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Odysseus as an Epic Hero - Essay - …
Boccaccio#8217;s Decameron Essay Sample. Boccaccio#8217;s The Decameron is today acknowledged as a masterpiece of medieval literature, and hero its influence can be seen in the work of other great writers such as Chaucer and Shakespeare. Yet, the intellectual elite of his time rejected his masterpiece when it was first published, overlooking his wit and ingenuity and choosing instead to on a in the sun decry his lack of etiquette and political correctness. Essays? Clearly, he was prepared against just such attacks, for throughout his work he cleverly weaves in his defense against would-be detractors, using the narrative frames of smuggling essay, himself in both the essays on odysseus hero first and the third person points of view. In the Prologue, Boccaccio the author makes plain his ostensible purpose for essay gmbh frankfurt writing having survived a bout of lovesickness thanks to essays epic the encouragement of his friends, he now hopes to provide women afflicted by the same curse a diversion from their melancholy in essay gmbh frankfurt, the form of stories. This lovesickness is quickly juxtaposed with the image of the dreadfulness of the essays epic hero Black Death in the author#8217;s Introduction.
Here, he sets the background of his tale in a time of which horrors would still be very much alive in the memories of his readers, and hence framing the extenuating circumstances for the ribaldry and impiousness that is to argumentative on a raisin follow. Indeed, #8220;in the face of so much affliction and essays epic misery, all respect for argumentative in the the laws of God and man had virtually broken down and been extinguished#8221;, and out of necessity, standards of sexual propriety had also fallen (Boccaccio 7-9). After establishing that his story is taking place in a time unlike any other, Boccaccio proceeds to essays distance himself from his sordid tales by making it as divorced from reality as possible, to reduce their impact upon the reader. Essay Gmbh Frankfurt? Having portrayed the dystopia that was Florence at the time, he proceeds to magically create a utopia for his chosen band of men and women, a garden villa replete with servants, beautiful meadows, and essays epic excellent mind. The contrast could hardly have been greater. Immediately, the reader understands that the stories should not be taken too seriously. Having constructed the backdrop for his work, Boccaccio proceeds to add several narrative layers to further reduce his culpability.
He introduces the female protagonists by saying how, #8220;one Tuesday morning (or so I was told by a person whose word can be trusted) seven young ladies were to thesis be found#8230;#8221; (Boccaccio 13). This alludes to the fact that the stories he is about to recount were passed on to him by someone else. This puts two layers between him and the contents of his work the on odysseus epic hero storytellers themselves and the unknown messenger. Within the stories themselves, he occasionally inserts other stories, and the combined effect of these various narrative layers is to create further distance between himself and any responsibility for his controversial tales. With that, Boccaccio proceeds to essay on a narrate the first of his hundred tales.
The story of Ser Cepperello is especially important as Boccaccio uses it to introduce the theme of appearance versus reality that runs through the rest of the book what seems to be the truth may be in fact far from it. The story of a wicked man who achieves sainthood may seem blasphemous at epic first, but Boccaccio tempers it by making it clear that, despite Ser Cepperello#8217;s ungodliness in life, he still managed to perform his duties as a saint in smuggling, death, increasing the faith of the people, being a beacon of hope for them, and granting the prayers of those who pray through him. Essays? The entire tale in itself is how to essay, meant to be a subtle lesson for how we should read the rest of the essays on odysseus book. Boccaccio is encouraging us to read with our eyes open to the fact that while the subject matter may be lewd and unseemly, we should strive to detach ourselves from it and seek to enjoy the contents of the book without letting it influence us in any unbecoming way. In this sense we should emulate the two brothers in the tale, who hidden behind a wooden partition have a good laugh at the #8216;confessions#8217; of the soon-to-be Saint Ciapelletto, knowing full well that everything he was saying was a lie. Our own morals are our partition from the fiction, and if we choose to erect them there is nothing Boccaccio#8217;s stories can do to us. Rather, the onus is on him to provide a good delivery of his stories, so the lovelorn women reading The Decameron will be sufficiently entertained. On that point, Boccaccio#8217;s self-defense moves on essay recordings gmbh frankfurt, to a new level. Essays Epic? The first story of Day Six is meant to illustrate to the reader what exactly he thinks about storytelling. He likens it to the gentlemanly arts of swordplay and riding. He shows how it is neither the content nor details of a story that matter, but rather how it is told.
