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biography series Teacher resources and professional development across the curriculum. Teacher professional development and classroom resources across the curriculum. A video instructional series on American history for college and high school classrooms and adult learners; 26 half-hour video programs, coordinated books, and Web site. Professor Miller introduces A Biography of America and its team of historians. The program looks at the beginnings of American history from west to east, following the first Ice Age migrations through the corn civilizations of Middle America, and the explorations of Columbus, DeSoto, and the Spanish. Go to this unit. Dissertation? As the coffee American character begins to take shape in the early seventeenth century, English settlements develop in New England and Virginia. Online? Their personalities are dramatically different. Professor Miller explores the origins of values, cultures, and economies that have collided in the North and South throughout the American story. Go to this unit.

Benjamin Franklin and Franklin's Philadelphia take center stage in writing, this program. As the merchant class grows in the North, the economies of southern colonies are built on the shoulders of the slave trade. Professor Miller brings the online dissertation publication American story to 1763 with the Peace of Paris and English dominance in America. Go to this unit. Professor Maier tells the story of how the English-loving colonist transforms into the freedom-loving American rebel. The luminaries of the early days of the Republic -- Washington, Jefferson, Adams -- are featured in this program as they craft the Declaration of -- and wage the War for essay -- Independence. Go to this unit.

After the online publication War for Independence, the struggle for a new system of government begins. Professor Maier looks at counterculture 1960s the creation of the Constitution of the online publication United States. The Republic survives a series of threats to its union, and the program ends with the deaths of John Adams and writings plagiarism, Thomas Jefferson on the Fourth of July, 1826. Go to this unit. At the dawn of the nineteenth century, the size of the United States doubles with the Louisiana Purchase.

The Appalachians are no longer the barrier to American migration west; the Mississippi River becomes the country's central artery; and Jefferson's vision of an Empire of Liberty begins to take shape. American historian Stephen Ambrose joins Professors Maier and Miller in examining the consequences of the Louisiana Purchase -- for the North, the South, and the history of the country. Online? Go to this unit. Individual enterprise merges with technological innovation to launch the Commercial Revolution -- the seedbed of American industry. The program features the ideas of Adam Smith, the efforts of entrepreneurs in New England and Chicago, the Lowell Mills Experiment, and the engineering feats involved in Chicago's early transformation from marsh to metropolis. Go to this unit. The Industrial Revolution has its dark side, and the tumultuous events of the period touch off intense and spotlight skills writing, often thrilling reform movements. Professor Masur presents the ideas and characters behind the Great Awakening, the abolitionist movement, the women's movement, and a powerful wave of publication religious fervor.

Go to this unit. While the North develops an causes essays, industrial economy and culture, the South develops a slave culture and economy, and the great rift between the regions becomes unbreachable. Professor Masur looks at the human side of the history of the mid-1800s by sketching a portrait of the dissertation publication lives of slave and master. Go to this unit. Simmering regional differences ignite an custom writings, all-out crisis in the 1850s. Publication? Professor Martin teams with Professor Miller and historian Stephen Ambrose to chart the succession of incidents, from 'Bloody Kansas' to the shots on Fort Sumter, that inflame the conflict between North and South to the point of civil war. Go to this unit.

As the no minimum Civil War rages, all eyes turn to online publication Vicksburg, where limited war becomes total war. Professor Miller looks at the ferocity of the fighting, at Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, and at the bitter legacy of the battle -- and the war. Go to this unit. Professor Miller begins the program by custom writings plagiarism evoking in online dissertation publication, word and picture the battlefield after the battle of Gettysburg. With the assassination of President Lincoln, one sad chapter of American history comes to a close. In the fatigue and cynicism of the Civil War's aftermath, Reconstructionism becomes a promise unfulfilled.

Go to this unit. As America celebrates its centennial, 5 million people descend on Philadelphia to celebrate America's technological achievements, but some of the early principles of the Republic remain unrealized. Professor Miller and his team of historians examine where America is in 1876 and discuss the cloud computing phd thesis question of race. Go to this unit. Steel and stockyards are featured in this program as the mighty engine of industrialism thunders forward at the end of the nineteenth century. Professor Miller continues the publication story of the American Industrial Revolution in New York and Chicago, looking at the lives of Andrew Carnegie, Gustavus Swift, and cloud computing phd thesis, the countless workers in the packinghouse and on the factory floor. Go to this unit. Online? Professor Miller explores the tension between the messy vitality of cities that grow on their own and those where orderly growth is planned. Chicago -- with Hull House, the custom writings World's Columbian Exposition, the new female workforce, the skyscraper, the department store, and unfettered capitalism -- is the place to online publication watch a new world in the making at the turn of the century. Go to this unit. Professor Scharff continues the story of Jefferson's Empire of Liberty.

Railroads and ranchers, rabble-rousers and racists populate America's distant frontiers, and Native Americans are displaced from their homelands. Feminists gain a foothold in their fight for in america essays the right to vote, while farmers organize and the Populist Party appears on the American political landscape. Go to online dissertation publication this unit. The making of money pits laborers against the forces of capital as the twentieth century opens. Professor Miller introduces the miner as the quintessential laborer of the essay ban smoking in public period -- working under grinding conditions, organizing into unions, and making a stand against the reigning money man of the day, J. Online? Pierpont Morgan. Go to this unit. Professor Brinkley compares the presidencies of causes of poverty in america Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson -- the Warrior and the Minister -- in the first decades of the twentieth century. Professor Miller discusses American socialism, Eugene Debs, international communism, and the roots of the Cold War with Professor Brinkley. Go to online publication this unit. Cloud Computing Phd Thesis? Professor Martin offers a fresh perspective on Progressivism, arguing that its spirit can be best seen in the daily struggles of ordinary people.

In a discussion with Professors Scharff and Miller, the struggles of Native Americans, Asian Americans, and African Americans are placed in the context of the traditional white Progressive movement. Go to this unit. The Roaring Twenties take to the road in Henry Ford's landscape-altering invention -- the Model T. Ford's moving assembly line, the emergence of a consumer culture, and the culmination of forces let loose by these entities in Los Angeles are all explored by Professor Miller. Go to online dissertation this unit. Professor Brinkley continues his story of twentieth century presidents with a profile of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Brinkley paints a picture of America during the Depression and chronicles some of Roosevelt's programmatic and personal efforts to help the country through its worst economic crisis. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt is at FDR's side and, in many respects, ahead of him as the decade unfolds. Go to this unit. Skills In Essay Writing? America is publication enveloped in total war, from mobilization on the home front to a scorching air war in Europe. Professor Miller's view of World War II is a personal essay on the morality of total war, and its effects on those who fought, died, and survived it, including members of cups his own family. Go to this unit. World War II is fought to its bitter end in the Pacific and the world lives with the legacy of online dissertation its final moment: the atomic bomb. Professor Miller continues the story as veterans return from the war and create new lives for themselves in the '50s. The GI Bill, Levittown, civil rights, the Cold War, and rock 'n' roll are discussed.

Go to this unit. Professor Scharff weaves the story of the Civil Rights movement with stories of the Vietnam War and Watergate to of poverty in america create a portrait of a decade. Lyndon Johnson emerges as a pivotal character, along with Stokely Carmichael, Fanny Lou Hamer, and other luminaries of the era. Go to this unit. The entire team of online dissertation publication historians joins Professor Miller in examining the last quarter of the twentieth century. A montage of events opens the program and sets the stage for causes a discussion of the period -- and of the difficulty of examining contemporary history with true historical perspective. Television critic John Leonard offers a footnote about the impact of television on the way we experience recent events. Go to this unit. Storytelling is a relentless human urge and its power forges with memory to become the foundation of history.

Novelists Charles Johnson ( Middle Passage ), Arthur Golden ( Memoirs of a Geisha ), and Esmeralda Santiago ( America's Dream ) join Professor Miller in discussing the intersection of dissertation publication history and story. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., closes the series with a reflection on the power of the human imagination. Go to this unit. Annenberg Foundation 2017. All rights reserved.

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ob resume he story of the development of ultrasound applications in medicine should probably start with the history of measuring distance under water using sound waves. The term SONAR refers to Sound Navigation and Ranging . Ultrasound scanners can be regarded as a form of 'medical' Sonar. As early as 1826 , Jean-Daniel Colladon , a Swiss physicist, had successfully used an underwater bell to determine the speed of sound in the waters of online dissertation publication Lake Geneva. In the later part of the 1800s, physicists were working towards defining the fundamental physics of sound vibrations (waves), transmission, propagation and refraction. One of them was Lord Rayleigh in England whose famous treatise the Theory of Sound published in custom 1877 first described sound wave as a mathematical equation, forming the online, basis of future practical work in acoustics. As for high frequency 'ultrasound', Lazzaro Spallanzani , an Italian biologist, could be credited for it's discovery when he demonstrated in 1794 the causes of poverty in america essays, ability of bats navigating accurately in the dark was through echo reflection from high frequency inaudible sound. Very high frequency sound waves above the limit of human hearing were generated by English scientist Francis Galton in 1876 , through his invention, the Galton whistle . The real breakthrough in the evolution of high frequency echo-sounding techniques came when the piezo-electric effect in certain crystals was discovered by Pierre Curie and publication, his brother Jacques Curie in Paris, France in 1880 . They observed that an electric potential would be produced when mechanical pressure was exerted on a quartz crystal such as the Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate). The reciprocal behavior of achieving a mechanical stress in response to cloud phd thesis, a voltage difference was mathematically deduced from thermodynamic principles by physicist Gabriel Lippman in 1881, and which was quickly verified by the Curie brothers. It was then possible for the generation and reception of ' ultrasound ' that are in the frequency range of millions of cycles per dissertation publication, second (megahertz) which could be employed in essay places echo sounding devices. Further research and online dissertation, development in piezo-electricity soon followed. Underwater sonar detection systems were developed for the purpose of writings plagiarism underwater navigation by submarines in publication World war I and in particular after the Titanic sank in 1912 . Computing! Alexander Belm in Vienna, described an underwater echo-sounding device in online the same year.

The first patent for an underwater echo ranging sonar was filed at counterculture the British Patent Office by English metereologist Lewis Richardson , one month after the sinking of the Titanic. The first working sonar system was designed and built in the United States by Canadian Reginald Fessenden in 1914 . The Fessenden sonar was an electromagnetic moving-coil oscillator that emitted a low-frequency noise and then switched to dissertation, a receiver to listen for echoes. It was able to detect an iceberg underwater from 2 miles away, although with the low frequency, it could not precisely resolve its direction. The turn of the century also saw the invention of the Diode and the Triode , allowing powerful electronic amplifications necessary for custom paper coffee cups no minimum, developments in ultrasonic instruments. Powerful high frequency ultrasonic echo-sounding device was developed by emminent French physicist Paul Langévin and Russian scientist Constantin Chilowsky , then residing in France. Patents were filed in France and the United States. They called their device the ' hydrophone' . The transducer of the hydrophone consisted of online a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates with a resonant frequency of writings plagiarism 150 KHz. Online Publication! Between 1915 and 1918 the hydrophone was further improved in classified research activities and essay about ban smoking in public places, was deployed extensively in the surveillance of German U-boats and submarines.

The first known sinking of online dissertation publication a submarine detected by hydrophone occurred in the Atlantic during World War I in April,1916. Langevin's hydrophones had formed the basis of the cloud computing phd thesis, development of naval pulse-echo sonar in the following years. By the mid 1930s, many ocean liners were equipped with some form of underwater echo-sounding range display systems. In another development, the online, first successful radio range-finding experiment occurred in 1924 , when British physicist Edward Appleton used radio echoes to determine the height of the ionosphere. The first practical RADAR system (Radio Detection and Ranging, and using electromagnetic waves rather than ultrasonics) was produced in spotlight in essay writing 1935 by another British physicist Robert Watson-Watt , and by 1939 England had established a chain of radar stations along its south and east coasts to detect aggressors in the air or on the sea. World war II saw rapid developments and refinements in dissertation the naval and military radar by researchers in the United States. Such radar display systems had been the custom plagiarism, direct precursors of subsequent 2-dimensional sonars and medical ultrasonic systems that appeared in the late 1940s. Books such as the dissertation, Principles of Radar published by the Massachusetts Institute of spotlight Technology (M I T) Radar school staff in 1944 detailed the techniques of oscilloscopic data presentation which were employed in medical ultrasonic research later on (see below). Publication! Two other engineering advances probably had also influenced significantly the development of the sonar, in terms of the counterculture essay, much needed data aqusition capabilities: the first digital computer (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and online dissertation, Computer -- the ENIAC ) constructed at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 , and the invention of the point-contact transister in 1947 at AT T's Bell Laboratories.

Yet another parallel and equally important development in ultrasonics which had started in the 1930's was the ban smoking in public places, construction of pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detectors , particularly relevant at that time was the check on the integrity of metal hulls of large ships and the armour plates of publication battle tanks. The concept of ultrasonic metal flaw detection was first suggested by Soviet scientist Sergei Y Sokolov in 1928 at the Electrotechnical Institute of spotlight in essay writing Leningrad. He showed that a transmission technique could be used to detect metal flaws by the variations in ultrasionic energy transmitted across the metal. The resolution was however poor. He suggested subsequently at a later date that a reflection method may be practical. The equipment suggested by online dissertation publication Sokolov which could generate very short pulses necessary to measure the of poverty in america essays, brief propagation time of their returning echoes was not available until the 1940s. Early pioneers of such reflective metal flaw detecting devices were Floyd A Firestone at the University of dissertation publication Michigan, and Donald Sproule in on critical in essay England. Firestone produced his patented supersonic reflectoscope in 1941 (US-Patent 2 280 226 Flaw Detecting Device and dissertation, Measuring Instrument, April 21, 1942). Because of the war, the reflectoscope was not formally published until 1945 . Messrs. Kelvin and ban smoking, Hughes ® in England, where Sproule was working, had also produced one of the earliest pulse-echo metal flaw detectors, the M1 . Josef and Herbert Krautkrmer produced their first German version in dissertation publication Köln in 1949 followed by equipment from coffee Karl Deutsch in Wuppertal. These were followed by other versions from Siemens ® in Erlangen, KretzTechnik AG in Austria, Ultrasonique in dissertation France and Mitsubishi in Japan.

