great way to improve your writing.
In my class, students work in groups to a synthesis peer edit and I usually try to uniforms yes or no essay have at least two people read every essay. If your class does not do that, you can arrange it on your own by having a friend or even your parents look over your essay. Here is the peer editing worksheet I use in internet marketing case study my class. I start by uniforms no essay, having each writer look at their own paper, and then have at least two peer editors answer the questions. Underline: your question, the three positions, your position Wavy underline: author tags and citations. II. Write (at top of draft or on a separate sheet of paper): What is the life future, best about your paper.
Questions you have for the peer editor. Uniforms. What you want them to help you with. I. Essay. Read the school uniforms no essay, paper and make marks on internet, the draft about: grammar and spelling errors what you think is good where they need more support where they need better transitions where they need references, citations or author tags (or any problems with ones they have) where they need more explanation or description. II.
On a separate sheet of paper write: Intro : was the issue both defined and school uniforms yes or, described? Anything that needs to be added? Was the opening interesting? How could it be improved? Body : How well does the a synthesis of ethnographic research. occasional papers, paper examine the uniforms yes or no essay, rhetorical situation? (exigence [reason for this debate], audience [who is interested in study this issue], and constraints [situations and attitudes which affect the debate]) Is there any part missing?
How can it be improved? Does the school, paper effectively summarize three different positions and explain what they are? Who believes them? Why do they believe it? Does the paper give enough evidence for each position? Conclusion: Does the author respond to the issue and give an interesting perspective? Does the author need to add anything? Most of the time, students are asked to write argument papers that present a particular point of view and attempt to persuade the audience.
Sometimes that makes this writing assignment seem confusing. Here is the difference between this assignment and an argument paper: Argument Essays focus on proving one point of view : An argument or position essay seeks to come to a conclusion and convince the audience which side of the issue is correct. The emphasis in an argument paper is on the side the author wants to prove is best or right, so while the on pros television, paper may talk about other views, most of the paper is spent proving one point of view. Exploratory essays look at several points of uniforms yes or no essay view in a neutral way. Rather than trying to solve the problem, this sort of paper explores the different perspectives of the problem and seeks to understand the cultural and social context of the issue. It is the sort of paper you would write before writing a solution paper.
An exploratory paper is common in study businesses when they are attempting to find a solution to a problem and need to get all of the yes or no essay, possible perspectives and information available. Exploratory papers help you look at different audiences to help find common ground. This paper also explores the different audiences or groups of people who are concerned about this issue, giving their different viewpoints on the cause, effects, and solutions proposed. In order to ways a research paper do this paper, you may want to narrow the issue you are thinking about so that you can cover the idea more effectively. Exploratory papers should examine at least three points of view : Sometimes there are two sides of an issue which are most often expressed and which polarize a debate. In an exploratory paper, you are asked to yes or look beyond the obvious answers in order to find other points of view which can sometimes help in solving the problem. For example, in looking at the issue of illegal immigration, you can examine the conservative and liberal political views, but you can also look at the viewpoint of the english major graduation, illegal immigrants themselves, the viewpoint of the government that the illegal immigrants come from, and the viewpoints of the people who live on both sides of the border where illegal immigrants cross. Yes Or No Essay. You might also consider the viewpoint of the border patrol employees. The conclusion of an exploratory paper can give your opinion: You will explore at least three sides of the ftce, issue, giving fair treatment to each side. School Uniforms Yes Or. However, in the conclusion of the paper, you will indicate your own position and why you are persuaded in that direction.
Whether it is labeled an exploratory essay or not, you will find this sort of paper in many business and occasional, college research papers. The basic point of uniforms this paper is to on pros and cons let you examine all the different viewpoints on an issue. Here are some examples of exploratory questions: What caused the Civil War in the U.S.? What will happen in the Middle East in the next 10 years after the Arab Spring? How should the U.S. handle illegal immigration? What should we do with embryos left over from in-vitro fertilization? In a business, an employee might be asked to school uniforms no essay write an exploratory report about: How do people perceive our product based on different types of advertising? How do people use our product most often? What are the top competing products and what advantages does each have over our product?
What are the different possible cell phone or Internet service contracts available to us and what are the on pros and cons, advantages/disadvantages of each one? By looking at school uniforms yes or no essay three or more viewpoints, you can get a better understanding of the different audiences for an issue and better understand how a solution or compromise might be developed. Which Exploratory Essay question is most interesting to television you? How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 26. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.
How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 10. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays.
by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Hi Sharon! Welcome back to the classroom. I'm so glad this has helped you.
I have over 50 articles on writing here on HubPages that I've written for my own students. These should be helpful for most college writing classes although you always need to make sure they fit with your particular instructor's assignments. School Uniforms. Hope you do very well this semester! This is extremely helpful for me as a student. I've been out of school for quite some time.
Unfortunately, not all instructors are the same. Thank you for a research paper, sharing your knowledge with us. This is so helpful, thank you! Susan Baxter 4 years ago from school uniforms no essay, Georgia. This would be useful for my teenagers to use during their essay at school. Thank you. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from a synthesis research. occasional papers, United States. Aubria--thanks for your comment.
I do understand that sometimes we need students to be tested for their own ability to write without help. I do that too. However, I know that not all of uniforms my students have actually had good instruction on the different aspects of various types of essays. Often the instructions in textbooks aren't as clear as they could be. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much kerlynb!
I've been frustated with many of the graduation, books I teach out of because they don't explain how to organize these papers. Yes Or. I certainly was never taught anything about how to put the paper together. So after a few years of college teaching, I started analyzing the essays in my textbooks and also the best student essays and came up with my series of How to write papers. I've been amazed how many views they get each day. I'm so glad if I can help students! kerlynb 5 years ago from Philippines, Southeast Asia, Earth ^_^ Just where were you when I was in ways to write paper HS? This is so useful! I mean, many of us writers would need to come up with an uniforms yes or no essay, exploratory piece every now and then.
Have to vote this one up and useful :) Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and essay of watching, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and yes or, others.
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