In this, he answers the critics who accused him of how to a subjective, plagiarizing ideas from other well-known tales at that time or fault his recollection. The knight in on odysseus epic, the story possessed a tale which was #8220;in itself#8230;indeed excellent#8221; (Boccaccio 447), but due to his poor delivery he makes a mess of his tale, and his unfortunate listener Madame Oretta is comically portrayed as falling ill, testament to the harm that a badly spun yarn can cause. The crux of the entire story, however, lies in her timely comment to the knight which saves her from further agony. She says to him, #8220;Sir, you have taken me riding on a horse that trots very jerkily. Pray be good enough to set me down.#8221; (Boccaccio 447). Thesis? The sexual reference here is unmistakable. Boccaccio is on odysseus hero, equating the art of storytelling to the namesake essay gogol that of lovemaking.
In that light, would not the young, unmarried women to whom he is addressing the book be able to savor that sensual pleasure vicariously by reading his stories? Bawdry though they might be, if the stories fulfill the function of helping to satiate the reader#8217;s appetite for sex and prevent worse sins like fornication, perhaps the on odysseus epic Church should not be so opposed to it. Indeed, rather then simply defending himself we now see Boccaccio actually promoting his work as a positive influence! However, there have been instances in the book where even Boccaccio has to admit that he has carried things too far, and smuggling a timely intervention is essays on odysseus, necessary to allay the doubts of the reader. The best example of this is Boccaccio#8217;s introduction to Day Four. Previously, the lusty Dioneo had told a story particularly raunchy and sacrilegious. He had spun a tale of how a holy man had taught a nai??ve young girl how to #8216;put the Devil back in Hell#8217; an euphemism for sexual intercourse. The story perverts the entire notion of service to the Lord and essay on heart of darkness even seems to reward sexual licentiousness by illustrating how the essays young girl managed to sun survive a fire which wiped out her entire household and got married happily in the end. Essays? But worst of all is the reference to the resurrection of Christ which Dioneo uses to play on the holy man#8217;s act of essay recordings gmbh, getting an erection.
In fact, for over five hundred years English translators refused to translate this portion of the text as it was deemed too blasphemous (Boccaccio 825). On Odysseus? Little wonder then, that the Boccaccio has to devote the beginning of the next story to explain himself. People Smuggling Essay? The introduction to Day Four is famous for its so-called hundred and first story, that of Filippo and his attempts to raise his son to be innocent and virtuous by on odysseus epic hero ensuring he has no exposure to the world at large. However, it is all in vain, as his son is essay, immediately attracted to women upon seeing them even though he does not even know what they are. It is significant that this is the only story in which Boccaccio himself narrates, without the safety of the layered narrative to shield him. This is perhaps because this story contains another central theme of epic hero, his defense that sexual needs are perfectly natural and descriptive essay people should have no need to essays epic control them. In fact, they cannot be suppressed and this justifies in part the sexual nature of his stories, for to censor them would be akin to going against nature. Interestingly Boccaccio does not complete the story, as he probably knows that were he to the namesake do so it would likely just become one of the essays epic many stories in the collection, instead of setting it apart. As a result, its significance is made clear.
The introduction to Day Four in fact marks the beginning of a shift towards a more somber mood as well, with the reign of the lovelorn Filostrato who decrees the day#8217;s subject matter to be those whose love ended in unhappiness. Boccaccio saves his strongest defense for essay on heart of darkness his epilogue, where he ties in all the various threads of his arguments into essays on odysseus hero one coherent whole. Thesis Paper? He recalls the Black Death that plagued Florence, by reminding the reader that it was a time when #8220;even the most respectable people saw nothing unseemly in wearing their breeches over their heads if they thought their lives might thereby be preserved#8221; (Boccaccio 799). He presents the different narrative layers as if he had no hand in the stories at all, #8221; I could only transcribe the stories as they were actually told#8230;even if one could assume that I was the inventor as well as the scribe of these stories (which was not the case)#8230;#8221; (Boccaccio 800). Last but not least, he emphasizes that once the storyteller has fulfilled his duty to entertain, the story is essays, merely what the listener wishes to make out of it, for thesis #8220;like all other things in the world, stories, whatever their nature, may be harmful or useful, depending upon the listener#8221; (Boccaccio 799). Essays On Odysseus Hero? Ultimately, the critical reader must heed what Boccaccio has written in the namesake essay gogol, the Prologue, and #8220;learn to recognize what should be avoided and essays on odysseus epic likewise what should be pursued#8221; (Boccaccio 3). His stories #8220;will not run after anyone demanding to be read#8221; (Boccaccio 800). The reader who has read this far has no right to be outraged by the namesake gogol his lack of modesty, for he has always had the option of turning away. By delighting in essays epic, the tales enough to read the entire book to its conclusion, the reader has become complicit in on microcontroller, the crime.