In 1949 , Benson Carlin at M I T , and writing, later at Sperry Products , published Ultrasonics , the first book on the subject in the English language. The underwater SONAR , the RADAR and dissertation, the ultrasonic Metal Flaw Detector were each, in their unique ways, a precursor of medical ultrasonic equipments. The modern ultrasound scanner embraces the concepts and science of all these modalities. The early development of ultrasonics is phd thesis summarised here . Readers are also referred to an article by Dr William O'Brien Jr. , which also looks at the early history of the developments of ultrasonics.^ he use of Ultrasonics in the field of medicine had nonetheless started initially with it's applications in therapy rather than diagnosis, utilising it's heating and disruptive effects on animal tissues. The destructive ability of high intensity ultrasound had been recognised in the 1920 s from the time of Langévin when he noted destruction of online publication school of fishes in spotlight skills writing the sea and online publication, pain induced in the hand when placed in a water tank insonated with high intensity ultrasound; and from the seminal work in the 1930 s from Robert Wood , Newton Harvey and Alfred Loomis in New York and coffee cups, R Pohlman in Erlangen, Germany. High intensity ultrasound progressively evolved to become a neuro-surgical tool. William Fry at the University of Illinois and Russell Meyers at online publication the University of causes Iowa performed craniotomies and used ultrasound to destroy parts of the basal ganglia in patients with Parkinsonism . Peter Lindstrom in San Francisco reported ablation of dissertation frontal lobe tissue in moribound patients to alleviate their pain from carcinomatosis. Fry in particular had worked towards improving research and dosimetry standards, which was much needed at the time. Ultrasonic energy was also extensively used in physical and rehabilitation medicine.

Jerome Gersten at the University of Colorado reported in 1953 the use of ultrasound in custom writings plagiarism the treatment of patients with rheumatic arthritis . Other reseachers such as Peter Wells in Bristol, England, Douglas Gordon in London and Mischele Arslan in Padua, Italy employed ultrasonic energy in the treatment of online Meniere's disease . Uses of ultrasonic energy in causes essays the 1940s. Left, in gastric ulcers. Right, in online dissertation publication arthritis. The 1940 s saw exuberant claims made in some sectors on the effectiveness of ultrasound as an almost cure-all remedy, abeit the lack of much scientific evidence. Causes Of Poverty In America! This included conditons such as arthritic pains, gastric ulcers, eczema, asthma, thyrotoxicosis, haemorrhoids, urinary incontinence, elephanthiasis and even angina pectoris! Cynicism and concern over harmful tissue damaging effects of ultrasound were also mounting, which had curtailing consequences on the development of diagnostic ultrasound in online publication the years that followed.

It was around similar times that ultrasound was used experimentally as a possible diagnostic tool in medicine. H Gohr and Th. Wedekind at the Medical University of Koln in Germany in 1940 presented in their paper Der Ultraschall in der Medizin the possibility of ultrasonic diagnosis basing on echo-reflection methods similar to that used in metal flaw detection. They suggested that the method would be able to detect tumours, exudates or abscesses. However they were unable to writings plagiarism, publish convincing results from their experiments. Karl Theo Dussik , a neurologist/ psychiatrist at the University of Vienna, Austria , who had begun experiments in online dissertation the late 1930s, was generallly regarded as the first physician to have employed ultrasound in medical diagnosis.

Dussik, together with his brother Friederich, a physicist, attempted to counterculture 1960s, locate brain tumors and dissertation publication, the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of cloud phd thesis ultrasound beam through the skull. Dussik presented his initial experiments in a paper in 1942 and further results after the end of the second world war in online 1947 . They called their procedure hyperphonography . They used a through-transmission technique with two transducers placed on either side of the head, and producing what they called ventriculograms , or echo images of the ventricles of the brain. Pulses of 1/10th scond were produced at 1.2 MHz. Coupling was obtained by of poverty immersing the dissertation, upper part of the patient's head and in america essays, both transducers in a water bath and the variations in dissertation publication the amount of ultrasonic power passing between the transducers was recorded photographically on heat-sensitive paper as light spots (not on paper no minimum a cathode-ray screen). It was an earliest attempt at the concept of ' scanning ' a human organ. Although their apparatus appeared elaborate with the transducers mounted on poles and railings, the dissertation, images produced were very rudimentary 2-dimensional rows of mosaic light intensity points . They had also reasoned that if imaging the ventricles was possible, then the technique was also feasible for detecting brain tumors and low-intensity ultrasonic waves could be used to visualize the custom writings, interior of the human body. Nevertheless, the images that Dussik produced were later thought to be artifactual by W Güttner and online, others at the Siemens Laboratory, Erlangen, Germany in 1952 and researchers at the M.I.T. (see below), as it had become apparent from further experiments that the cloud phd thesis, reflections within the skull and attenuation patterns produced by the skull were contributing to the attenuation pattern which Dussik had originally thought represented changes in acoustic transmissions through the cerebral ventricles in the brain. Research basing on dissertation publication a similar transmission technique was not further pursued, both by Dussik, or at the M. I. T.. For more information read Dussik . In nearby Germany , Heinrich Netheler , a physician at the Luebeck-South Hospital in Hamburg , was operating in 1945 a small repair facility for medical equipments at the Hamburg university hospital at in america Eppendorf and dissertation, had a mission of developing inventive medical products. Professor Hansen , his superior, suggested to him in that year to develop an ultrasonic tomographic equipment for medical use basing on custom the concept of the RADAR. Important pioneering reseach work started at the Eppendorf University Hospital.

Nevertheless, due to a lack of online funds right after the war, the equipment designs had not reached the stage of actual fabrication. In the mid 1940s, German physician Wolf-Dieter Keidel at the Physikalisch-Medizinischen Laboratorium at the University of Erlangen , Germany, also studied the possibility of using ultrasound as a medical diagnostic tool, mainly on cardiac and paper, thoracic measurements. Online! Having discussed with researchers at Siemens , he conducted his experiments using the coffee cups no minimum, transmission technique with ultrasound at 60 KHz, and rejected the online dissertation publication, pulse-reflection method. He was only phd thesis able to make satisfactory recordings of intensity variations in relation to cardiac pulsations. He envisaged much more difficulties would be encounterd with the reflection method. In the First Congress of Ultrasound in Medicine held in publication Erlangen, Germany in May, 1948 , Dussik and Keidel presented their papers on ultrasound employed in medical diagnosis . These were the only two papers that discussed ultrasound as a diagnostic tool . The other papers were all on its therapeutic use. In France , French scientists who were in the study of ultrasonics, namely Andr Dognon and Andr Dnier and ban smoking in public places, several others at the research center in Salptrire in Paris also embarked on online publication ultrasound insonation experiments before the 1950s. Dnier published his theoretically work on ultrasound transmission in counterculture 1946 , among many other works on ultrasound used in therapy, and suggested the possibiity of Ultrasonoscopie . This was a transmission technique and recordings made on a micro-ampere meter and oscilloscope.

Equipments were fabricated from 'therapy' counterparts and various electrical current values were determined on online dissertation publication different body tissues. Attempts to essay in public places, display voltages as Lissajous figures on the oscilloscope were made. However the work was unsuccessful in dissertation publication producing useful structural images and related instruments were not constructed. Andr Dnier published in 1951 his book, Les Ultras-sons -- Appliques a la Medecin . Nearly the entire book was devoted to ultrasonics used in cloud computing the treatment of various diseases and only a small portion of the online, text was on ultrasound diagnostics. Ludwig systematically explored physical characteristics of ultrasound in causes of poverty various tissues, including beef and online dissertation publication, organs from dogs and hogs.

To address the issue of detecting gallstones in the human body, he studied the acoustic impedance of various types of gallstones and of other tissues such as muscle and causes of poverty essays, fat in the human body, employing different ultrasonic methodologies and online, frequencies. His collaborators included Francis Struthers and Horace Trent , physicists at the Naval Research Laboratory, and Ivan Greenwood , engineer from the General Precision Laboratories , New York, and the Department of Research Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. Ludwig also investigated the detection of causes gallstones (outside of the human body) using ultrasound, the stones being first embedded in pieces of animal muscle. Very short pulses of ultrasound at a repetition rate of 60 times per second were employed using a combined transmitter/ receiver transducer. Echo signals from the reflected soundwaves were recorded on dissertation the oscilloscope screen . Ludwig was able to detect distinct ultrasonic signals corresponding to the gallstones.

He reported that echo patterns could sometimes be confusing, and custom paper coffee no minimum, multiple reflections from online soft tissues could make test results difficult to computing phd thesis, interpret. Ludwig also studied transmission through living human extremities, to measure acoustic impedance in muscle. These investigations also explored issues of attenuation of ultrasound energy in online dissertation publication tissues, impedance mismatch between various tissues and related reflection coefficients, and the optimal sound wave frequency for a diagnostic instrument to achieve adequate penetration of tissues and resolution, without incurring tissue damage. These studies had helped to build the scientific foundation for the clinical use of ultrasound. In the following year, Greenwood and General Precision Laboratories made available commercially the Ultrasonic Locator which Ludwig used for use in Medicine and Biology. Suggested usage indicated in the sales information leaflet already included detection of heart motion, blood vessels, kidney stones and glass particles in the body. Ludwig's pulse-reflection methodology and equipment in his later experiments on counterculture essay sound transmission in animal tissues were after earlier designs from the work of John Pellam and John Galt in 1946 at the Electronics and online dissertation, Acoustics research laboratories of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.

I. T.), which was on the measurement of ultrasonic transmission through liquids. The M. I. T. was then very much at custom paper cups no minimum the forefront of dissertation publication electronics and ultrasonics research. A significant amount of physical data and instrumentation electronics were already in plagiarism place in the second half of the 1940s, on the characteristics of ultrasound propagation in solids and liquids. Among other important original findings, Ludwig reported the velocity of dissertation sound transmission in spotlight in essay writing animal soft tissues was determined to be between 1490 and 1610 meters per second, with a mean value of 1540 m/sec . This is a value that is still in use today. He also determined that the optimal scanning frequency of the dissertation publication, ultrasound transducer was between 1 and 2.5 MHz . Essay About Ban Smoking! His team also showed that the speed of ultrasound and acoustic impedance values of high water-content tissues do not differ greatly from those of water, and that measurements from different directions did not contribute greatly to these parameters.

Ludwig went on to collaborate with the Bioacoustics laboratory at the M. I. T.. His work with physicist Richard Bolt (who, at the age of 34 was appointed Director of a newly conceived Acoustics Laboratory at M. I. T.), neurosurgeon H Thomas Ballantine Jr. and research physicist Theodor Hueter from Siemens, Germany were considered very important seminal work on ultrasound propagation characteristics in mammalian tissues. Prior to dissertation, 1949, Hueter had already been involved at Siemens , Erlangen, Germany, in ultrasonic propagation experiments in animal tissues using ultrasound at frequencies of about 1 MHz, and in ultrasonic dosimetry measurements. These were started in the early 1940s by cups no minimum Ultrasonics pioneer Reimar Pohlman in the same laboratory. In 1948, Hueter met Bolt and Ballantine at an ultrasonic trade show in New York and agreed to join them for new research into the application of ultrasonics in online human diagnosis. Of Poverty Essays! After a visit to Dussik's department in Austria with Bolt and Ballantine, the group launched a formal project at M. I. Publication! T. to perform experiments in through transmission similar to coffee cups no minimum, that of online publication Dussik 's. Their initial experiments produced results similar to that of Dussik's, and their conclusions were published in their papers in 1950 and 1951 in computing the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and Science. In further experiments the team put a skull in a water bath and showed that the ultrasonic patterns they had been obtaining from the heads of selected subjects could also be obtained from an empty skull. They noted that ultrasonic mapping of the brain tissues within the human skull was prone to great error due to the large bone mass encountered.

Efforts were made to online publication, compensate for the bone effects by using different frequencies and 1960s essay, circuitries, but were only marginally successful at that stage of computational technology. The M. I. T. research project was subsequently terminated in 1954. They wrote in their paper: It is concluded that though compensated ultrasonograms (sound shadow pictures) may contain some information on brain structure, their are too sharply noise limited to be of unqualified clinical value. The findings had prompted the United States Atomic Energy Commission to conclude that ultrasound will not be useful in the diagnosis of online dissertation publication brain pathologies. Medical research in this area was somewhat curtailed for the several years that followed, and enthusiasm was dampened at the Siemens laboratories in Germany to essay about ban smoking in public, carry out further developments in imaging with ultrasound. At M .I. T. nevertheless, in the course of these pursuits, much basic data essential for tissue characterization and dosimetry were assembled and proved useful for dissertation publication, later diagnostic work on other body regions. They had also demonstrated very importantly that interpretable 2-dimensional images was not impossible to obtain. These efforts had paved the way for 1960s, the subsequent development of 2-D ultrasonic image formation. M. I. T.'s research had also benefited from interactions between the various groups at dissertation publication Champaign-Urbana , Minnesota and Denver . By the cloud computing, mid 1950s , bibliographic listing of work on ultrasonic physics and dissertation publication, engineering applications had totalled more than 6,000. Ultrasonics was already extensively deployed in non-destructive testing, spot welding, drilling, gas analysis, aerosol agglomeration, shear processing, clothes washing, laundering, degreasing, sterilization and, to a lesser extent, medical therapy.

Hueter and Bolt 's book SONICS - techniques for the use of about ban smoking in public sound and ultrasound in engineering and science published in online dissertation 1954 became, for example, one of the important treatises in ultrasonic engineering. In 1956 , D Goldman and cloud computing, Hueter pulled together all the then available data on dissertation ultrasonic propagation in mammalian tissues for publication in the Journal of the about, Acoustical Society of online dissertation America. The earliest journal devoted entirely to coffee cups, the application of ultrasonics in medicine was Der Ultraschall in der Medizin published in Germany. Dissertation Publication! Articles prior to 1952 were entirely on essay about aspects of ultrasound used in therapy. Much of the academic activity at M. I. T. were published in the M. I. Online Publication! T. quarterly progress reports and the Journal of the Acoustic Society of America . After the mid-1950s, due to its ineffectiveness, the transmission technique in ultrasonic diagnosis was abandoned from medical ultrasound research worldwide except for some centers in Japan, being replaced by the reflection technique which had received much attention in a number of pioneering centers throughout Europe, Japan and the United States. Smaller and better transducers were being assembled from the causes of poverty essays, newer piezoceramics barium titanate after the mid 1940s.

They were replaced by lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) when it was discovered in 1954. PZT had a high electro-mechanical coupling factor and more superior frequency-temperature characteristics. The newer transducers had better overall sensitivity, frequency handling, coupling efficiency and output. The availability of very high input impedance amplifiers built from improved quality electrometer tubes in the early 1950s had also enabled engineers to greatly amplify their signals to improve sensitivity and stability. The 'newer' uni-directional pulse-echo A-mode devices developed from the reflectoscope/ metal flaw detectors were soon employed in experiments on medical diagnosis by bold and visionary pioneers around the world. Such were the cases with Douglas Gordon , JC Turner and Val Mayneord in London, Lars Leksell (in 1950), Stigg Jeppson and Brita Lithander in dissertation publication Sweden, Marinus de Vlieger in Rotterdam and Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai in essay about in public Japan for their pioneering work in the examination of dissertation brain lesions. These devices were also employed by Inge Edler and spotlight in essay, Carl Hellmuth Hertz in Lund in cardiac investigations in 1953, and dissertation publication, followed on by Sven Effert in Germany in 1956, Claude Joyner and John Reid at the University of Pennsylvania in 1957 and Chih-Chang Hsu in essay China, designing their own A- and later on M-mode equipment. Publication! Similarily A-mode devices were used in ophthalmologic investigations by Henry Mundt Jr and William Hughes at in essay writing the University of Illinois in 1956 , Arvo Oksala in Finland in 1957 and Gilbert Baum and publication, Ivan Greeenwood in 1955 . These uses were all in counterculture 1960s the 1950s and largely predated clinical applications in the abdomen and pelvis. Researchers in Japan were also actively investigating and online dissertation publication, producing similar ultrasonic devices and their diagnostic use in neurology, but their findings have only been sparsely documented in the English literature (see below).

John Julian Wild , an English surgeon and graduate of the Cambridge University in England, immigrated to the United States after World War II ended in 1945. He took up a position at the Medico Technological Research Institute of Minnesota and started his investigations with ultrasound waves on the thickness of the bowel wall in various surgical conditions, such as paralytic ileus and obstruction. Working with Donald Neal , an engineer, Wild published their work in 1950 on uni-directional A-mode ultrasound investigations into the thickness of surgical intestinal material and later on paper coffee the properties of gastric malignancies. They noted that malignant tissue was more echogenic than benign tissue and the former could be diagnosed from their density and failure to contract and relax. Wild's original vision of the application of ultrasound in medical diagnosis was more of a method of tissue diagnosis from the intensity and characteristics of different returning echos rather than as an imaging technique. Between 1950 and 51, he also collaborated with Lyle French at the department of Neurosugery in making diagnosis of brain tumors using ultrasound, although they had not found the method to be very helpful. Donald Neal was soon deployed to regular naval services at the naval air base after the Korean war.

John Reid , a newly graduating electrical engineer, was engaged through a grant from the National Cancer Institute as the sole engineer to build and operate Wild's ultrasonic apparatus. The device which they first used was an ultrasonic instrument which had been designed by the U.S. Navy for training pilots in the use of the radar, with which it was possible to practise 'flying' over a tank of water covering a small scale map of enemy territory. We have a tissue radar machine scaled to inches instead of miles by the use of ultrasound. Wild and Reid soon built a linear hand-held B-mode instrument, a formidable technical task In those days, and were able to visualise tumours by publication sweeping from custom plagiarism side to side through breast lumps.

The instrument operated at a frequency of 15 megahertz. In 1952 they published the Landmark paper: Application of Echo-Ranging Techniques to the Determination of Structure of dissertation Biological Tissues . In another paper Reid wrote about their first scanning equipment: ' The first scanning machine was put together, mechanically largely by John with parts obtained through a variety of friends in Minneapolis. Counterculture Essay! I was able to modify a standard test oscilloscope plug-in board. We were able to make our system work, make the first scanning records in publication the clinic, and mail a paper off to Science Magazine within the custom no minimum, lapsed time of perhaps ten days. This contribution was accepted in early 1952 and became the first publication ( to my knowledge ) on intensity-modulated cross-section ultrasound imaging . Dissertation! It appeared even before Douglass Howry 's paper from his considerably more elaborate system at the end of the custom writings, same year.'

In May 1953 they produced real-time images at online 15 megahertz of cancerous growths of the breast. They had also coined their method 'echography' and 'echometry' , suggesting the ban smoking in public places, quantitative nature of the investigation. Online! By 1956 , Wild and Reid had examined 117 cases of breast pathology with their linear real-time B-mode instrument and had started work on colon tumour diagnosis and counterculture, detection. Analysis of the breast series showed promising results for pre-operative diagnosis. Malignant infiltration of tissues surrounding breast tumours could also be resolved. Wild and Reid had also invented and described the use of A-mode trans-vaginal and dissertation, trans-rectal scanning transducers in 1955 . Despite these, Wild was not commended for his unconventional research methods at counterculture 1960s essay the time.

His results were considered difficult to interpret and lacked overall stability. Intellectual and financial support for publication, Wild's research dwindled, and legal disputes and politics also hampered further governmental grants. His work was eventually supported only by private funds which ran scarce and his data apparently received much less recognition than they deserved. John Reid completed his MS thesis in 1957 on focusing radiators. 1960s Essay! In addition he had importantly verified that dynamic focusing was practical. After leaving Wild's laboratory he pursued his doctoral degree at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1957-1965 he worked on dissertation publication echocardiography, producing and using the first such system in the United States, with cardiologist Claude Joyner . Visit John Wild's own site on his discoveries and current activities. At the University of Colorado in Denver, Douglass Howry had also started pioneering ultrasonic investigations since 1948 . Howry, a radiologist working at the Veteran's Administration Hospital , had concentrated more of his work on the development of B-mode equipment, displaying body structures in cloud phd thesis a 2-dimensional and sectional manner comparable to online dissertation, the actual gross sectioning of custom paper structures in the pathology laboratory.

Published works from the M I T Radar school staff served as initial reference material on techniques in data presentation. He was able to demonstrate an ultrasonic echo interface between structures or tissues, such as that between fat and muscle, so that the individual structures could be outlined. Supported by publication his nephrologist friend and colleague Joseph Homles , who was then the acting director of the hospital's Medical Research Laboratories, Howry produced in 1951 with William Roderic Bliss and Gerald J Posakony , both engineers, the 'Immersion tank ultrasound system' *, the first 2-dimensional B-mode (or PPI , plan position indication mode) linear compound scanner. Two dimensional cross-sectional images were published in 1952 and 1953 , which convincingly demonstrated that interpretable 2-D images of internal organ structures and pathologies could be obtained with ultrasound. The team produed the cloud, formal motorized ' Somascope' , a compound circumferential scanner, in 1954 . The transducer of the somascope was mounted around the rim of a large metal immersion tank filled with water . The machine was able to make compound scans of an online dissertation publication intra-abdominal organ from different angles to produce a more readable picture. The sonographic images were referred to as 'somagrams' . The discovery and custom paper coffee no minimum, apparatus were reported in the Medicine section of the LIFE Magazine ® in 1954 . The 'Pan-scanner' *, where the transducer rotated in a semicircular arc around the online publication, patient, was developed in 1957 . Counterculture Essay! The patient sat on a modified dental chair strapped against a plastic window of a semicircular pan filled with saline solution, while the transducer rotated through the solution in a semicircular arc. The achievement was commended by the American Medical Association in 1958 at its scientific meeting in San Francisco, and online publication, the team's exhibit was awarded a Certificate of in america essays Merit by the association. The work of Douglass Howry , Joseph Holmes and his team is necessarily the most important pioneering work in B-mode ultrasound imaging and contact scanning in the United States that had been the direct precursor of the kind of online ultrasound imaging we have today.

Pioneering designs in electronic circuitries were also made in conjunction with the development of the B-scan, these included the pulse-echo generator circuitry, the limiter and cloud computing phd thesis, log amplification circuitry and the demodulator and online publication, time gain compensation circuitries. The Howry/ Holmes systems, although capable of producing 2-D, accurate, reproducible images of the body organs, required the patient to be totally or partially immersed in water, and remained motionless for a length of time. On Critical Skills Writing! Migration to lighter and more mobile versions of dissertation these systems, particularly with smaller water-bag devices or transducers directly in contact and counterculture 1960s, movable on the body surface of patients were imminently necessary. Read notes and see more pictures from Gerald Posakony on the early Howry scanners here . Homles , together with consultant engineers William Wright and Ralph (Edward) Meyerdirk , and support from the U. S. Public Health Services and the University of Colorado, continued to fabricate a new prototype compound contact scanner , which had the transducer in direct contact with the patient's body and suspended on moving railings above the patient. The apparatus and the usuage of ultrasound scanning were reported in online the May 22 issue of the TIME Magazine in 1964. After working on the project for about 2 years, the team finally came up with an innovative multi-joint articulated-arm compound contact scanner with wire mechanisms and custom, electronic position transducing potentiometers. Dissertation! The transducer could be positioned by hand and moved over the scanning area in various directions by the operator. In 1962 , with blessing from Holmes, Wright and Meyerdirk left the University to spotlight on critical skills, form the dissertation publication, Physionics Engineering® Inc. at Longmont, Colorado, to produce and market their scanner. In 1963 , the first hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner (pictured on the left) was commercially launched in the United States.

The launch was reported in the Longmont Daily Times-Call in 1963. This was the start of the most popular design in the history of static ultrasound scanners, that of the articulated-arm scanning mechanism. Much of the later work in clinical ultrasound was followed up by Homles and his colleagues, Stewart Taylor , Horace Thompson and Kenneth Gottesfeld in Denver. Spotlight! The group published some of the earliest papers in obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound from dissertation publication North America. Douglass Howry had moved to Boston in 1962 where he worked at the Massachussetts General Hospital until he passed away in 1969. Earliest Wright-Meyerdirk scanner console with one of the first images from a. practical commercial articulated-arm scanner. Essay! Portability was also emphasized. In Japan , at about the same time as Wild and Howry's development, Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai , surgeons at the Juntendo University, Tokyo, together with Shigeru Nakajima , director of the Japan Radio Company, Rokuro Uchida , physicist and online dissertation publication, chief engineer, had also started looking into the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial disease in collaboration with the Nihon Musen Radiation and Medical Electronics Laboratory which had later become the ALOKA ® Company in 1950 , headed by Uchida . Nakajima and Uchida built Japan's first ultrasonic scanner operating in the A-mode in 1949 , modified from a metal-flaw detector. Yoshimitsu Kikuchi , Professor at the Research Institute of custom plagiarism Electrical Communications at the Tohoku University in Sendai also assisted in publication their research.

Together, the about places, team started their formal ultrasound work in ultrasound imaging in 1952 . They published 5 papers on online ultrasonic diagnosis in spotlight writing brain diseases in online publication that year and many other papers in the ensuing few years. In 1954 , Tanaka published an important review entitled Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field, and investigations had started with other body organs. By 1955 , experiments and fabrication with B-mode scanning had started using a similar scope modified from the original A-mode machine coupled with a linear moving transducer gantry . This was shortly developed into the water-bag scanners . Also read the Preface and introduction (history) to Tanaka's book Diagnosis of Brain Disease by Ultrasound published in 1969 for a short history of his pioneering work in the 1950s. The M I T hosted a historical conference in Bioacoustics in 1956 and those who attended included Wagai, Kikuchi, Dussik, Bolt, Ballantine, Hueter, Wild, Fry and spotlight skills, Howry . Many of them met each other for the first time and dissertation, important views concerning methods and instrumentations were exchanged at the meeting. Kikuchi was very active in equipment designs, and by 1957 he was able to demonstrate the one-point contact-sector scanning tomography using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format, which had a resemblance to a ' radar display '. This development, which was at around a similar time as the pioneering work of Howry in Denver and Ian Donald in Glasgow (see below), had a similar concept of position-referenced contact scanning. Aloka® produced japan's first commercial medical A-scanner, the SSD-2 and the water-bag B-scanner, the SSD-1 in 1960 (pictured on the right). The application of ultrasound in Obstetrical and Gynaecological diagnosis started around 1956 with the A-scan basing on a vaginal approach and later B-scans at around 1962 basing on the use of the one-point contact-sector scanner in the PPI format. Early commercial water-bag scanners were being produced by Aloka® and Toshiba® in the early 1960s. Masao Ide at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Toyko, working with Wagai and others launched important pioneering research on the bioeffects of ultrasound. William Fry hosted another conference on ultrasonics in 1962 at the University of Illinois which served as a very important meeting point for on critical in essay, researchers from the United States, Europe and Japan.

Michio Ishihara at the National Sanatorium Kiyose Hospital in Tokyo and Hajime Murooka at the department of dissertation obstetrics and gynecology, Oomiya Red Cross Hospital, Saitama, delivered the first paper on writing ultrasound diagnosis of gynecological masses in the Japanese language at the 19th Kanto District Meeting of the Japanese Obstetrical and Gynecological Society in 1958 , basing on the A-scan. Murooka had earlier in 1957 received instructions from Wagai on the A-scan methods at the Juntendo University. Online! They described A-scan echoes in cancer of the cervix and also in the presence of different causes of uterine enlargement. Wagai published a review article in the use of on critical skills in essay writing ultrasound in online publication Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1959 . The Murooka's group apparently did not continue their work after the first two papers presented at scientific meetings. ohn Wild was back in England in 1954 to give a lecture on his new discovery and this was attended by Val Mayneord , Professor of medical physics at custom paper coffee cups no minimum the Royal Cancer Hospital (now the Royal Marsden) who had also been experimenting with the Kelvin Hughes® MK llB metal flaw-detector in neurological diagnosis. Among the audience was Ian Donald who was then Reader in Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the St. Thomas Hospital Medical School in London and online, was about to take up the appointment of Regius Chair of Midwifery at Glasgow University. Donald was quick to cloud computing, realize what ultrasound had to offer. # Wild, while returning to Minnesota, had mainly concentrated his investigations on the diagnosis of online dissertation tumors of the causes, breast and colon using 15 MHz probes which had tissue penetrations of only up to 2 cm.

In 1956 , Wild published his landmark paper on the study of 117 breast nodules, reporting an online dissertation publication accuracy of diagnosis of over 90 percent. Despite that, the ultrasonic method of tissue diagnosis which he so popularised did not reach the point of wide acceptance. On Critical Skills Writing! Pioneering work in ultrasonic diagnosis in the field of Obstetrics and Gynaecology however, soon took off in Glasgow , Scotland . The following is an excerpt from an article in the University of publication Glasgow publication 'Avenue' No. 19: January 1996 entitled ' Medical Ultrasound ---- A Glasgow Development which Swept the World ' , by causes of poverty in america Dr. James Willocks MD , who had best described the circumstances of Donald 's early work : He was born in Cornwall in December 1910, the son and grandson of Scottish doctors. His school education began in Scotland and finished in South Africa.

He returned to England in 1931 and graduated in medicine at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School in 1937. In 1939 he joined the RAF where his service was distinguished. Online Dissertation Publication! He was decorated for gallantry for entering a burning bomber with the bombs still in counterculture 1960s it, to rescue injured airmen. Service in the RAF stimulated his interest in gadgetry of all kinds and he became familiar with radar and sonar, a technique which had been devised by online the French physicist, Paul Langevin in the First World War as a possible method of submarine detection. On returning to London at the end of the War, he took up obstetrics and gynaecology and held appointments at various London hospitals.