Boccaccio has negated his responsibility to uphold morality due to essays on odysseus epic hero the sheer nature of his job as a storyteller. The clergy and others who would have had reason to essay condemn the book have been caught wrong-footed and cast in a bad light by the genius of Boccaccio once again only this time, it is happening in real life. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. G.H. McWilliam. Penguin Books, 1995.
Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Boccaccio#8217;s Decameron. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Boccaccio#8217;s Decameron. Essays Epic? The Decameron, a collection of 100 short stories by Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio. The allegorical work is best known for tales of love in all its forms from essay, erotic#8230; “The Decameron” by Giovanni Boccaccio. Plague as Dehumanization of Florentine Society It is necessary to outline that “The Decameron” by Boccaccio is one of the best remarkable and touching portraying of the plague in the#8230; Malgudi Days is a very special book, but it also may well be a book for special tastes.
A collection of thirty-two stories, most of which have been selected from#8230; Canterbury Tales Lines 796-799 Of The Prologue. INTRODUCTION Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales, an anthology of stories in essays epic, a framework story, between 1387 and 1400. It is the story of essay, thirty people who travel as pilgrims#8230; Canterbury Tales an ancient writer Geoffrey Chaucer. Canterbury Tales are stories written and told by an ancient writer called Geoffrey Chaucer. Chaucer was telling a story of a set of thirty men who were traveling to Canterbury#8230; Is the essays on odysseus hero Climax of the Miller#8217;s Tale Simply?
It have a deeper message of thesis on microcontroller, Chaucer and his time? During the essays on odysseus climax of the Miller#8217;s Tale, Chaucer incorporates a kind of bowdy humor that makes the whole tale seem#8230;
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Odysseus as an Epic Hero essays
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an essays on odysseus epic hero, English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of essay on heart of darkness modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an on odysseus, entirely new system based on essay in the sun, empirical and essays epic hero, inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the essay on heart of darkness production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and epic hero, the relief of the human condition. At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the how to write descriptive essay ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the essays on odysseus epic hero ascension of essay of darkness James his political fortunes rose.
Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to essays on odysseus epic hero, his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the smuggling foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the epic hero Viscount St. Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family. His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and paper on microcontroller, Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and essays hero, one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. The Namesake? She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at on odysseus epic, home at on a raisin, the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire.
In 1573, at the age of on odysseus epic hero just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in the diplomatic service in thesis France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in essays epic hero France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of a subjective descriptive essay a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in essays hero 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Gray’s Inn. In the the namesake essay meantime, he was elected to hero, Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in argumentative essay on a in the sun Dorsetshire. Essays On Odysseus? He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years.
In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the raisin Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the hero service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of the namesake gogol Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to essays on odysseus epic, his own sagging career. The Namesake? Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. Essays On Odysseus Epic Hero? When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the smuggling essay case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved. Essays On Odysseus Hero? After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel.
1607 – Named Solicitor General. Gogol? 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. On Odysseus Epic Hero? 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and essay gogol, influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment. Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall.
In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Essays On Odysseus Hero? Although the argumentative raisin in the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only on odysseus hero, four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to come. Essay On Heart? As various chroniclers of the epic hero case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from essay recordings gmbh frankfurt, suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in on odysseus epic hero Bacon’s day, and it is of darkness, also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to essays on odysseus hero, his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse.
According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of essay on a raisin in the sun shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and epic, more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and sun, moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on on odysseus hero, his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an thesis on microcontroller, intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of on odysseus epic hero scientific knowledge for the “use and gogol, benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on essays hero, 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of the namesake snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and essays on odysseus epic hero, biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the raisin in the Seventh and The History of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels.
The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in essays hero Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt). On Microcontroller? Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of essays on odysseus hero one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in essay gmbh frankfurt Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of essays hero Winds” and a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies. Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Essay On Heart Of Darkness? Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of 17th-century English authors. And so when we take into hero account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of essay recordings gmbh English literature’s great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described.
In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is essays epic, noteworthy that in the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in thesis paper on microcontroller his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. Essays Epic Hero? (As Dr. Argumentative Essay On A Raisin In The Sun? Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the essays epic hero English language might be compiled from essay recordings gmbh, Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Epic? Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of the namesake gogol plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the essays on odysseus epic hero work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.”
As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the on heart design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from on odysseus, Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner. The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of on heart of darkness Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from Bacon’s point of view) apply the on odysseus hero knowledge they gain to produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only people, as an effective inspiration and model for essays epic hero the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and raisin, international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is never easy to summarize the thought of a prolific and essays, wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the smuggling essay task by his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by on odysseus hero following Bacon’s own methods it is possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to be his province and thesis, vowed his personal commitment to a plan for essays on odysseus hero the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning.
In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for paper on microcontroller an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to on odysseus epic, be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and write essay, it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from on odysseus hero, logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only the namesake gogol, partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Part I of the epic project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in essay on heart 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and epic hero, Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in 1605.
Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for the namesake essay gogol interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essays essential elements of thesis on microcontroller Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to associate with the on odysseus epic hero terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.” Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and thesis paper on microcontroller, frivolities), the on odysseus intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Gogol? Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the essays on odysseus epic basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English.
It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of people smuggling essay learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on epic, to refer to these vanities as the three “distempers” of learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”). By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by descriptive occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of essays on odysseus credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of smuggling astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and epic, especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake.
Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style. Smuggling Essay? Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of essays epic hero phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of essay on a raisin in the sun view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to essays on odysseus epic, a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of the namesake knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures. What is needed – and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into essays epic socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to essay, pinpoint the essays birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the thesis on microcontroller sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in essays on odysseus epic hero his later works. Knowledge is essay of darkness, power, and when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. Epic Hero? In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and thesis paper, decline. Essays Epic Hero? Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at frankfurt, best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and hero, eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in write a subjective essay a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and epic hero, not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and essay, a sense of mission.
In the Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of epic Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and write descriptive, especially Baconian science – above the other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the epic hero mere accumulation of how to essay brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the essays hero prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to on microcontroller, be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. Epic? In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in smuggling history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in epic Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of recordings gmbh frankfurt Nature”).
The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in its quest for on odysseus a true understanding of nature. Recordings Gmbh? The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to on odysseus epic hero, transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. Gogol? (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.) The New Organon is hero, presented not in the form of on microcontroller a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry. Essays On Odysseus? Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the people New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of on odysseus epic nature.
Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the the namesake essay gogol idols is as important to essays, the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of bad arguments is to logic. On Microcontroller? Incidentally, he uses the essays on odysseus epic hero word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in thesis the sense employed in Epicurean physics. On Odysseus Epic? Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol. On Microcontroller? Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. On Odysseus Epic? The Idols of the Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only essay on heart of darkness, recognized and compensated for. Epic? Some of Bacon’s examples are:
Our senses – which are inherently dull and essay raisin sun, easily deceivable. (Which is on odysseus, why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there. Paper? As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to essays epic hero, rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. Recordings Gmbh Frankfurt? The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and essays on odysseus epic, thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to how to write a subjective essay, a particular discipline or theory.
High esteem for on odysseus epic hero a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to on microcontroller, reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of essays on odysseus our own narrow training or discipline. 3. Argumentative On A? The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of essays epic various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre.
Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and especially from three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on essay, a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds. Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the essays epic lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy.
He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of thesis Job. At the epic hero beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the essay New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and essays epic hero, a necessary tool for the namesake essay gogol the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the essays hero Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an how to write descriptive, introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from . . . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to essays on odysseus epic hero, arrive at intermediate propositions. Essay On Heart Of Darkness? Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from hero, this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true.
As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the thesis on microcontroller intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by on odysseus epic hero observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. Essay? In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of epic new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of essay recordings frankfurt knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to hero, Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of essay recordings gmbh frankfurt having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry.
Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of epic hero his commentators and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the essay tendency is for the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and collection of data – to go on continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the on odysseus epic piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in on microcontroller a process, but the very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to essays on odysseus epic, a busy bee) becomes not only a means to how to write descriptive essay, knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for essays on odysseus epic hero its own sake.
Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in on heart order to continue doing some form of rote research. Epic? Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the gmbh unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of essays epic hero fact and frankfurt, never quite gets off the ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in essays hero the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in essay on a in the sun tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of epic hero science who can be legitimately termed an gogol, authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to collect instances in order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and essays epic hero, powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and induction.
It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of the namesake gogol celestial bodies are regular and essays on odysseus epic, symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the the namesake essay gogol fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at essays, the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of on heart this fact that he set himself the secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. But the point is already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to on odysseus epic hero, ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research.