His first research work was directed towards respiratory problems in writings the newborn, and dissertation, he devised apparatus to help babies breathe when respiration did not get off to a flying start. Because of his interest in machines, Ian was known as 'Mad Donald' by some of his London colleagues, who caricatured him as a crazy inventor, but his talent was spotted by that great university statesman, Sir Hector Hetherington, and he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Midwifery at the University of writings Glasgow in online dissertation publication 1954 . . His interest soon turned to the idea that sonar could be used for medical diagnosis and the idea was first put into practice on 21 July 1955 , when he visited the Research Department of the boilermakers Babcock Wilcox at Renfrew on the invitation of one of the directors, who was the husband of a grateful patient. Essay! He took with him two cars, the boots of which were loaded up with a collection of lumps such as fibroids and ovarian cysts which had recently been removed from patients in his Department. Online Dissertation! He carried out some experiments with an industrial ultrasonic metal flaw detector on these tumours, and on a large lump of steak which the on critical in essay writing, company had kindly provided as control material. (No one had the appetite for the steak afterwards!) Later he formed a link with the Kelvin Hughes Scientific Instrument Company , and particularly with a young technician called Tom Brown . Quite by accident, Tom Brown had heard the strange tale of a professor who was attempting to use a metal flaw detector to detect flaws in women. He telephoned Professor Donald and suggested a meeting, and it was not long before Donald and publication, Brown together with Dr John MacVicar , later Professor of Obstetrics Gynaecology in on critical in essay writing the University of Leicester, plunged into an intensive investigation into the value of online publication ultrasound in differentiating between cysts, fibroids and counterculture 1960s essay, any other intra abdominal tumours that came their way. Early results were disappointing and the enterprise was greeted with a mixture of scepticism and ridicule. Online Dissertation! However, a dramatic case where ultrasound saved a patient's life by custom coffee diagnosing a huge, easily removable, ovarian cyst in a woman who had been diagnosed as having inoperable cancer of the stomach, made people take the technique seriously. 'From this point', Ian Donald wrote, 'there could be no turning back'. Results eventually appeared in print in The Lancet of 7 June 1958 under the arid title 'Investigation of Abdominal Masses by online dissertation publication Pulsed Ultrasound' . No Minimum! This was probably the most important paper on medical diagnostic ultrasound ever published. Ten years later all doubt had been cast away and Ian Donald was able to review the early history of ultrasound in a characteristic , forthright manner. Online Dissertation Publication! 'As soon as we got rid of the backroom attitude and brought our apparatus fully into the Department with an inexhaustible supply of living patients with fascinating clinical problems, we were able to get ahead really fast. Any new technique becomes more attractive if its clinical usefulness can be demonstrated without harm, indignity or discomfort to essay in public, the patient . . Anyone who is satisfied with his diagnostic ability and with his surgical results is unlikely to contribute much to the launching of a new medical science.

He should first be consumed with a divine discontent with things as they are. It greatly helps, of course, to have the dissertation, right idea at the right time, and quite good ideas may come, Archimedes fashion, in one's bath.' In 1959 Ian Donald noted that clear echoes could be obtained from the ban smoking in public places, fetal head and began to apply this information. I became involved shortly afterwards, and indeed was given the project to play with on publication my own. At the Royal Maternity Hospital, Rottenrow, there was no separate room to examine the patients and not even a cupboard in which to keep the spotlight on critical writing, apparatus, so my colleague, the physicist Tom Duggan , and I pushed it about on dissertation publication a trolley and approached patients in the wards for permission to examine them at the bedside. Glasgow women are wonderful and they accepted all this without demur . . We applied the method of fetal head measurement to assess the size and growth of the foetus. When the Queen Mother's Hospital opened in 1964 it became possible to refine the technique greatly.

My colleague Dr. Stuart Campbell (now Professor at King's College Hospital, London) did this and fetal cephalometry became the standard method for 1960s essay, the study of fetal growth for many years. Within the next few years it became possible to study pregnancy from beginning to end and diagnosis of complications like multiple pregnancy, fetal abnormality and placenta praevia (which causes life threatening haemorrhage) became possible. Professor Donald had gathered around him a team of publication talented young doctors and technologists, including the research engineers John Fleming and Angus Hall , who were engaged by the University when the Kelvin Hughes company was closed in 1966. John Fleming has continued at the Queen Mother's Hospital as the technical genius behind all developments, and is also in cloud charge of the valuable historical collection about diagnostic ultrasound. Practically all apparatus is now Japanese in origin, but the contribution of Scottish engineering to the development of medical ultrasound should never be forgotten. ' Ian Donald was also aware of the work of Howry in the United States and Kikuchi in Japan in the early 1950s, and had referenced these pioneers alongside with the work of Wild and Reid in publication his Lancet paper in 1958 . Donald had felt that it was his fortune to have started with these historical A-mode and B-mode instruments instead of the apparatus that Wild and Howry had used, as these involved high frequency transducers (and hence associated with poor penetration into tissues) or a water-bath arrangement which could both become deterrants to further development in a medical setting ## . Aside from this, Donald had on many occasions remarked that a lot of his developments in ultrasound was from custom coffee a stroke of accident, coincidence and luck.

The ' full bladder ' was one, which he only discovered in 1963. That the fetal head, being a symmetrical skull bone could be easily demonstrable and measured accurately by a beam of ultrasound in an A-scan was another, as was the opportunity of meeting up with a number of important administrators on the way and working with the very bright engineer Tom Brown from Kelvin Hughes®. Brown , at the age of online 24, invented and constructed with Ian Donald the prototype of the world's first Compound B-mode (plan-position indication, PPI) contact scanner in 1957 . The transducer operated at 2.5 MHz. Custom Coffee Cups No Minimum! The prototype was progressively improved to become the Diasonograph ® manufactured commercially by Smith Industrials of online dissertation publication England which had taken control of the Kevin and Hughes Scientific Instrument Company in 1961. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of the prototypes, read an important unpublished paper by Tom Brown entitled Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . One of Brown 's first generation models was sold to Bertil Sunden at Lund , Sweden (see below). The console design of the Diasonograph ® came from Dugald Cameron who was then an industrial design student at the Glasgow school of cloud computing phd thesis Art. Brown also invented and online dissertation publication, patented an elaborate and expensive automated compound contact scanner in 1958 and it was at essay about ban smoking the machine's exhibition in London in online 1960 that Ian Donald met for the first time Douglass Howry from the spotlight in essay writing, United States who had been using the much larger size water-tank circumferential scanner for online dissertation publication, several years (see above).

Donald nevertheless had quoted in his 1958 paper in the Lancet Howry 's work in B-mode scanning. Phd Thesis! The meeting had also influenced Howry and his team into producing a similar compound contact scanner like the Donald's although this had rapidly evolved into the multi-joint articulated arm version. A brief description of the working of the prototype compound contact scanner (which eventually developed into the Diasonograph ®) was given by online dissertation Donald and Brown in of poverty in america essays 1958 , the same concept and online publication, design were extended into the later commercial models: . About Ban Smoking In Public! A probe containing both transmitting, and receiving transducers is mounted on publication a measuring jig, which is placed above the patient's bed. Counterculture 1960s! The probe is free to move vertically and horizontally and, as it does so, operates two linear potentiometers, which give voltage outputs proportional to its horizontal and vertical displacements from some reference point. The probe is also free to rotate in the plane of its horizontal and vertical freedom, and transmits its rotation via a linkage to a sine-cosine potentiometer. The voltage outputs from this system of potentiometers control an electrostatic cathode-ray tube, so that the direction of the linear time-base sweep corresponds to the inclination of the publication, probe, and the point of origin of the sweep represents the instantaneous position of the writings, probe. The apparatus is so calibrated that the online publication, same reflecting point will repeat itself in exactly the same position on the cathode-ray tube screen from whatsoever angle it is scanned, and likewise a planar interface comes to be represented as a consistent line. The echoes picked up by counterculture 1960s the probe are displayed on three oscilloscope screens: an dissertation A-scope display, a combined B-scope and PPI display on a long-persistence screen for monitoring: and paper coffee no minimum, a similar screen and display of short persistence with a camera mounted in front of it. The probe is moved slowly from one flank, across the abdomen to the other flank being rocked to and fro on its spindle the whole time to scan the deeper tissues from as many angles as possible. . The automated scanner which Brown originally designed to online, overcome the effects of motion variables did not catch on well, while the Diasonograph ® was sold to many other parts of Britain and Europe including Sweden, London and Bristol, the place where another ultrasound pioneer, Peter NT Wells , a medical physicist, had been developing a different version of the multi-joint articulated arm scanner (basing on the Diasonograph electronics ), independently from his American counterpart. In 1966 , Smiths pulled out of Scotland because the factory was apparently not making money.

At the same time the US Supreme Court ruled against Smiths in favour of Automation Industries (formerly the Sperry Company ) of Denver on the question of the so-called Firestone patents (Floyd Firestone's patent on flaw-detection devices in 1942, see above). Custom! As part of the settlement, Smiths undertook to online, withdraw both from the industrial and medical applications of ultrasound, and custom writings, Automation acquired title to the collection of Smiths' patents on these subjects. This included the Brown patents on 2-D contact scanning. Smiths sold the medical business to Nuclear Enterprises (G.B.) Ltd . in Edinburgh, which took over the manufacturing of the Diasonograph ® (see Tom Brown's Recollections ). Ian Donald had to set up his own Department of online publication Ultrasonic Technology at the Queen Mother's Hospital. He had John Fleming and Angus Hall back to help him. They worked as development engineers on all the ultrasound projects and Fleming worked until his retirement in 1995. He is causes of poverty co-ordinator of the BMUS historical collection and oversees the ultrasonic equipments at the Hunterian Museum, University of online Glasgow. By 1968, Brian Fraser and Alan Cole at Nuclear Enterprises revamped the custom paper coffee cups no minimum, mechanical and valve design and redeveloped a new electronic system using semiconductor technology.

The resulting NE 4102 became a very popular instrument, and dissertation publication, was used in most British hospitals and many European ones. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of medical ultrasonics in Glasgow, Scotland, read the biography of Tom Brown and an important unpublished paper by Brown on the Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in cloud computing Scotland 1956-1979 . Joseph Holmes and Ian Donald had subsequently become good friends across the Atlantic and Ian Donald and John Fleming were invited to speak on their experiences at the International Conference at Pittsburg hosted by Homles and others in 1965 . This was among the many American tours which Ian Donald did starting from 1961. He spoke about Homles in a speech he gave in 1967 to the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) , ' I think Joe Holmes has done more than anyone to pull us all together from our several pathways '. Holmes became the online dissertation publication, founding editor of the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound in cloud computing phd thesis 1973 . Over in continental Europe , Bertil Sunden in online publication Lund, Sweden , had started investigations in 1958 with Alf Sjovall , his professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, on early pregnancies using an A-mode echoscope (a Krautkramer® reflectoscope USIP 9). The study on the application of counterculture essay ultrasound in Lund had already started formally in 1953 in cardiology and neurology (see above). Online Publication! Sunden visited Ian Donald for 3 weeks in 1960 on a sabbatical to study B-mode scanning. His work at Donald's department had resulted in spotlight on critical the shipment of the online, first generation Diasonograph® to about ban smoking, Lund, with which he produced his doctoral thesis on the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and reported his experience on online publication 400 cases of pelvic pathologies. He also studied the possible harmful effects of custom writings ultrasound on pregnant rats, and dissertation, did not find any. Sunden's thesis published in the Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand in 1964 represented the earliest and the most comprehensive publication in custom paper cups no minimum Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasonography at that time. At around the same time, N D Selezneva , a disciple of the famous Soviet scientist, S Y Sokolov , published his work in ultrasonography in Gynecology in the former USSR in the early 1960s. R A Khentov , R A Khestova and online dissertation publication, I A Skorunskii from the paper cups, Central Institute of Advanced Training in Medicine, Moscow followed on with a large number of publication Russian publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from 1965 onwards, using A-mode and later on B-mode equipments made at the USSR Scientific Research Institute of Medical instruments and Equipment. Almost ninety-nine percent of these publications were nevertheless in the Russian language.

The Ultrasonic Boom. The increase in the research and application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology appeared to boom from 1966 onwards (see chart below) when there was an upsurge of centers and people in Europe, the United States and causes in america essays, Japan that had begun to embark on studies in the application of ultrasound diagnosis in this specialty. A- and B- mode equipment were both in use including the first 'fast B-scanner', the Vidoson ® from Siemens ® (see part 2 ) used by D Hofmann and Hans Holländer at the Wilhelm University in Münster, Germany . Alfred Kratochwil at the Second University Frauenklinik, Vienna, Austria started working on placental localisation with the A-mode scanner he acquired from Paul Kretz , founder of KretzTechnik AG in Zipf, Austria. Dissertation! He soon learned of Ian Donald 's work with the B-scan and quickly collaborated the company to develop a similar device. The model 4100 originally designed for ophthalmologic use was adapted to carry an articulated-arm gantry (pictured below) for the abdominal B-scan mode. The articulated-arm design he found, was easier to manipulate than the custom paper no minimum, Glasgow counterpart. He initially tried to used it on localizing pelvic recurrences in patients who had radical surgery for carcinoma of the cervix, and also on a variety of obstetric conditions. As early as 1972, Kratochwil had, among other endeavours, successfully demonstrated the visualisation of ovarian follicles with static B-mode ultrasound. Kratochwil soon became one of the dissertation, most prolific users of the instrument and worked on areas such as the breasts and other surgical conditions, where he also published a number of important early papers. Since 1968 he developed training courses in ultrasound in Vienna and on critical skills writing, his department was visited by many hundreds of radiologists and obstetricians to learn about the applications of ultrasonography.

Kratochwil was probably the most productive of all the investigators in Europe and was instrumental to the constantly improving designs at KretzTechnik AG . Hans Henrik Holm , a urologist, started the ultrasound laboratory at the Gentofte Hospital in Copenhagen , Denmark in online dissertation 1964 , and with Jorgen Kristensen , Allen Northeved , Jan Pedersen , Jens Bang among others had established a strong research team. Holm also designed their version of an ban smoking articulated-arm scanner which subsequently was taken up for commercial production at Smith Kline Instrument ® in the United States. The Copenhagen center had in dissertation publication time become a leading center in cloud computing phd thesis Interventional ultrasound , even up to this day. And so it was that the early pioneers in diagnostic ultrasound from the United States , Japan , United Kingdom , Austria , Germany , Sweden , Switzerland , Denmark , France , Poland , Holland , USSR and China have all started with the A-scan basing on the metal flaw detector or a modification of the instrument. Many had first started their investigations in neurology , cardiology and ophthalmology , and only later on did they apply ultrasonic techniques to the abdomen and pelvis. In Germany , at around 1950 both Siemens ® and Krautkrmer ® had started to make flaw-detecting equipment. Located close to the steel industry Krautkrmer ® provided better service than Siemens ® and soon dominated the market. After W Güttner and others had shown the impracticality of the transmission technique in 1952, Siemens had lost interest in online publication diagnostic ultrasound. Around the about in public, end of 1956 the company decided to stop producing flaw-detection equipment completely. Publication! It was Inge Edler and of poverty in america essays, Carl Hertz in Lund who adapted three of the Siemens® flaw detectors for cardiac investigations in dissertation 1957 (see above), and these were introduced back into hospitals in Germany. After a lapse of almost 10 years, the company developed the first fast B-scanner, the Vidoson in 1967, suitable for gynecological and abdominal examination (see Part 2 ). Germany was nevertheless one of the more 'prolific' of the European countries in terms of custom centers in early ultrasonic applications and research, with publications coming from Muchen, Erlangen, Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin, Frankfurt, Freiburg and Bochum.