In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of argumentative on a in the sun imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the essays on odysseus hero benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to how to write a subjective essay, the advance of knowledge. On Odysseus Hero? By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to how to a subjective essay, come. If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the essays epic arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and on microcontroller, the study of nature to moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of epic hero himself mainly as a political statesman and recordings gmbh, practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for essays on odysseus epic hero himself than to mold the on heart agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial.
His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and nation” and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and social vision. His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by essays on odysseus epic himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at people, last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit,
Saw it himself and hero, shew’d us it. . . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by thesis paper Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. Essays Hero? The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the thesis keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of on odysseus epic Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an the namesake essay gogol, early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of essays on odysseus epic hero depraved character and the namesake, a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and epic, most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . Essay Recordings Gmbh Frankfurt? After referring to hero, Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today.
While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and smuggling, moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us. The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On Odysseus Hero? On the people essay other hand, those who view nature as an essays epic hero, entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the paper on microcontroller idea of science as the instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the essays one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of people essay Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression.
Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on epic hero, the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to recordings gmbh frankfurt, be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for on odysseus epic the reform of recordings learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the essays on odysseus hero giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and essay of darkness, flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of on odysseus epic Bacon’s Works and Letters and Life is smuggling, still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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Plagiarism - What it is and how to avoid it. Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Each year a number of cases of plagiarism are brought to the attention of the Dean of Arts and the President#146;s Office. Depending on the severity of the offence, students found guilty of plagiarism may lose credit for epic hero the assignment in question, be awarded a mark of zero in the course, or face suspension from the argumentative essay raisin University. Most simply, plagiarism is intellectual theft. Any use of another author#146;s research, ideas, or language without proper attribution may be considered plagiarism. Because such definitions include many shades of accidental or intentional plagiarism, these need to be described more fully.
This is the most obvious case: a student submits, as his or her own work, an essay that has been written by someone else. Usually the original source is a published journal article or book chapter. The use of unpublished work, including the work of another student , is just as serious. In such cases, plagiarism cannot be avoided by on odysseus, paraphrasing the original or acknowledging its use in footnotes . The work is the property of another author and should not be used. See Example #1. A student may also lift portions of another text and on heart of darkness, use them in his or her own work. Essays. For example, a student might add her or his own conclusions or introduction to the namesake, an essay. Or a student might scatter his or her own comments through a text taken substantially from another source. These practices are unacceptable. Even with some attribution, the bulk of the work has been done by epic, another. See Example #1.
In many cases, a student will lift ideas, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs from a variety of sources and stitch them together into an essay. Essay Gmbh. These situations often seem difficult to assess. On Odysseus. Most essays, after all, are attempts to bring together a range of sources and arguments. But the line between plagiarism and people smuggling essay, original work is not difficult to draw. See Example #2. Lazy plagiarism crops up in many student essays, and is usually the result of essays on odysseus, sloppy note-taking or research shortcuts. Examples include: inadvertent use of another#146;s language, usually when the student fails to distinguish between direct quotes and general observations when taking notes. In such cases, the presence of on heart, a footnote does not excuse the use of another#146;s language without quotation marks. use of footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of your research. sloppy or inadequate footnoting which leaves out sources or page references. Although it may not be the student#146;s intention to essays epic, deceive, it is often difficult for instructors to argumentative raisin, distinguish between purposeful and accidental plagiarism. See Example #3.
This is not intended to discourage students from pursuing specific interests. If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for new research, you should receive the instructor#146;s approval and provide her or him with a copy of the original essay. If you want to use substantially similar essays to essays on odysseus, satisfy the requirements of two related courses, you should get approval from all the instructors concerned. It is not hard to draw the distinction between original and thoroughly plagiarized work. But the grey areas between these extremes are more vexing. Students should avoid any hint of dishonesty by maintaining good research habits and paying attention to a few basic rules of writing and documentation. Most written assignments begin with the collection of research notes -- a combination of ideas or quotes from thesis paper, other sources, and the student#146;s own ideas.
Whether you keep notes on index cards, in a loose-leaf binder, or on old envelopes in a desk drawer, it is important to record and organize them in such a way that vital information is not lost. Keep careful and complete track of sources. Accurately copy the author, title, and essays epic hero, other information about the source publication, including the number(s) of the page(s) from which notes or quotes were taken. Distinguish carefully between your ideas and the ideas of others. This is a simple question of intellectual honesty. Thesis. If you use another#146;s conclusions, acknowledge them. If you come to the same conclusions as another on essays epic your own, you should still acknowledge the agreement.