Vienna in Austria, as noted above was 'historically' important because of the company Kretztechnik AG which produced some of the best and most advanced machines in the world at that time. The B-scan , basing on online dissertation more sophisticated instrumentation emanating from radar sciences quickly evolved and replaced the A-scans. About Ban Smoking Places! Centers worldwide started to develop their own machines (see above) while others would import them commercially, largely because of a perceived better quality than their home-made counterparts. For example, in the late 1960s some Finnish centers used Physionics / Picker ® machines from the online, United States and French and Italian centers used scanners from Nuclear Enterprise ® and KretzTechnik AG . Smith Kline Instruments ® scanners were used in Spain, Aloka ® models in Brussels and the Siemens ® Vidoson was employed by causes of poverty in america essays a number of centers outside of Germany. The First World Congress on Ultrasonic Diagnostics in Medicine was held in Vienna in 1969 and the second in Rotterdam in dissertation 1972 where an increasing number of papers in this specialty was presented. These meetings identified and brought together an international group of clinicians and causes, scientists who started to contribute heavily towards the developments of ultrasonic instrumentation and methodology. In Europe , Alfred Kratochwil (1966), ( Austria ), D Hofmann (1966), Hans Hollander (1966), Manfred Hansmann (1966), ( Germany ), Malte Hinselmann (1968) ( Switzerland ), Salvator Levi (1967) ( Brussels ), Hans Henrik Holm (1967), Jens Bang (1967) ( Denmark ), Georges Boog (1969), Francis Weill (1969) ( France ), I Roszkowski I (1968), Jerzy Groniowski (1968), ( Poland ), Paavo Pystynen (1966), Pekka Ylöstalo (1971), Pentti Jarvinen (1968), Pentti Jouppila (1970) ( Finland ), J Hernandez (1970), R Montero (1970), Fernando Bonilla-Musoles (1971) ( Spain ), Bruno Damascelli (1967), L Roncoroni (1967), Alberto Zacutti (1968), C Brugnoli (1968), Achille Ianniruberto (1970) ( Italy ), E Kalamara (1972), M Bulic (1972), Asim Kurjak (1973) ( Yugoslavia, now Croatia ), Juriy Wladimiroff (1974) ( Netherlands ), M Falus (1969), M Sobel (1969), L Kun (1973), P Bosze (1973) ( Hungary ), among many others, soon followed up with their many publications in obstetrical and gynecological sonography, although much of what was published was not in the English language. [The year in parenthesis denoted the year in which publications in Obstetrics and online, Gynecology from the particular author first appeared in the literature]. The delegates of 13 European ultrasound societies met in Basel, Switzerland in 1972 to form the European Federation of Societies for writings plagiarism, Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) . In the United Kingdom , Ellis Barnett , Patricia Morley , Hugh Robinson , Usama Abdulla in Glasgow, Peter Wells in Bristol, A C Christie in Aberdeen, E I Kohorn , Stuart Campbell in London (see Part 2 ), Hyton Meire and Pat Farrant in Middlesex, and Christopher Hill at publication the Royal Marsden continued to make very important contributions in spotlight on critical skills writing many areas. Barnett and Morley's book in 1974 : Clinical Diagnostic Ultrasound was the first book (including publications from the United States) devoted to online dissertation, abdominal B-mode ultrasonography. Peter Wells in particular, was the writings, single most important contributor to the advancement of ultrasound technology in online Britain.

Stuart Campbell eventually became one of the world's most well-known researcher and teacher in the field of custom writings plagiarism Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasound. The British Medical Ultrasound group was formed in 1969 by members of the Hospital Physicists Association and the British Institute of Radiology. The group later changed its name and became officially the British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS) in 1977 . Back in the United States , J Stauffer Lehman , in Hahnemann, Philadelphia was instrumental in the early 1960's to the continuing development of ultrasound technology in the United States . His association with Smith Kline Instruments ® had been catalytic to the company's production of water-bag and contact B-mode scanners on dissertation publication top of their existing line of A- and M- mode equipments for echocardiography. Phd Thesis! The LIFE® magazine made an introduction to Ultrasound scanning at online dissertation Lehman's laboratory in their January and September issues in essay about places 1965 . The Family Circle® magazine also reported on the medical use of ultrasound in their October 1966 issue. Lehman's equipment was nevertheless cumbersome and expensive to fabricate and later on online publication a smaller company, Hoffrel took up the production of his machine. After the expiration of SKI's contract, Lehmann turned to use the articulated arm scanner originally invented and produced by the Physionics Inc in Longmont, Colorado (later on acquired by the Picker Corporation and further expanding its development).

Barry Goldberg joined Lehman in 1968 and expanded the custom coffee, research. Online Dissertation Publication! He published extensively on a variety of subjects including echocardiography and interventional ultrasonography and on critical, was on record the publication, first to describe fetal cephalometry in 1965 outside of Britain and Europe. George Evans , then a young Radiologist, was responsible for organizing the service and several important research projects. With his team was Marvin Ziskin . Together they have introduced ultrasound to the Radiological community in coffee the United States and convincing them of the technique's clinical value. Lajos von Micsky , working at the St. Luke's Medical Center in New York, was also one of the important pioneers of abdominal as well as endoscopic sonographic equipment . He established a bioacoustical laboratory at the center in 1963 and devised many innovative abdominal, trans-vesical, rectal and trans-vaginal scanners. Articulated arm scanners such as the PortaScan from Physionics Inc ® produced in the mid-1960s had become the publication, most popular format in compound contact B-scanners in the United States and throughout the world. Other earliest manufacturers of similar devices included the essay about ban smoking places, UniRad Corporation ®. Newer machines soon followed from manufacturers in the United States and worldwide.

These included the Picker ® Laminograph 102, the KretzTechnik AG Combison 1 and 2, the Nuclear Enterprise ® Diasonograph 4102 (pictured above), the Aloka ® SSD-10 compound contact scanner (pictured below) and online dissertation publication, the Toshiba ® TSL systems. Jan C Somer and Nicolaas Bom in the Netherlands introduced the phased-array and linear-array transducers respectively in 1968 and 1971 (see Part 2 ). Louis M Hellman , Mitsunao Kobayashi , Ross Brown , George Leopold , Roy Filly , Roger Sanders , Arthur Fleischer , Kenneth Taylor , Fred Winsberg , John Hobbins and William Cochrane were among those who produced a substantial amount of work from the early 1970s on the application of ultrasound relating to Obstetrics and paper coffee cups, Gynecology and had contributed much to online dissertation, moving the modality forward. Winsberg had a particular interest in real-time scanners and he was the first to use the cloud, German Vidoson ® real-time scanner (see part 2) in North America (at the McGill University in Montreal, Canada) in 1970 . One of the very earliest textbooks in sonography in the English language aside from dissertation publication Bertil Sunden 's thesis was from Kobayashi , Hellmen and Cromb : Atlas of Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynaecology published in plagiarism 1972 . The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) which was founded in 1952 by a group of physicians engaged primarily in the use of ultrasound in physical medicine only started to online dissertation publication, accept members in the diagnostic arena in 1964 . Counterculture Essay! Diagnostic ultrasound has since then become the mainstream application in publication the organization. The First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound was held in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 and was well attended by most of the ultrasound pioneers.

The Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine , the official journal of the AIUM , was inaugurated in 1982 replacing the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound as the association's main vehicle of communication with it's members. George Leopold was its founding editor. By the mid-1970s important producers of articulated compound B-scanners in the United States included the Picker Corp ®, Smith Kline Instruments ®, the UniRad Corporation ®, Searle Ultrasound ®, Rohe Scientific ®, Litton Medical Systems ® and Metrix Inc ®. A list of manufacturers of static compound contact scanners as at coffee no minimum 1975 can be found here . The number of publications in the world literature each year on online the application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology rose from 1(Ian Donald's paper) in 1958 to 296 in 1978 . In the first 10 years, most publications were of causes of poverty in america essays a general descriptive nature and had similar titles to the effect of The use of ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. ref. In Japan, Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi , Koh Nakano and Masao Arima followed up the ultrasound work at the Juntendo University in Tokyo, and experimented with new versions of the A-mode transvaginal scanner . The first ultrasound scan of a 6-week gestational sac by vaginal A-scan was reported in publication the Japanese language in 1963. From 1962, the group worked extensively with the water-bag B-scanner, the Aloka SSD-1 and was very active in 1960s many areas and producing a huge number of research publications, ranging from early pregnancy diagnosis to cephalometry to placentography. They also reported on a large series of pelvic tumors in 1965, and in online publication the following 2 years switched from the spotlight writing, water-bag contact scanner to the articulated-arm compound contact scanner, the SSD-10 . Another group consisting of T Tanaka , I Suda and S Miyahara started researches into the different stages of pregnancy in 1964. Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi and their team also demonstrated in publication 1965 an on critical skills endovaginal scanner for pelvic examination using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format.

The device was mannually rotated and the resulting display was very similar to a circular military 'radar display. Used either transrectally or transvaginally, It was capable of producing some meaningful pictures of the pelvic organs. See Hisaya Takeuchi for a list of early work from the group. The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in dissertation Medicine was officially formed in essay about in public places 1962 . In the 1970s important work started at the Tottori Uinversity , Toyko under Kazuo Maeda , particularly on doppler fetal cardiotocography and at the University of Toyko under Shoichi Sakamoto . Toshiba® produced their first A-mode scanner , the SSA-01A and the compound contact B-scanner , the TSL system in 1967 . Hitachi ® produced their first A-mode (the EUA-1 ) and B-mode scanner ( EUB-1 ) in 1971 and 72 respectively. In the online, Republic of China , Shih An founded in 1958 the Shanghai Ultrasonic Medical Research group at the Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai and his team included Tao-Hsin Wang and Shih-Yuan An. In the same year they started ultrasonic investigations using a modified metal flaw detector (the Chiang Nan Type I ) manufactured at the chiang Nan Ship Building Plant.

The group collaborated with investigators from the Shanghai First and Second Medical Colleges, namely Shih-Liang Chu, Hsiang-Huei Wu, Chih-Chang Hsu (Zhi-Zhang Xu) and Kuo-Juei Yu. They published in 1960 their preliminary report on the application of diagnostic ultrasound in various clinical conditions. This article which was published in Chinese in the ' Chinese Medical Journal ' was not known to the west until two years later when their follow-up publication The use of pulsed ultrasound in clinical diagnosis appeared in the foreign language edition of the same journal. In these articles the counterculture 1960s, diagnosis of hydatidiform mole with A-mode ultrasound was described, supposedly the first time in world literature, where they demonstrated a significant increase in the number of dissertation publication small echo spikes between the proximal and distal uterine walls. Further work in on critical skills in essay writing Obstetrics and Gynecology came from Xin-Fang Wang and Ji-Peng Xiao at the Wuhan Medical College (now Tongji Medical University) in Wuhan, China . In 1963 , the group reported on the sonographic findings in 261 abnormal pregnancies and in 1964 described fetal M-mode echocardiography which was probably the earliest of such reports in the medical literature°°. No correlation between M-mode waveforms and specific cardiac structures was however made. Yong-Chang Chou who had also been pioneering A-mode ultrasound diagnosis since the online, late 1950s at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital published a similar report in the next issue of the same journal (May, 1964). China was at that time closed to the outside world and equipments were only manufactured locally. Custom Plagiarism! Apart from the A-mode scanners, B-mode equipments were produced from dissertation publication a radar factory in custom plagiarism Wuhan . One of the more important designs came from Zhi-Zhang Xu of the Shanghai Research group working at online the ZhongShan Hospital. Regrettably progress was completely brought to a halt by 1960s the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and did not resume until the late 1970's.

In Taiwan , Republic of dissertation publication China, ultrasonic investigations started at the National Taiwan University in 1966, where J P Hung and Y C Chen used the Aloka® SSD-2C in the detection of mid-line shifts in head injuries and on critical, brain tumors. In the following year, their department and Obsteticians Hsi-Yao Chen and S M Wu had switched to the use of the B-mode SSD-10 from Aloka ® and published papers on B-mode cephalometry in 1971 in the chinese language. The Society of Ultrasound in online publication Medicine, Republic of China (SUMROC) was founded in 1984 . Down under in Australia , the Ultrasonic Research Section at the National (formerly Commonwealth ) Acoustic Laboratory in counterculture 1960s essay Sydney was established in 1959 , with the objective of dissertation publication creating a center of technical expertise in the field of medical ultrasound. The section was headed by it's chief physicist George Kossoff . The CAL was established back in 1948 by the Australian Government to undertake research relating to hearing deficits. An ultrasonics committee was set up in 1955 under the chairmanship of Norman Murray . Murray visited Joseph Holmes' laboratory in 1958 and was impressed with the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool. The Ultrasound Research Section was soon established in the following year. Working in conjunction with William Garrett , a gynecologist from the Royal Hospital for Women in Sydney, who was eager to have a new diagnostic method for placental localization, Kossoff introduced the water-coupling CAL echoscope in 1959 and perfected it in 1962 , which was also modified for breast scanning.

His team also included David Robinson , who joined the Institute in about ban smoking places 1961. Dissertation! They published their first obstetric scans at the Ultrasonics symposium in Illinois in the following year. In 1968, Garrett , Robinson and Kossoff published one of the earliest papers in fetal anatomy Fetal anatomy displayed by ultrasound using the writings plagiarism, water-bath CAL echoscope that had brought out the role ultrasound would play in the diagnosis of fetal malformations . Online Publication! In 1970 they published one of the ealiest papers on the diagnosis of fetal malformation, reporting a case of custom paper fetal polycystic kidneys at 31 weeks of gestation. The original echoscope was replaced with a Mark II version in 1969 , which had already incoporated basic gray scaling in the images, before the invention of the 'scan-converter'. The group reported gray-scale obstetric scans in 1971 at the International Biological Engineering meeting in Melbourne and then at the World Congress of Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Medicine in Rotterdam in 1973 . David Carpenter joined the Section in 1968, and headed the Engineering Research subsection. Stanley Barnett , a physiologist who subsequently published extensively on ultrasound bioeffects joined the Section in 1970. Kossoff and his team developed sophisticated annular dynamic phased-arrays in publication 1974 which was installed in the mark II water-coupling echoscope. In 1975 , they constructed the UI Octoson , a rapid multi-transducer water-bath scanner which had then incoporated the new scan-converter , improved annular array transducers and 1960s, more powerful computing electronics that had allowed for superior compound scans to be completed in less than 1 second. The scanning mechanism of the Octoson is completely immersed in online dissertation the coupling tank and the patient, lying prone, is examined from below. (see also Part 2 ) Interestingly about terminologies in the early days: At the First International Conference on spotlight writing Diagnostic Ultrasound in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 , Charles Grossman , editor of the proceedings made the dissertation publication, following comments: . The terminology of in america essays diagnostic ultrasonics, like that of any new science, is still in the formative stage . The first term to describe the diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound appears to be ultrasonoscopie and was suggested by Denier in 1946.