Distinguish carefully between your own words and those of others. If necessary, highlight or use coloured index cards for directly quoted material. As you begin to tie your ideas together in written form, consider the following: Begin by organizing your essay in an original manner . Avoid mimicking the pattern or order of argument used by others. Remember: this is your humble contribution to a debate or a body of research; it is not (in most case) an attempt to summarize or paraphrase the work of descriptive essay, others. As you weave the ideas and on odysseus epic hero, language of others into your work, make clear choices about the use of quoted material . In other words, either quote directly, or state the idea(s) in your own language. Do not mess around with close paraphrases or purely cosmetic changes. Essay. See Example #4. Read the first draft carefully . Is the distinction between your work and the work of others clear and on odysseus epic hero, unambiguous?
You might even take an early draft and highlight all those passages that summarize, paraphrase, or quote other sources. On Heart. Is there enough of your own work left in epic, the essay? Many cases of of darkness, plagiarism occur in the documentation rather than the body of the essay. Essays Epic. You should have a clear idea of the variety of purposes a footnote (or endnote) may serve, and people smuggling, many different ways you can acknowledge the work of others. For specific cases See Example #5 . Also note the epic hero following: Always record your source of the information; never use or rely on another author#146;s footnotes. The footnote should allow the reader to gmbh frankfurt, find or check the material being cited. Provide exact page numbers for direct quotes, and a range of page numbers for more general points. If you included more than one source or reference in essays epic hero, a footnote, the relevance or order of the various sources should be clear to the reader. Once your essay is complete, consider each portion that is drawn from another source, and ask yourself the following:
Is the idea or argument expressed entirely my own? Is the essay recordings gmbh frankfurt general language or choice of words (including even phrases or rough paraphrases) my own? If either answer is no, the essays hero work must be credited to the original author. And if the answer to the second question is no, the passage should either be quoted directly or rewritten in the student#146;s own words and credited directly. Complete or Near-Complete Plagiarism.
Despite minor changes to the text, the passages are substantially unchanged. In the first case, the plagiarist also lifts the footnote from the original. Note that the use of even very brief passages (such as the wings of aspiration) constitutes plagiarism. Use of a subjective descriptive essay, such passages throughout an essay would constitute complete plagiarism ; use of such passages occasionally would constitute near-complete plagiarism . [This example is drawn from a longer discussion regarding plagiarism in the graduate school essays of Martin Luther King Jr. Students interested in a well-illustrated discussion of student plagiarism, might want to consult this: Becoming Martin Luther King -- Plagiarism and Originality: A Round Table, Journal of American History (June 1991, pp. Epic. 11-123. The example used below is on p. How To Write A Subjective. 25.] The second case illustrates a more typical instance of student plagiarism.
Even the footnote to the original does not excuse the essays on odysseus epic hero substantial use of the how to write a subjective descriptive original#146;s language. It is Eros, not Agape, that loves in proportion to the value of its object. By the pursuit of value in its object, Platonic love is let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and essays on odysseus epic hero, persons to how to, the realm of the Ideas. Epic. Agape, as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and #145;uncaused#146;, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from God into this transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies. People Smuggling Essay. because the God of grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [footnote* is to Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros . (New York, 1932), pp. 52-56] As Nygren set out to contrast these two Greek words he finds that Eros loves in proportion to the value of the object. By the pursuit of value in its objects. Platonic love is essays epic, let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape as described in people essay, the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and uncaused, indifferent to epic hero, human merit, and creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of argumentative essay in the, pure generosity.
It flows down from on odysseus epic hero, God into the transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies, because the God of Grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [Footnote* is to Nygren, Agape and Eros , pp. 52-56] The strike officially began on May 29, and on June 1 the essay recordings frankfurt manufacturers met publicly to plan their resistance. Their strategies were carried out on essays on odysseus two fronts. They pressured the smuggling proprietors into essays, holding out indefinitely by essay of darkness, refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry. Also the manufacturers attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to epic hero, weather the strike. They tried to create a negative image of the union through the press, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from patronizing the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it claimed it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the smuggling collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful.
The strike began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their response. They had two strategies. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry, and they attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. They also tried to create a negative image of the union through the newspapers, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in on odysseus epic hero, other cities from using the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. 1. 1. Carole Turbin, And We are Nothing But Women: Irish Working Women in Troy, pp. 225-26 in Women of smuggling, America . Edited by epic, Mary Beth Norton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979). Here two sources are combined to create a new passage. As it stands, the passage is clearly plagiarized.
If a footnote were added acknowledging the smuggling sources, the substantial use of the language of the original passage would still open the student to charges of plagiarism. An example of an honest and essays on odysseus epic, acceptable use of the information derived from these sources is provided at the bottom of the page. Note that the acceptable version uses the essay on heart of darkness facts of the original sources, but organizes and expresses them in the student#146;s own language. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in essays on odysseus, Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary] aircraft carrier or sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, by December 1981 the Reagan Administration was working through Argentine intermediaries to install contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps in Honduras. Gmbh Frankfurt. One expert called Honduras the essays on odysseus epic USS Honduras , a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. In the how to essay early 1980s, the Reagan Administration made increasing use of essays epic, Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra, and some housing Argentine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras.
The country, as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier, which he described as the USS Honduras . 2. 2. How To A Subjective Descriptive. See Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310 (quote p. 309); and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139. In this example, the student may have made a sincere effort to write an original passage, but sloppy research and documentation raise the possibility of plagiarism. Note the characteristic errors: confusion of original and student#146;s language, quotation marks in the wrong place, improper or incomplete footnotes. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary aircraft carrier of sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, the Reagan Administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in essays on odysseus, Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras, a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts.
3. In December 1981, American agents--some CIA Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and thesis on microcontroller, base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. Essays On Odysseus Epic. 4. 3. Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. 4. Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983). Students anxious about paper, committing plagiarism often ask: How much do I have to essays, change a sentence to be sure I#146;m not plagiarizing?
A simple answer to this is: If you have to ask, you#146;re probably plagiarizing. This is important. The Namesake Essay Gogol. Avoiding plagiarism is not an exercise in inventive paraphrasing. There is no magic number of words that you can add or change to make a passage your own. Original work demands original thought and essays on odysseus hero, organization of thoughts. In the following example, although almost all the words have been changed, the student has still plagiarized. An acceptable use of this material is also provided below. Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the paper raft of Huck and Jim, they decide to raise funds by performing scenes from on odysseus hero, Shakespeare#146;s Romeo and Juliet and Richard III . Thesis On Microcontroller. That the presentation of on odysseus hero, Shakespeare in essay of darkness, small Mississippi towns could be conceived of as potentially lucrative tells us much about the essays on odysseus epic hero position of Shakespeare in the nineteenth century. (Lawrence Levine, Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in essay gogol, America (Cambridge, 1986), p. 10) Soon after the two thieves, who pretend they are a king and a duke, capture Huck and Jim#146;s raft, they try to make money by putting on two Shakespeare plays ( Romeo and Juliet and Richard III ). Because the production of Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the status of Shakespeare before the essays epic hero twentieth century. As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggests that the identification of highbrow theatre is people smuggling essay, a relatively recent phenomenon.
5. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the on odysseus epic hero passage cited above, but expands upon it and thesis paper on microcontroller, places it in the context of the student#146;s work. Varieties of essays on odysseus epic hero, Footnotes. The use of sources can be clarified in a number of ways through careful footnoting. Consider the different forms of documentation and acknowledgement in the following: With the election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in Latin America escalated rapidly. 6 The influx of American funds, notes Peter Kornbluh, determined the frequency and destructiveness of contra attachs. 7 In the early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for the contra war.
The Administration set up a number of military and the namesake, training facilities--some American, some contra , and some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the essays on odysseus epic hero border between Nicaragua and Honduras. [T]he USS Honduras , as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier. 8 These strategies seemed to the namesake gogol, represent both a conscious acceleration of on odysseus epic, American involvement in argumentative essay raisin, the region, and the inertia of past involvements and failures. 9. 6. Essays. The following paragraph is how to a subjective essay, drawn from epic, Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. Essay. 307-310; and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in on odysseus hero, Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), pp. 139-149. Note: FOOTNOTE 6 provides general background sources. 7. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), p. 139. Note: FOOTNOTE 7 documents a quoted passage, noting the exact page location. 8. Observer quoted in Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309.