Dussik in 1947 used hyperphonography for the transmission technic and Ballantine, Bolt, Hueter and Ludwig in online dissertation publication 1950 ultrasonic ventriculography . Wild and Reid in 1952 tried to simplify the terminology and changed the counterculture, term ultrasonoscope to echoscope , in their words 'to correspond with the dissertation publication, word stethoscope.' They further suggested the terms ' echograph ' for the equipment and ' echograms ' for essay, the records as well as unidimensional echography for A-scope and two- dimensional echography for B-scan presentations. In the online dissertation, same year (1952) Howry and Bliss referred to their instrument as the ' somascope ' and to the B-Scan recordings as ' somagrams '. Leksell introduced the term ' echoencephalogram ' in 1955 for ultrasonic brain recordings. In my own publications the medical procedure of ultrasonic diagnostic examination of the brain is termed ' sonoencephalography ', whereas the graph is called ' sonoencephalogram '. . In Japan, they call it 'ultrasono-tomogram' and in ban smoking Australia ' echograms ' . . Most have quickly settled with calling this diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound ' ultrasonography ' and the images recorded ' ultrasonograms '. In North America, the terms ' sonography ' and dissertation publication, ' sonogram ' soon became more fashionable, and technical staff performing the essay about ban smoking in public places, procedure became known as ' sonographers '. In 1974, 'sonography' was recognised as a separate profession in the United States by the American Medical Association. Online Dissertation! On the other hand, Ultrasonography is now used as the sole MeSH keyword in essay about in public places Medline indexes to delineate the subject. Some of the early references: Curie. Publication! J.P., Curie. (1880) Développement par pression de l'é'lectricite polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées. C.R. Acad. Spotlight In Essay Writing! Sci. (Paris) 91:294. Chilowsky C.M.

Langévin. M.P. (1916) Procídés et appareil pour production de signaux sous-marins dirigés et pour la localsation à distances d'obstacles sons-marins. Online Dissertation Publication! French patent no. 502913. Langévin, M.P. (1928) Lés ondes ultrasonores. Rev Gen Elect 23:626. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope for interior inspection.

Met. No Minimum! Progr, 48:505-512. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope, an instrument of inspecting the interior of solid parts by means of sound waves. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 17:287-299. Desch, C.H., Sproule, D.O. and Dawson, W.J. (1946) The detection of cracks in steel by means of supersonic waves. Online Dissertation! J. Iron and Steel Inst. (1964):319.

Tanaka, K., Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Yasuura, M. Kikuchi, Y and Uchida, R. Detection of intracranial anatomical abnormalities by ultrasound. Tokyo Med. J. 69:525. (1950). Tanaka, K. (1952) Application of custom ultrasound to online dissertation publication, diagnostic field. On Critical! Electr. Ind. 3. Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Fukushima, Y., Uchida, R. and Hagiwara, I. Online! (1952) Detection of intracranial disease by pulsed ultrasound.

Tokyo Med. J. 72:37. Dussik, K.T. (1942) Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten. Causes Of Poverty Essays! Z Neurol Psychiat 174:153. Dussik, K.T. (1942) On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Neurol. Online Publication! Psychiat. 174:153-168. Dussik, K.T., Dussik, F. and Wyt, L. Custom Paper Coffee Cups No Minimum! (1947) Auf dem Wege Zur Hyperphonographie des Gehirnes. Wien.

Med. Wochenschr. 97:425-429. Dussik, K.T. (1948) Ultraschall Diagnostik, in besondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphongraphie Z. Phys. Med. 1:140-145. Dussik, K.T. (1949) Zum heutigen stand der medizinischen ultraschallforschung. Wien. Klin.

Wochenschr. 61:246-248. Ludwig, G.D., Bolt, R.H., Hueter, T.F. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Factors influencing the online dissertation publication, use of causes of poverty ultrasound as a diagnostic aid. Trans. Publication! Am. Neurol. Assoc. 225-228.

Ludwig, G.D. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Ultrasonic irradiation of nervous tissue. Causes In America Essays! Surgical Forum, Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons P. Online Dissertation! 400. Ludwig, G.D. (1950) The velocity of sound through tissues and the acoustic impedance of tissues. J. On Critical Skills! Acoust. Soc. Am. 22:862-866. Ludwig, G.D. and Struthers, F.W. Detecting gallstones with ultrasonic echoes. Electronics 23:172-178. (1950). Wild, J.J., French, L.A. and Neal, D. Detection of cerebral tumours by ultrasonic pulses.

Cancer 4:705. Online Publication! (1950). Wild, J.J. The use of ultrasonic pulses for the measurement of biological tissues and the detection of tissue density changes. Surgery 27:183-188. (1950). Wild, J.J., Neal, D. (1951) Use of high frequency ultrasonic waves for detecting changes in writing texture in living tissue. Lancet 1:655. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1952) Application of echo-ranging techniques to the determination of structure of biological tissues.

Science 115:226-230. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1957) Current developments in ultrasonic equipments of medical diagnosis. IRE Trans. Ultrason. Engng. 5:44-56.

Howry, D.H. (1952) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures and disease processes. Online Publication! J. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:812-813. Howry, D.H. and Bliss, W.R. (1952) Ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures of the body.

J. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:579-592. Howry, D.H. (1958) Development of an ultrasonic diagnostic instrument. Am. J. Phys. Med. 37:234. Holmes, J.H., Howry, D.H., Posakony, G.J. and Cushman, C.R. Causes Of Poverty Essays! (1954) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures in the human body. Trans.

Am. Online Publication! Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 66:208-223. Donald, I., MacVicar, J. and Brown, T.G. Spotlight In Essay! (1958) Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound. Online! Lancet 1:1188-1195.

Donald, I. (1961) Ultrasonic radiations: Diagnostic applications. Tools of Biological Research 3rd Series. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. On Critical In Essay! pp. 148-155. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Diagnostic applications of ultrasound. Proc. Online Dissertation! 3rd. Int. Conf. Med.

Electron. London. P. 458. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Demonstration of tissue interfaces within the body by places ultrasonic echo sounding. Br. J. Radiol. 34:539-546. Donald, I. (1962) Clinical applications of ultrasonic techniques in obstetrical and gynaecological diagnosis. Br.

J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 69:1036. Donald, I. (1962) SONAR: A new diagnostic scho-sounding technique in obstetrics and gynaecology. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 55:637-638. Donald, I. (1974) SONAR. The Story of an experiment.Ultrasound Med Biol 1:109-117.

Images of online George Ludwig and his early ultrasound equipment courtesy of the Ludwig Family. Reproduced with permission. Image of the Denver somascope reproduced with permission from Mr. GJ Posakony. Images of the Denver pan-scanner and cloud phd thesis, Dr. Toshio Wagai were reproduced with permission from Dr. Barry Goldberg, Chairman of the Archives Committee of the AIUM.

Pictures of this, as well as other early scanners can be found in the Eastman Kodak Health Sciences publication, Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound: A retrospective on its 40th anniversary by Drs. Goldberg and Kimmelman published in 1988. Image of Dr. John Wild courtesy of Dr. Wild. ^ Dr. William O'Brien Jr., Professor, Bioaccoustic Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and online dissertation publication, Computer Engineering, University of Illinois. Images of the NE 4102 reproduced with permission from Dr. Cloud Phd Thesis! RG Law, from his book 'Ultrasound in Clinical Obstetrics', John Wright and Sons Ltd, Bristol, 1980. # Press release, Third meeting of the Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Brighton, England, July 1982. ## from Sonar -- the online dissertation, Story of an Experiment by counterculture 1960s Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in online dissertation Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

Pictures of Professors Bertil Sunden and Salvator Levi courtesy of Professor Levi. ^^ Courtesy of the phd thesis, Department of Ultrasonics, Polish Academy of Science. ref raw data from Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. #165 The story of the early development of sonar in Glasgow was vividly narrated in the article Sonar -- the Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

°° Personal communications from Professor Xin-Fang Wang and Dr. Jing Deng, University College, London. Other important references for this Internet article included: The constitution of diagnostic ultrasound in Insight and industry, On the dynamics of technological change in dissertation medicine, by S Blume. Essay About! Cambridge, Massachusetts The MIT Press, 1992: 74-118.

In the image of science. Negotiating the development of online dissertation publication diagnostic ultrasound in the cultures of essay surgery and radiology in Technology and dissertation, culture by Koch E. Society for the History of Technology, 1993; 34:858-893. Seeing with sound: A study of the development of medical images by about places Edward Yoxen, in The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and online dissertation, history of technology, Bijker W., Hughes T., Pinch T., (ed). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1987: 281-303. Ultrasound in Medicine - A review. Kenneth Erikson, Francis Fry and phd thesis, Joie Jones, IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, vol. SU-21 no.

3, July 1974. Historical Review - The history of online dissertation publication Echocardiography by Inge Edler and Kjell Lindstrom, Ultrasound in Med. Biol., Vol. 30, No. Of Poverty In America Essays! 12, pp. Online Dissertation Publication! 1565 - 1644, 2004. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Historical Perspective by Dr. Counterculture 1960s Essay! Joseph Holmes.

Diagnostic Ultrasound, D.L. King (ed). Mosby 1974. The History of Ultrasound in Gynecology 1950 - 1980 by Professor Salvator Levi : Ultrasound in Medicine and online, Biology, vol 23 pp481-552, 1997. Early history of counterculture 1960s Diagnostic ultrasound:The role of the American Radiologists by Drs.Goldberg, Gramiak and Freimanis : American Journal of Roentgenology, vol 160, pp 189-194, 1993. Diagnostic Ultrasound during the online publication, early years of causes of poverty A.I.U.M. by online dissertation publication Dr. Joseph Homles : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 8, pp 299-308, 1980. A History of AIUM by Dr. Causes Of Poverty! Joseph Holmes, 1980. An historical review of Ultrasonic Investigations at the National Acoustic Laboratories by Dr. George Kossoff : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 3, pp 39-44, 1975.

Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by dissertation Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. Radiology - An illustrated History by Professor Ronald L. Eisenberg. Custom Cups! Mosby Year Book 1992.

Ultrasonic diagnosis in online publication Gynecology and Obstetrics by S Mizuno. Vol 19, no.2, Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi pp.171-175, 1967. (in Japanese). The Dawn of Diagnostic Ultrasound by essays Toshio Wagai, 1987. (In Japanese) Forty Years of Obstetric Ultrasound by Margaret B McNay and John EE Fleming. Ultrasound in dissertation publication Medicine and Biology 25:3-56, 1999. Looking at custom the Unborn: Historical Aspects of Obstetric Ultrasound - Witness seminar transcript. Wellcome Witness to Twentieth Centurty Medicine. E M Tansey, D A Christie, eds.

January 2000. Diagnostic Ultrasound -- Proceedings of the first International Conference, University of dissertation Pittsburg, 1965. Edited by on critical CC Grossman, JH Holmes, C Joyner and EW Purnell. Plenum Press, New York. 1066. - Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in publication dates, persons and events.

- It is not possible to include all the names who have contributed significantly to the advancement of Obstetrical and Gynecological sonography, some who may have been less well-known than the others and some who may not have published so extensively in the English language. Apologies are extended to those whose contribution has not been fully credited in this article. All original contents Copyright 1998-2002 Joseph SK Woo MBBS, FRCOG. All Rights Reserved.

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5 Resume Tips for online dissertation publication the Legal Job Hunter. On Critical In Essay? Resume drafting is it’s own unique torture. First, there’s pressure because you very much want to online dissertation, secure a new job. Second, you can no longer recall much of what you did even a year ago. And on top of that it is really hard to sell yourself. For those of you who have started the New Year with a search for writings plagiarism greener career pastures here are 5 tips to help you to create a resume that succeeds at highlighting your unique strengths. Tip One – Include a summary. The big challenge for job hunters is that the common approach to resumes simply adds up to a dull list of online publication past employers and bulleted work experience. These resumes at custom cups no minimum, best get a quick scan by a prospective employer and don’t succeed in telling the story about your character, attributes, business development skills, and other strengths.

To add interest to dissertation, your resume and ensure that your strengths are clearly communicated add a summary at the top. This summary should sit just below your contact information and about ban smoking places, is the first section of your resume. You can give it the header “profile” or “summary”. This section of the resume will be one to three paragraphs in length and in it you will describe your strengths and include supporting detail. If you have a hard time listing your strengths, pull in a favour from online dissertation, a close friend and solicit their help.

Or work with a career coach. Tip Two: Avoid overused stock phrases. Avoid using the stock phrases that turn up on so many resumes such as “team player.” Instead describe your strengths and give examples. Tip Three: Tailor your profile to the specific job requirements. Before drafting your introductory profile, carefully consider the specific job you are applying for. What skills and qualifications are they seeking? Review your list of strengths and highlight those that are most relevant to the opportunity.

The profile section can be written in first person or third person. The choice is yours. In my view writing in counterculture, the first person directly addresses the reader and can help grab his or her attention. Here’s an example to dissertation, help you get started. In this example the job candidate has chosen to focus on highlighting his business development skills. “I am a ten year call lawyer with a practice focused on corporate commercial matters, mergers and acquisitions and corporate finance transactions for both public and private companies. I have acted for computing phd thesis a wide range of online dissertation clients, from start-ups to TSX listed public companies, in a range of industries, including mining, energy, and technology.

I have worked with clients in Toronto, Ottawa, and elsewhere in Canada and the United States. My strengths include excellent business development skills. I originated over about ban smoking places seventy-five percent of publication my own work last year, directed work to others, and spotlight on critical skills in essay writing, have met or exceeded my billable target for each of the publication, past five years. I have an extensive network of spotlight writing contacts and participate actively in two industry associations…” Tip Four: Always include a transaction sheet or a litigation synopsis as an online publication, appendix. Your transaction sheet or litigation synopsis is a one or two page list of your significant experience. Cloud? Here are some examples from the Counsel Network: I find it most effective to separate your experience into different sections. For example, a corporate lawyer might include sections on Mergers Acquisitions, Financing, and General Commercial Experience.

Make sure to provide some interesting detail about each piece of experience while protecting the confidentiality of the information. With your resume, transaction sheet, and cover letter you are essentially building a case about why you are the best candidate for publication the opportunity. As you write and then review your career documents make sure that you are providing specific examples that demonstrate your key strengths. For example if you are highlighting your negotiation experience then make sure there are one or more specific examples of negotiations you conducted and counterculture essay, the results you achieved. When you have your resume polished and ready to go send it to your most detail-oriented friends for online dissertation publication a final proof read.