Note: FOOTNOTE 8 documents a secondary quotation. 9. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), stresses the paper renewal of counterinsurgency under Reagan; Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions , stresses the ongoing interventionism of the U.S. (New York, 1989), p. 307-310. Note: FOOTNOTE 9 distinguishes your argument from that of your sources. Dr. Essays Hero. Colin H. Gordon. (Department of History, UBC)
Professor Peter Simmons. (President#146;s Advisory Committee on Student Discipline, UBC)
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Odysseus as an Epic Hero - Essay - …
100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about essays on odysseus epic, can make research faster and essay raisin in the sun, easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to epic know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for people smuggling essay articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to essays on odysseus epic hero videos and argumentative raisin, sample student essays. Check out my guides for essays epic hero writing papers too.
Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for of darkness how to (and how not to) pick a topic. Essays On Odysseus Hero! 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and the namesake essay gogol, health, obesity and dieting, recycling and epic, the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. People Smuggling Essay! Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on.
Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is epic something everyone has an on a in the sun opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and hero, that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about essay gogol, these issues and essays hero, it is smuggling hard to think of an argument that might change their minds.
Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to essays a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to people smuggling raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out essays, well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the world?
Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off?
Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by essay recordings frankfurt doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for essays hero a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets?
Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to essay be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely?
Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the essays on odysseus hero show create negative or positive feelings about the namesake essay gogol, morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health?
What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Essays! Many of write a subjective descriptive these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and on odysseus, Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry.
An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the on heart world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the on odysseus epic horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from the namesake essay gogol being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference?
Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of essays on odysseus epic reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from recordings frankfurt earthquakes?
Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the essays hero environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and how to descriptive essay, why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash?
What is essays epic deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is recordings gmbh a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint?
What are the dangers for on odysseus hero people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively?
What is the best way to a subjective descriptive essay encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and on odysseus hero, information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the the namesake essay gogol environmental topics page for your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children?
Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the on odysseus epic friend zone? How can you know you are in people essay an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships?
What are the effects of hero domestic violence on essay on a in the, children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life?
Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for essays on odysseus epic hero children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship?
How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for essay recordings gmbh frankfurt Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving?
Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper?
Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on essays, a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to argumentative on a raisin choose the essays on odysseus genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the essay on heart of darkness next big leap in technology?
Which is on odysseus hero better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and essay gogol, new technology news and research reports. On Odysseus Hero! MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the smuggling essay lists above. Essays Hero! Decide your answer to the question (this is paper your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the hero topic.
Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at recordings gmbh frankfurt some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for on odysseus epic the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for the namesake essay gogol each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to essays on odysseus do research for your paper? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by argumentative essay raisin Virginia Kearney 2. by Virginia Kearney 16.
How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Cause and epic hero, Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Thesis On Microcontroller! This is epic hero a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay.
Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to essay do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Essays On Odysseus Epic Hero! Until then, you might want to people essay look at essays my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for essay recordings gmbh your age too. Essays! I am in primary school in grade 6 and essay on heart, I want some good topics for primary students. Essays Epic Hero! Good job making this page. I don't know what to write a subjective descriptive essay do at first. Essays On Odysseus! I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of smuggling essay them made sense except for essays on odysseus epic hero this.
Thank you very much! I think the essay on heart of darkness ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in on odysseus high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to argumentative on a in the sun thank you for essays on odysseus hero your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for on microcontroller picking out a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out!
King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Essays Hero! Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article.
You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. Essay Gmbh! Hi Nataly! You are welcome to essays hero shift the how to a subjective descriptive focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and essays on odysseus, topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action.
However, I want my students to focus more on how they and thesis paper on microcontroller, their audience can personally take responsibility and hero, action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from essay really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. Essays! In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of recordings frankfurt source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in epic hero papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and how to write a subjective descriptive essay, really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of essays on odysseus some questions so that they ask students to essay on heart think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones?
Are people in epic hero developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the on a sun globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. Essays On Odysseus! This helped me so much with my homework, thank you!
Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on argumentative essay on a sun, school campus. Hero! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from recordings United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to on odysseus epic hero hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to gmbh see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to epic hero speak. Essay Raisin In The! Thanks so much!
Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us.
Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to essays on odysseus argue about. The less the people smuggling essay words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the essays on odysseus case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales.
A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Argumentative Essay Raisin! Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to essays epic those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to paper on microcontroller write the questions without giving away your position on epic, each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA.
U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and how to essay, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is essays on odysseus a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Odysseus-the Epic Hero essays
essay for epic, spm level 27 September 2017. Clutching my belongings, I jostled my way through the milling crowd and seated myself alongside a few members of the audience. There I sat, looking down upon a scene the like of which I . (read more) 25 September 2017. Strolling in a park is an enjoyment to the namesake gogol me.
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