This final close read of the resume is essential for catching any errors in punctuation, grammar, and spelling, and will ensure your resume is causes in america, exactly as you want it to be. Resume drafting isn’t easy, and it takes time, but ultimately this time will be rewarded by online dissertation publication, getting you the interviews you are seeking. Custom? Best wishes on a successful job hunt! My thanks to my friend and colleague Linda Robertson for sharing her ideas and experience with me about online publication, what it takes to make a great resume. As someone who has helped quite a few people with their resumes and cover letters plus worked some 25 years at plagiarism, law firms in Canada, I agree with many of these tips. I cannot emphasize enough how important it is to have a fresh pair of eyes read your resume and cover letter template. Whether it is a spouse, parent, neighbour, family member, friend, whoever, have a few people read them over. It is amazing the number of online publication spelling mistakes and the like that someone else can catch and you want your resume to on critical skills in essay, be 100% perfect. Dissertation Publication? It does not hurt to read it backwards, word for word, to check for accuracy. Ensure you pick a font that is easily readable. Ensure your resume tells a story tells YOUR story in essay in public places, an interesting way.

The resume will be kept and dissertation publication, it will be remembered. Spotlight On Critical? So many resumes look exactly the same and your potential employer will only glance through them. Online Dissertation Publication? While you may have a standard form of cover letter, make sure each cover letter contains information relevant just to that particular position or business. Custom Plagiarism? You want the reader to think they are receiving a personal letter and not a form letter that has been sent here, there and everywhere. Ensure also that the key points you want to make in online dissertation, your cover letter are made in short paragraphs so they stand out and are read. Essay About Ban Smoking In Public? Don#8217;t have two or three #8220;super large#8221; paragraphs that contain all sorts of important information. Online Dissertation Publication? They probably won#8217;t be read as thoroughly as you would hope them to be. Lastly, don#8217;t be afraid to have some white space on your resume.

It makes it so much more inviting and readable. I'm just glad that, apparently, the LSUC has addressed all other problems, so has the time and resources to computing phd thesis, devote more David, Yes, you certainly contributed towards the push as well, with your 2011 Bencher run on this more Omar, this is online, a well written and intetesting blog. These are important thoughts and phd thesis, arguments. In my view the history more This has been around for quite a while as a concept. Online Dissertation? The technical term for it is air more

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Essay mills: university course work to order. David Matthews investigates the scale and threat of the custom essay industry. The damage contract cheating can inflict on online society is clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Picture the causes in america essays following scenario: marking an essay by one of your more underwhelming students, you grow suspicious. You would like to publication, be pleased by spotlight skills writing, the unexpected quality of the work, but instead you feel “a twinge that a sentence is too neatly framed”, as one scholar who has found herself in this position puts it. The analysis is superb, the writing style good - but is it too good?

It bears little resemblance to previous work by the same student: indeed, it is in a different league. Online Publication! But it has been through Turnitin, the academic plagiarism checker, and spotlight in essay, come back clean. Has the student miraculously improved, or are you looking at a particularly pernicious problem afflicting today’s higher education sector: the paid- for, custom-written essay? Custom essays, usually bought through websites known as essay mills, are in some ways an academic’s worst nightmare. Unlike standard examples of copy-and-paste plagiarism, they cannot be detected using software because they are “original” pieces of work - just not the student’s. They also arguably represent an even more cynical form of cheating than, for example, regurgitating unattributed passages in a piece of submitted work.

For many years, essay mills have been brazenly advertising their wares online, although they are always careful not to condone customers handing in bought pieces of online dissertation publication, work, arguing that the essays purchased are intended simply as useful guides or reference material. No one knows how big the market in essay, custom essays is, or whether universities are managing to detect those students who do hand them in. There are also concerns that in publication, an age of mass higher education and high student-to-staff ratios, lecturers are less able to get to know their students’ work, making this form of cheating more difficult to detect. And there are fears that the pressures of the job might encourage some academics to turn a blind eye to the practice. But perhaps the most important question is whether it is possible to essays, prevent this form of cheating in the first place.

Asking how many custom-written essays are being bought and sold in online, the UK is a bit like asking “how long is a piece of string?”, argues Thomas Lancaster, senior lecturer in computing at 1960s essay, Birmingham City University. For obvious reasons (including the fact that cheats do not want to dissertation publication, be caught, essay mills operate online, and counterculture essay, there are no official statistics), it is dissertation difficult to come by reliable figures. However, Lancaster, along with his former colleague Robert Clarke, has attempted to quantify the scale of the problem. The pair studied a large sample of essay mill sites between March 2005 and June 2013, and identified nearly 19,000 attempts at phd thesis, contract cheating by students. While they examined websites that could be used by anyone anywhere in the world, a more detailed study of 59 postings in 2011 on one website,, found 18 references to assignments at online, UK universities. “What we detected is the tip of the iceberg,” cautions Lancaster.

No one even knows how many essay ghostwriting sites there are on the web, but five years ago Lancaster and Clarke listed 158. In addition to the online activity, there is an unknown number of essay writers who advertise their work offline - even on campus. “You get flyers pinned up on university noticeboards that say: ‘We’ll do your work’,” Lancaster explains. Then there are those who arrange contract essays socially, for custom plagiarism friends, family members or students one or two years below them, who leave no public trace at all. Prices vary dramatically. Online! An upper-second, five-page undergraduate history essay will set you back ?70 at the cheaper end of the market, but some sites charge in the region of ?150-?160. One website, which sells itself as a “premier” service, charges ?50 an hour.

This may sound expensive, but it is loose change compared with the essay cost (particularly for international students) of online dissertation, having to retake a year. At the custom paper coffee top end of the scale, postgraduate dissertations of 25,000 words cost in the region of ?2,800. Some essay writing companies are willing to provide more specific estimates of the scale of demand for their services, although the figures are self-reported and some academics say that the firms may exaggerate their popularity to attract publicity and gain more custom. Jennifer Wiss, business development manager at All Answers (which trades under a number of dissertation publication, names on the web, including, says that the company dispatched 11,470 custom essays in 2012, of which three-quarters were ordered from causes in america, UK IP addresses. This figure is difficult to verify, but the firm’s accounts appear to online, be consistent with a company selling essays in such quantities. Wiss estimates that a further 4,000 custom essays are written in the UK by rival agencies each year (although students at 1960s essay, British universities can also order from online, abroad). In 2005 Barclay Littlewood, who was then chief executive of All Answers (which promoted itself as UK Essays), estimated that the spotlight on critical in essay writing business was worth ?200 million a year and boasted that it had allowed him to buy a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of London, believes that custom-written essays are a problem, but thinks that some essay mills choose to exaggerate their size through the press “because it’s good advertising. It’s a very media- friendly problem.” Whatever the number of dissertation publication, essays being commissioned and causes of poverty essays, the scale of the online publication companies involved, information gathered by Times Higher Education under the Freedom of Information Act suggests that the number of custom-written essays being detected and officially reported is tiny. THE asked UK universities to counterculture 1960s essay, provide details of the number of students they had disciplined in the academic years 2011-12 and 2012-13 for handing in dissertation, custom essays or assignments bought from essay mills.

Among the universities that responded to the request within 20 days, just 29 students were disciplined in spotlight on critical skills in essay, 2011-12; in online, 2012-13, 30 students from 15 institutions were penalised. More than half the 1960s offenders hailed from outside the UK. Some argue that the publication high fees paid by international students and the need to write in English (if this is not their first language) create greater incentives to custom writings, cheat. Chasing plagiarists can be ‘too much effort’, Carroll says. In any case, she is unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Wiss reports that for a significant number of All Answers’ customers, English is a second language. She claims that “many of online dissertation, these struggle to coffee cups no minimum, put their thoughts and ideas across, or to interpret their course material and dissertation, lectures. I believe this is why they choose to about, use a service like ours.”

In Lancaster’s experience, both domestic and online dissertation publication, international students use essay writing services, but he believes that a particularly serious and related issue is the spotlight on critical matter of students paying for the translation of an essay written in publication, a foreign language before handing it in, a practice that can obscure plagiarism. Spotlight On Critical In Essay! As THE reported in August, some universities still lack clear policies on whether international students may use proofreaders or translators to help them with their work. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is clear. Dissertation! Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Cloud! Lancaster even discovered one student who had attempted to online dissertation publication, outsource an assignment on nuclear engineering. One of the scholar’s presentations on paper coffee cups the subject asks: “Do you want to live within five miles of this person?”

But there is also a more specific form of damage to the university. You need only one student to go “to a job and not be able to do it” for an employer to “write off” other graduates of that university, Lancaster argues. He believes that employers have long memories and will warn other companies that certain alumni are not to be trusted. So contract cheating “has the effect of penalising honest students”, he adds. Given the ethical issues, who agrees to work for publication the sites? The companies advertise themselves as employing graduates with good qualifications: an anonymous essay writer who wrote for THE in August says he is paper coffee cups no minimum a recent Oxbridge graduate who was asked to provide evidence of dissertation publication, his qualifications and samples of his writing when applying for the job. Some companies claim to employ staff with at spotlight on critical skills, least 2:1 degrees, interview potential candidates and ask them to complete trial assignments. Many contract essay companies justify their trade by arguing that they are simply showing uncertain students how to write. “Many students just want to see how it’s done,” says Wiss, who also claims that the “vast majority” of All Answers’ customers do not hand in online dissertation publication, their purchased essays. This might be more convincing if All Answers did not run its essays through plagiarism checkers before sending them on to clients - a common practice in the industry.

Why do this unless customers want to hand them in? Wiss claims that this is to causes, make sure that its writers are “spending the online dissertation time they are paid for on the project and cloud computing phd thesis, not cutting corners”. In line with many in the business, All Answers tries to publication, blame universities for the rise of the essay mill. Institutions admit international students who can “barely string a sentence together”, Wiss claims, while others are “thrown in at the deep end” when they start university. However, claims that custom essays merely help students with their own original work are “disingenuous”, according to a spokesman for Universities UK. “Such essays often cost several hundred pounds, will specify the grade they require [2:1, 2:2, etc] and causes essays, are purchased invariably to meet clear deadlines,” he says. The anonymous essay writer offers a number of clues that he says may help to alert academics to online, custom-written essays. Essay writing agencies generally require writers to essay ban smoking places, submit their work in a standard format, he explains, often including a contents page and chapter headings, regardless of length. “If you didn’t ask your students to dissertation publication, submit a 2,000-word essay in this format and you get a contents page, etc, then this might raise an alarm,” he says.

Ghostwriters often lack access to full journal articles, and so rely heavily on first-page previews from coffee cups, journal sites or Google Books. “Really probe the references, because this is the weak part,” he advises. Jude Carroll, an dissertation, education consultant at Oxford Brookes University and a plagiarism expert, thinks academics should not be afraid to custom writings plagiarism, be aggressively “investigative” if they smell a rat. Publication! If there are suspicions, she suggests, staff should call students in and ask them to explain unusually complex words or obscure references they have used. The “biggest worry” for academics who have such suspicions is 1960s essay that they lack proof, she says - but that is no excuse for inaction. “There’s no support for the argument about proof. Students can’t question academic judgements.

You don’t have to publication, be [100 per cent] sure, you have to weigh the balance of probabilities - and spotlight skills writing, be at online publication, least 65 per cent sure,” she thinks. But for another academic, who asks to remain anonymous, launching an investigation is not that simple. “I’m ashamed to admit it but you simply don’t have the time to launch a plagiarism case,” she says. One colleague, the essay same academic recalls, had to “almost google every line” of a suspect essay and make several trips to the library to ascertain whether her fears about a piece of work were genuine. In a competitive research excellence framework environment, chasing plagiarists can be “too much effort”, she says. In any case, she is online also unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Universities have a “real anxiety about the on critical skills in essay writing litigation culture” and are “anxious” about academics exercising their judgement. When offenders do get caught, Carroll says, the punishments for handing in contracted essays are “highly variable”.

She finds this worrying because penalties are a major determinant of how likely students are to cheat. “I believe students should be thrown out” if caught, she says. “It’s fraud.” However, according to the results of THE ’s FoI request, most students who cheat in this manner can expect to publication, remain on their courses. Of the custom 59 students who were caught handing in bought essays in 2011-12 and dissertation publication, 2012-13, just 13 were expelled. In one case at Newcastle University, for example, an international student suspected of handing in work purchased from the site was given a “final written warning” but no other punishment. Many believe that academics’ first line of defence against cloud computing, custom essays is to set assignments that are difficult, if not impossible, to online dissertation publication, outsource. The anonymous ghostwriter advises scholars to ask their students to draw on skills in essay writing lectures and class discussion when setting essays. “This is something that is either less visible or invisible to the ghostwriter,” he explains, and therefore much more difficult to achieve.

Questions that require close engagement with a particular text are also more difficult to outsource, he says. “Chances are I won’t be able to do this as well because I won’t have that book to online dissertation publication, hand. Causes Of Poverty In America Essays! If asked to, I have a problem.” He also cautions against sending out lecture notes in electronic formats or putting them online, because this only online dissertation, makes it easier for ghostwriters to give the impression of having attended courses. However, the Equality Challenge Unit points out custom writings plagiarism, that students with disabilities might find taking notes during lectures difficult or even impossible, and dissertation, some departments require academics to provide lecture notes to all students for this reason.

Some essay questions appear time and time again, making them easier for contract writers to spotlight skills, complete, so one obvious piece of advice from plagiarism experts is to avoid setting assignments on predictable topics such as “women in Dickens”. Scholars might also set students presentations or tests based on their written submissions, which can identify those who have not done the work themselves. In 2007, Google banned advertisements for essay writing services on its website, a move welcomed by UUK. Couldn’t the online dissertation government introduce a blanket ban on ban smoking in public places the companies? A spokeswoman for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills suggests that this would be impossible under current law. “Whether a student and/or ‘writing service’ have committed an offence would be for a court to decide and dissertation, depend on the individual circumstances of the case,” she says. “There is no action BIS could take to address this.”

Another drastic option is suggested by the tale of custom coffee cups no minimum, a US professor, recounted by Lancaster, who set himself up as a contract essay writer to test the waters, only to find one of his own assignments out to dissertation publication, tender. He wrote it, and when one of his students handed it in, he revealed himself as the author. Wiss maintains that All Answers is “very keen to work with universities to provide a service that can’t be abused in writings, the first place” - but only if universities agree that the company is “a legitimate source of academic help”. The UUK spokesman declines to comment on this and says: “More should be done to clamp down on these essay companies.” He adds that the body does not have any specific proposals to publication, tackle the problem (although suggestions are welcome).

So there does not appear to be any systematic solution to essay mills on the horizon, and responsibility for detecting and dealing with the issue continues to essay in public, rest with individual academics and their universities. “If academics really want to catch these essays, they are going to have to spend more time engaging with their students’ submitted work,” concludes the anonymous essay writer. Some may be left wishing that they had more time to do just that. Nothing to online dissertation, hide (except your details) “Although using our service is not cheating, and you have nothing to hide if you use the service responsibly, we still take your privacy very seriously … We never share details of your order with your university.” “First class in my chemistry coursework was unbelievable. thanks.” - Theo, Manchester. “Universities sometimes warn students against using companies like ours, which goes back to the days when the custom essay industry was underhand and untrustworthy. We’re actively involved in writings plagiarism, re-educating them and changing their perspective.” “Just wanted to send a note to online dissertation publication, say thanks.

Your paper helped me get a 2:1 for my degree!! I can now apply for my Masters! Thanks ever so much!! Do you write to Masters level?” - Lucy, Stratford-upon-Avon. Set students short tests or presentations based on their essays.

Ask students to write their essays with reference to lectures or class discussions. Set unusual questions or ask for analysis of set texts as this could put off potential ghostwriters. If you suspect an writings plagiarism, essay may not be a student’s work, ask them to explain the key words, concepts and dissertation, research. Writings Plagiarism! Check references: ghostwriters often do not have access to full journals or books, so may be able to dissertation publication, reference only the 1960s essay preview pages of online articles. If an essay seems overly formatted, for example, with a contents page and chapters, this could be because of a standard format used by dissertation publication, essay companies. Google your assignment questions: you may find that they are out to causes in america essays, tender. Click here for more on preventing plagiarism. Registration is online dissertation publication free and only takes a moment.

Once registered you can read a total of custom paper coffee cups, 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and dissertation, save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register. Or subscribe for unlimited access to: Unlimited access to news, views, insights reviews Digital editions Digital access to on critical in essay, THE’s university and college rankings analysis Unrestricted access to the UK and global edition of the THE app on dissertation IOS, Android and Kindle Fire Subscribe. Already registered or a current subscriber? Sign in coffee cups no minimum, now.

Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)/Vice-President. Research Assistant/Research Fellow in Modelling Root Traits to Bio-engineer Soil. Lecturer in dissertation, Data Science - Data Sciences with Analytics. Digital Marketing and about ban smoking places, Recruitment Executive. Last week, the UK’s universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the publication prime minister without a strong justification. Cloud Phd Thesis! We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and publication, dysfunction at the heart of academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan. We need to call off the witch-hunt and trust in the capacity of writings, our students to online dissertation, learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Lack of job security, limited support from management and weight of work-related demands on time among risk factors.

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How to Write the dissertation Introduction of an Essay. I would dearly love to take the following set of words and causes of poverty, engrave them on a large wooden bat: “Hi. I’m going to tell you about…”. “Today I’m going to online dissertation, write about…”. “This is my essay on…”. “Since my professor told me I have to…”. The bat would have a prominent place in my classroom, mounted on the wall, so I could point to it, give a big toothy grin, and say, “If any of counterculture 1960s essay you, at online publication any time in your life, ever use these words again to begin an essay—even thirty years from now—I will hunt you down, wrap your essay around this bat, and use it to give you a sharp reminder of causes in america this lesson.”. This is, perhaps, a bit dramatic, but I feel it would clearly make the online point. Ban Smoking Places. The first words of an essay are like a handshake or a cover letter for a resume; they create the first impression. If they are strong, confident and jovial, then you are setting yourself up for success.

If they put forward the metaphorical “dead-fish” hand, then you’re work has been deeply injured, even if what follows is top-notch work. Introductions matter, and online dissertation, I have designed this article to provide a framework for how to of poverty essays, write essay introductions that are clear, strong and publication, engaging. Essay Ban Smoking Places. The concepts are applicable to the essays of middle school and high school writing all the way up through writing in college and graduate school. The Wrong Way to Write an Essay Introduction. The phrases mentioned above, along with countless others, are the perfect way to completely destroy your essay before it even begins. If you begin your essay with these words, or anything even remotely close to them, no one who is online, not being paid or who is essay places, not your mother will ever read your paper—and even they will groan within themselves as they read. An introduction has two basic purposes: …to introduce the topic of the essay in clear and concise terms. …to engage the reader so they actually want to dissertation, read what you have to say. Sadly, many students address only the first of them. For the most part, this makes perfect sense. After all, the 1960s writers who really understand what it means to engage their readers are the online dissertation professionals.

Why? Because they know very well that their readers are their bread and butter and they will leave at a moment’s notice if the writing becomes dull. Students, on the other hand, have a captive audience. Teachers and professors are paid to read the essay in public places work of their students, so why should the student care if their writing is engaging? Consider this situation, which both I and online, numerous other teachers and professors I know experience regularly: I assign a three to essay ban smoking in public, five page paper to dissertation publication, a classroom of 1960s essay twenty-five students. Online Dissertation Publication. A few weeks later, I now have a book of around one hundred pages to read, written by twenty-five different authors who are writing this because they have to, not because they want to, so their apathy is literally dripping off the pages. Imagine how I will react when I come across a student who finally takes the time to spotlight skills in essay, generate some genuine interest in the subject and catch my attention! This is dissertation, why students should care. The wrong way to causes of poverty essays, begin an essay is to simply and dryly explain what the essay is about.

While this is acceptable in elementary school, and perhaps up through a certain stage of middle school, it is online, unacceptable by late middle school, through high school and most certainly at the collegiate level. Still, this kind of opening is all too common. An Essay Introduction Sample: The Wrong Way. To make this discussion clear, here is a sample introduction written the “wrong way.” This is written at the level one might expect from 1960s essay, a student in middle school or early high school. These points are just as relevant to college students and adults, however, because, while the points a college student would make might be more nuanced and detailed, many still write introductions that follow the same basic pattern. Describe the major accomplishments of Abraham Lincoln during his presidency. PROMPT RESPONSE (INTRODUCTION ONLY):

Abraham Lincoln accomplished many great things during his time as president of the United States. He saw the United States through the Civil War, helping to keep the country from falling apart and online publication, signed the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all the African Americans in the United States from slavery. When things got tough, he encouraged his citizens and his troops through great speeches like “The Gettysburg Address.” And, finally, as both a political leader and a military leader, he led in a way that emphasized wisdom through shared responsibility and discussion. Skills. Abraham Lincoln was one of the great presidents of the United States. This introduction clearly establishes the purpose of the essay and lists many accomplishments of publication Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. As such, it is both adequate and also painfully boring. Ninety percent of your class will write an essay introduction just like this one—don’t be one of them. The Right Way to Write an Essay Introduction.

Catching the paper coffee cups Reader’s Attention. A good essay begins with an invitation into a rich discussion. Publication. The writing is crafted in such a way that it sparks anticipation and excitement in the heart and mind of the reader. About Ban Smoking In Public Places. Simply stating your opinion or the topic of the essay will never accomplish this. Engaging writing requires thoughtful attention to creating a hook for the reader. Hooks can be created in an infinite number of ways, but here is a list of approaches that often prove valuable. Note that this is a list that you have likely seen before (most schools provide such a list), but be sure to read on online publication as it is in in public the implementation of these ideas that they either succeed or fail: Start with a thought-provoking quotation. Start with a thought-provoking question. Tell a thought-provoking story. Make a surprising statement.

Present a simile or a metaphor to introduce your essay topic. Each of these options presents an approach to opening an publication essay that can work if it is implemented effectively. Of course, implementing them effectively is where things get tricky. A Thought-Provoking Quotation: Depending on the topic of your essay and writings, the resources you have available, it can be very effective to begin with a direct quotation from a relevant source on your topic that brings up key ideas or presents controversial opinions. You, as the author, can then respond to them and establish your position in relation to publication, this statement. Be certain the quotation you choose directly relates to your chosen topic. A Thought Provoking Question. Opening essays with questions is dangerous because they only writings work if the question causes your reader to genuinely wonder about something. Simplistic or obvious questions turn your reader off, so try another approach unless you are sure you have a question that really ties your essay topic to online, something personal for the reader or to some intriguing idea in causes in america essays the world.

A Thought-Provoking Story. As a fiction writer, this is my personal favorite. There are two options available here. One approach is to tell a true story in close-up intimate detail that directly relates to publication, your topic. Of Poverty Essays. The other option is to craft a story around the factual details of your topic and helps to humanize it—taking your reader into the personal human experience of someone in a given situation related to your subject. Simply be sure to tell the story well and don’t forget to craft the story in dissertation publication such a way that it leads directly to the central point of your essay. Make a Surprising Statement.

This one is also a tricky way to custom, go unless you have come across a very striking fact or are dealing with a controversial subject. In order for this approach to dissertation, work, the statement must include something that will genuinely surprise the reader, which is difficult to essays, do. In addition to shock value, the statement must also have direct relevance to your topic so that a strong transition can still be made into your central argument. Present a Simile or Metaphor. Similes and metaphors are among the most powerful linguistic devices available. When used well, they can bring profound interest and publication, insight to in public places, a given topic.

Using them well is, of course, the hard part. The trick to using them well is be sure that the nature of the symbol you use shares a great deal in common with the subtleties of the topic you are discussing. The broader and more specific those connections are, the stronger its linguistic power. The very best way to online dissertation publication, use a simile or metaphor in an essay is to introduce it with the opening paragraph and then continue to weave the connections between the spotlight on critical in essay symbol and the subject throughout the entire essay, eventually bringing the idea back together in the conclusion to online dissertation publication, create a circular structure to spotlight on critical skills, the writing. This requires insightful thinking and hard writing work, but makes for an exceptional essay. Clearly Establishing Your Purpose. With your reader’s attention now in publication place, you must be certain that you also directly address the question or prompt to which you have been asked to respond. Computing Phd Thesis. A colorful and engaging opening story is all well and online dissertation publication, good, but it is worthless if it does not lead into a straight and clear statement of your thesis (also known as “topic sentence” or “position statement”). Keep in mind that, contrary to what is ban smoking in public, often taught in elementary school, the opening paragraph does not necessarily require a complete listing of the main points of your essay, though that can be helpful at online dissertation times. The only non-negotiable requirement for an introduction is a direct and clear statement of purpose somewhere within that first paragraph.

With more creative openings, it generally occurs near the close of the cloud first paragraph, anticipating the deeper explanations that take place in the body paragraphs of the essay. Feel free to be creative, but do not forget to directly address the question you have been asked! Practical Pointers for online dissertation Writing a Strong Introduction. Here is a collection of thoughts to keep in mind as you begin to craft your essay introduction: Remember that the custom cups audience is always right. Particularly if your audience is a teacher or a professor, it is essential that you check with the instructor first before trying anything too crazy and creative. Dissertation Publication. Creativity in essays an academic essay only publication works when it functions within the expectations of your professor or teacher.

Be careful! Open with a creative hook that leads directly to your thesis statement. Do not get lost in counterculture essay the creativity! Making an essay interesting to read can be immensely valuable, but never lose sight of the fact that you are writing an essay—certain points must be clearly made and certain details must be directly addressed. Be clear on publication what they are and check for them! An Essay Introduction Sample: The Right Way. Once again, to make this discussion clear, here is a sample introduction that that models the effective use of one of the hook techniques followed by a clear thesis statement.

This conclusion is also written from the perspective of a late middle school or early high school student. More advanced writers should follow the same approach using deeper and more nuanced language. Describe the cloud major accomplishments of Abraham Lincoln during his presidency. PROMPT RESPONSE (INTRODUCTION ONLY): He stood on a grassy hill beneath a clear blue sky in the soft breeze of spring. Around him, the birds chattered in the trees, completely oblivious.

They did not see the stains that lay strewn across the field. Dissertation. They paid no attention as the men, with grim and counterculture 1960s, dirty faces, removed the last of the bodies. They were children—or, at least, they seemed so to him. His countrymen killing one another. He closed his eyes and sighed. At that moment, he did not know that, with the help of publication his decisions and the influence of his character on those around him, the on critical writing slaves would soon be free and the Union would be restored. Online Dissertation Publication. He did not understand how history would remember Abraham Lincoln—as one of the greatest presidents in American history. Notice how the story is spotlight skills writing, written to engage the dissertation heart of the counterculture reader and online, lead directly into a statement about the great accomplishments of Abraham Lincoln during his presidency. This catches the reader’s attention and directs it, preparing him for what comes next. This is the counterculture 1960s essay purpose of an introduction. Learn to craft introductions that catch your reader and lead him into the heart of online publication what you have to say.

How to Write a Personal Experience Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 17. Tips for Writing a Descriptive Essay. How to 1960s, Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5.

100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. wayseeker 2 years ago from Colorado. They are unquestionably the best teachers! Thanks for reading, Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. I certainly saw the difference between your 2 examples of introductions. Examples really work. Thank you. wayseeker 2 years ago from Colorado. Wow.

The wife of Doctor Who--pretty amazing! (Heh, heh.) I'm so please that this article was useful. Thanks for dissertation reading! You used the counterculture 1960s incorrect version of your. the metaphorical “dead-fish” hand, then you’re work has been deeply injured, even if what follows is top-notch work. :) Love this article! It's amazing, and it has helped me with me writing SOOO much. wayseeker 3 years ago from Colorado.

Alex Writer 3 years ago from New York, New York. wayseeker 4 years ago from Colorado. Thank you so much for stopping in. This lesson has done a lot of good things for online my students over the years. Devika Primic 4 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia. Brilliantly written and explained writing an essay takes time and computing, patience. wayseeker 5 years ago from Colorado. Thanks for stopping in. How to Write the Body of an Essay will be coming out shortly, completing this first part of this series. Dissertation. Thanks for taking the time to read! Akhil S Kumar 5 years ago from kerala.

yup..waiting for another hub. wayseeker 5 years ago from Colorado. Thanks again for custom plagiarism stopping in. These writing lessons are some of the basic things I teach every year--and reteach over and over again. For those who get it, it definitely makes a difference. I so appreciate your enthusiasm for my work and your willingness to share it around. I hope that it serves your students well! Marcy Goodfleisch 5 years ago from Planet Earth. Excellent information! I will be sharing this with my students - I completely agree with you on how not to start an essay!

As always, this is well-written and full of great information. Voted up and online, up! wayseeker 5 years ago from about places, Colorado. Huzzah! Looks like the readers are responding in the right way. Thanks so very much. wayseeker 5 years ago from Colorado.

Thanks for the positive review! I use these ideas all the dissertation time when I write my own hubs. Honestly, they apply to any nonfiction writing you might want to do. Causes Of Poverty In America. I might consider specifically mentioning that within the online dissertation hub, because it would certainly work for essay hubbers, too. My sincere thanks for taking the time to read, wayseeker 5 years ago from Colorado.

Your work is online dissertation publication, most definitely something worth reading! I definitely appreciate the sharing, and I hope that you and others are able to find it useful. Happy writing, and I'll see you next month. Akhil S Kumar 5 years ago from kerala. Something worth reading! Kim Lam 5 years ago from California. A very helpful hub and beautifully presented. I like the final example at the end. I wonder if this tutorial can also be applied to writing an intro of a hub article as well?

Ann Leung 5 years ago from San Jose, California. This hub looks like for me. I hope my readers will react the custom writings same Something worth reading! to my hubs. Another useful hub! Pinned and dissertation publication, shared! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

Other product and custom plagiarism, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Online Dissertation Publication. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on essay affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.